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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 862849, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527996

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has significant gender and age difference. The peak age of RA is consistent with the age of menopause, which is accompanied by a sharp increase in serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. This study aims to identify the FSH levels in female RA patients and the relationship with diseases activity. Methods: In total, 79 female RA patients and 50 age-matched controls were included in our study. Serum sex hormones levels were measured using chemiluminescence. RA patients were grouped by FSH quartile. Disease activity and inflammatory marks were analyzed among groups. Results: Lower sex hormones and higher gonadotropin were found in RA patients. Serum FSH level was significantly higher in RA patients than in the age-match controls (57.58 ± 15.94 vs. 43.11 ± 19.46, p=0.025). Even after adjusting for age (OR: 1.071; 95%CI: 1.006-1.139; p = 0.031), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E), and testosterone (T) OR: 1.066; 95%CI: 1.003-1.133; p = 0.039), the OR were still more than one. RA patients in the higher quartiles had higher ESR, DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP (p<0.05) than the lowest quartile. Besides, menopause age was significantly related with onset age in post-menopause RA patients (r = 0.432, p =0.008). Conclusion: High FSH appears to be a risk factor for RA and is positively associated with their disease activity. Early menopause might be an essential factor of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Testosterona/sangue
2.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 25(1): 149-154, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575995

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), an oocyte-derived member of the TGF-ß superfamily, plays an essential role in regulation of follicular development. This study aimed to determine the cyclic changes in serum GDF-9 concentration, compare its levels before and after ovariohysterectomy (OHE), and investigate its potential as a tool in ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) diagnosis in cats. GDF-9 measurements were performed on 50 cats referred for routine OHE. The stage of the estrous cycle was determined by vaginal cytology and measurement of serum estradiol and progesterone levels was carried out to detect the cyclic changes in circulating GDF-9. One week after OHE, serum samples were collected again from 30 cats to reveal differences in GDF-9 levels. GDF-9 levels in the follicular phase were significantly higher than those in the interestrus (p⟨0.05). The postoperative analysis could be performed. GDF-9 levels slightly decreased one week after OHE (p=0.053). In conclusion, blood GDF-9 levels change during the estrous cycle, and may decrease with age in cats. However, further studies are needed to reveal the efficiency of GDF-9 in ORS diagnosis.


Assuntos
Gatos/sangue , Gatos/cirurgia , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Histerectomia/veterinária , Oócitos , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Animais , Gatos/fisiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 9 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Vagina/citologia
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6027878, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463985

RESUMO

Objective: A retrospective cohort study aimed to explore the effects of different ovulation induction regimens on the levels of sex hormones and serum C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) and C1q/TNF-related protein-15 (CTRP15) in patients with PCOS. Methods: A total of 100 patients with PCOS treated in the department of gynecology and obstetrics from February 2019 to April 2021 in our hospital were enrolled. The patients were arbitrarily assigned into control group and study group. The treatment effect, pregnancy rate, ovulation rate, follicle size, thickness of endometrium, number of mature follicles and ovulation, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), serum CTRP3, CTRP15 and menstrual score were compared. Results: There exhibited no statistical difference in baseline clinical data between the two kinds of patients. The therapeutic effects were compared, the effective rate was 98.00% in the study group, 13 cases in the control group, 20 cases in the effective group and 7 cases in the control group, and the effective rate was 86.00%. The effective rate in the study group was higher (P <0.05). The size of follicles and the thickness of endometrium in the two groups were compared before and after intervention. There exhibited no significant difference in the size of follicles and the thickness of endometrium before and after intervention (P >0.05). The size of follicles and the thickness of endometrium in the study group were significantly higher (P <0.05). The size of follicles and the thickness of endometrium in the study group were significantly higher (P <0.05). There exhibited no significant difference in the number of mature follicles and ovulation before and after intervention (P >0.05). After intervention, the number of mature follicles and ovulation in the two groups increased. The number of mature follicles and ovulation in the study group were (4.76 ± 0.90) and (4.48 ± 0.73), respectively, which were higher compared to the control group (2.45 ± 0.86) and (2.82 ± 0.84), respectively (P <0.05). The levels of serum LH, FSH, E2 and T were not significantly different before and after intervention. After the intervention of different ways of ovulation induction, the levels of serum LH, FSH, E2 and T in the two groups continued to decrease, and the levels of the above sex hormones in the study group were significantly lower (P <0.05). The menstrual score and the levels of serum CTRP3 and CTRP15 were compared before and after intervention. After intervention, the menstrual score of patients in both groups decreased, and the menstrual score of the study group was lower. In addition, the levels of serum CTRP3 and CTRP15 in the two groups decreased after intervention. Compared with the control group, the levels of CTRP3 and CTRP15 in the study group were lower after intervention (P <0.05). The ovulation rate and pregnancy rate of the two groups were compared. In the study group, there were 45 ovulation cases, the ovulation rate was 90.00% (45/50), the pregnancy rate was 33 cases, the pregnancy rate was 66.00% (33/50), and the ovulation rate in the control group was 31 cases, the ovulation rate was 62.00% (31/50), the pregnancy rate was 20 cases, and the pregnancy rate was 40.00% (20/50). The ovulation rate and pregnancy rate in the study group were higher (P <0.05). Conclusion: Different ovulation induction regimens have different effects on the levels of sex hormones and serum CTRP3 and CTRP15 in patients with PCOS. Long-acting follicular phase regimens can effectively promote the therapeutic effect of patients and increase the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate. In addition, it can also reduce the levels of serum LH, follicle stimulating FSH, E2 and testosterone T, and help to promote the levels of serum CTRP3 and CTRP15, which is worth popularizing and applying in clinic.


Assuntos
Indução da Ovulação , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Complemento C1q , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
4.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 51(5): 102363, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on the data obtained from a phase III, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial that compared the use of GnRH agonist vs. antagonist for LH-suppression in IVF cycles, the present study attempted to determine the effect of LH level on steroid concentrations and IVF outcomes in the GnRH antagonist protocol. METHODS: A total of 109 patients with the GnRH antagonist protocol were stratified into three subgroups according to the stimulation day six LH levels (LH <25%, 25-75%, and >75%), and the effect of LH on steroid biosynthesis and the related IVF outcomes between subgroups was observed. RESULTS: In comparing the three subgroups of GnRH antagonist, no difference in number of oocytes, top quality embryos and ongoing pregnancy was observed. The high LH group on day six was exposed to significantly lower concentrations of rFSH from day six onwards, and had significantly higher estradiol levels on the day of hCG. The progesterone levels did not differ between groups at the start of the stimulation, but patients with the highest LH on day six also had significantly (P < 0.0001) higher progesterone levels on day six (higher estradiol on day six and hCG, lower total rFSH dosage). Due to the significantly lower increase in progesterone in the high LH group between day six and the day of hCG, no difference in progesterone level was observed on the day of hCG. CONCLUSIONS: For steroid biosynthesis, early follicular phase LH levels help pregnenolone metabolize primarily via the ∆5 pathway in the GnRH antagonist stimulation protocol, but not via the ∆4 pathway.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Antagonistas de Hormônios , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Antagonistas de Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 578, 2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102146

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important health concern worldwide and progresses into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although prevalence and severity of NAFLD/NASH are higher in men than premenopausal women, it remains unclear how sex affects NAFLD/NASH pathophysiology. Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) modulates inflammatory responses in several organs; however, its role in the liver is unknown. Here we show that FPR2 mediates sex-specific responses to diet-induced NAFLD/NASH. NASH-like liver injury was induced in both sexes during choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) feeding, but compared with females, male mice had more severe hepatic damage. Fpr2 was more highly expressed in hepatocytes and healthy livers from females than males, and FPR2 deletion exacerbated liver damage in CDAHFD-fed female mice. Estradiol induced Fpr2 expression, which protected hepatocytes and the liver from damage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that FPR2 mediates sex-specific responses to diet-induced NAFLD/NASH, suggesting a novel therapeutic target for NAFLD/NASH.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Deficiência de Colina/complicações , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Lipídeos/toxicidade , Lipoproteínas VLDL/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/deficiência , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Endocrinology ; 163(3)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134138

RESUMO

Female mice homozygous for an engineered Gnrhr E90K mutation have reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, leading to infertility. Their ovaries have numerous antral follicles but no corpora lutea, indicating a block to ovulation. These mutants have high levels of circulating estradiol and low progesterone, indicating a state of persistent estrus. This mouse model provided a unique opportunity to examine the lack of cyclic levels of ovarian hormones on uterine gland biology. Although uterine gland development appeared similar to controls during prepubertal development, it was compromised during adolescence in the mutants. By age 20 weeks, uterine gland development was comparable to controls, but pathologies, including cribriform glandular structures, were observed. Induction of ovulations by periodic human chorionic gonadotropin treatment did not rescue postpubertal uterine gland development. Interestingly, progesterone receptor knockout mice, which lack progesterone signaling, also have defects in postpubertal uterine gland development. However, progesterone treatment did not rescue postpubertal uterine gland development. These studies indicate that chronically elevated levels of estradiol with low progesterone and therefore an absence of cyclic ovarian hormone secretion disrupts postpubertal uterine gland development and homeostasis.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Estro/fisiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Progesterona/sangue , Receptores LHRH/genética , Útero/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/farmacologia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 112, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To predict miscarriage outcome within 12 weeks of gestational age by evaluating values of serum estradiol, progesterone and ß-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) within 9 weeks of gestation. METHODS: One hundred sixty-five women with singleton pregnancies were retrospectively studied. Estradiol, progesterone and ß-HCG levels were measured at 5-6 weeks of gestation and the measurements were repeated at 7-9 weeks. According to pregnancy outcome at 12 weeks of gestation, 71 cases were categorized into miscarriage group, and 94 cases into group of normal pregnancy. Each group was further divided into 5-6 and 7-9 weeks of gestation sub-group. Predictive values of estradiol, progesterone and ß- HCG levels at 5-6 weeks and 7-9 weeks of gestation were analyzed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression. RESULTS: Serum levels of estradiol at 7-9 weeks identified miscarriage with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.866 (95% CI 0. 793 ~ 0.938, P = 0.000), diagnostic cutoff value of 576 pg/ml, sensitivity of 0.804, and specificity of 0.829 respectively at the optimal threshold, according to Youden index. Progesterone levels at 7-9 weeks were with AUC of 0.766 (95% CI 0. 672 ~ 0.861, P = 0.000), cutoff value of 15.27 ng/ml, sensitivity of 0.921, and specificity of 0.558, respectively; Estradiol at 5-6 weeks were with AUC of 0.709 (95% CI 0. 616 ~ 0.801, P < 0.001), the diagnostic cutoff value of 320 pg/ml, sensitivity of 0.800, and specificity of 0.574, respectively. The performance of the dual markers of estradiol and progesterone analysis (AUC 0.871, CI 0.793-0.950), three-markers analysis (AUC 0.869, CI 0.759-0.980)were slightly better than the single marker at 7-9 weeks. ß-HCG or progesterone provide additional utility of estradiol prediction at 5-6 weeks with AUC 0.770 (0.672-0.869) for ß-HCG and estradiol, AUC0.768(CI 0.670-0.866) for ß-HCG, estradiol and progesterone and AUC 0.739 (CI 0.651-0.827) for progesterone and estradiol. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum levels such as dual of estradiol and progesterone or estradiol alone at 7-9 weeks, ß-HCG or progesterone combing estradiol at 5-6 weeks of gestation can be used better to predict miscarriage in first trimester.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Circ Res ; 130(3): 312-322, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether changes in blood pressure (BP) over women's midlife are more driven by chronological aging or the menopause transition has been debated. We sought to determine whether women can be classified into distinct trajectory groups based on pattern and level of systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) over the menopause transition, and to assess whether menopause-related factors predict the group and level of BP measures. METHODS: Participants were from the SWAN (Study of Women's Health Across the Nation). Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify women who shared distinct BP trajectories over time relative to menopause onset and to assess associations of menopause-related factors with trajectory group and level of BP measures. An accelerated rise relative to menopause onset suggests a menopause contribution. RESULTS: The study included 3302 multiracial and multiethnic women with BP measures over 17 follow-up visits (baseline age [SD]: 46.3 [2.7]). Women were classified into either low, medium, or high trajectory group in each BP measure. The low SBP, PP, and MAP trajectories (in 35%, 53%, and 28% of the cohort, respectively) were rising slowly before menopause but showed a significant accelerated rise 1 year after menopause, indicating a menopause contribution. The remaining BP trajectories were rising up until menopause and either continued with the same rise or declined after menopause. A younger menopause age predicted the low SBP, PP, and MAP trajectories. A greater follicle-stimulating hormone level predicted lower SBP and PP levels, while vasomotor symptoms occurrence predicted higher SBP, PP, and MAP levels over time. Estradiol did not predict trajectory or level of any BP measure. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct BP trajectories over the menopause transition exist that revealed a group of women whose SBP, PP, and MAP trajectories are consistent with a menopause contribution. Our findings support frequent monitoring of BP during the menopause transition.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Menopausa/fisiologia , Adulto , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Menopausa/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 145, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the main aetiological factor for the development of cervical cancer. While nearly 70% of HR-HPV infections are cleared within 12 months, in the remainder of women they persist and can progress into cervical cancer. Oestradiol and progesterone have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, whether diurnal oestradiol and progesterone are also involved in HR-HPV persistence - before cervical cancer develops. METHODS: A total of N = 39 women between 18 and 31 years of age were investigated. All were nulliparous and regular users of combined oral contraceptives. Presence of HR-HPV was determined by cervical swabs. Salivary oestradiol and progesterone were measured upon awakening and at 11 am, 2 pm, and 5 pm. All HR-HPV positive women were re-tested in terms of HR-HPV status 12 months later. RESULTS: HR-HPV positive women had significantly higher morning (p = .007, partial eta2 = .221) and daily oestradiol levels (p < .001, partial eta2 = .442) when compared to HR-HPV negative women. In addition, those with persistent HR-HPV 12 months later had significantly elevated morning (p = .005, partial eta2 = .534) and daily (p = .027, partial eta2 = .346) oestradiol. Progesterone was found to be unrelated to HR-HPV. CONCLUSIONS: Oestradiol was positively linked to HR-HPV presence and persistence. Provided that these findings are replicated, regular monitoring of oestradiol levels may prove useful in identifying women who are at risk of developing cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestagens are the most widely used therapy in anestrus type II. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaginal progesterone inserts therapy in anestrus type II in cows. METHODS: The study was conducted on 33 cows. Progesterone (PR) and estrogen (ER) receptors expression in endometrium was assessed on a molecular level based on mRNA tissue expression. Additionally, blood 17ß-estradiol and progesterone levels were evaluated. RESULTS: A decrease in mRNA expression of A and B PR and ER α was noted in treated and untreated animals. In the treated group, an increase of ERß mRNA expression was observed, while a decreased was found in untreated animals. There was increased PR, ERα and ß expression in endometrial tissue in treated cows, and decreased expression of these factors in untreated cows. In the treated group, recurrence of ovarian cyclicity was noted in 52% of animals and pregnancy was obtained in 34.8% of them, while in the untreated group, recurrence did not occur. In the control group, spontaneous recurrence of ovarian cyclicity was not observed. An increase of PR expression was correlated with increased proliferation of endometrial cells. CONCLUSIONS: It seems likely that the endometrium is well developed and ready for placentation after removing the exogenous source of progesterone and preventing the recurrence of cyclicity of ovaries.


Assuntos
Anestro , Endométrio/citologia , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Bovinos , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Progesterona/sangue , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/sangue
11.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13696, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195318

RESUMO

The conventional follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatment for bovine superstimulation involves multiple intramuscular injections, which is stressful for animals and onerous. We herein investigated whether a single epidural injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) can induce superovulation and peripheral concentrations of pFSH and steroid hormones after the treatment in Holstein dry cows. We intramuscularly administered pFSH twice daily to three cows for 3 days (control) or a single epidural pFSH administration (epidural). Numbers of follicles (≥10 mm in diameter) at estrus and corpora lutea at luteal phase were counted by ultrasonography. Blood was sampled from 0 to 104 h after the first pFSH administration and plasma pFSH, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol-17ß concentrations were measured. Numbers of follicles (control: 18.3 ± 7.5, epidural: 15.7 ± 4.0; mean ± SD) and corpora lutea (control: 7.3 ± 4.2, epidural: 8.0 ± 2.6) were similar between both treatments. Plasma pFSH concentrations were higher in epidural than in control (p < 0.01). Although no significant differences were observed in progesterone, androstenedione, or estradiol-17ß concentrations between the groups, testosterone concentrations were slightly lower with the epidural treatment than with the control treatment (p = 0.08). In conclusion, superovulation was induced by a single epidural injection of pFSH, which achieved higher pFSH level than the multiple injections in Holstein dry cows.


Assuntos
Cóccix , Androstenodiona , Animais , Bovinos , Cóccix/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Progesterona/sangue , Suínos , Testosterona
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(6): e28689, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147090

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A big problem is the delayed growth and sexual maturity in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with the consequent reduction in adults' height. Testosterone and estradiol have significant physiologic changes in children suffering from CKD, resulting in delayed puberty. We aim to assess blood levels of these hormones in patients with CKD-5 on regular hemodialysis.One hundred-six participants were enrolled in the current study, 56 of whom had CKD on hemodialysis 3 times a week 4 hours per session, and 60 healthy age- and gender-matched children acted as controls. Full history was taken, and a clinical review was performed on both patients and controls. The pubertal assessment was performed according to Tanner's classification and laboratory investigations of total and free serum (s.) testosterone in boys and s.estradiol in girls.Patients' weight and height were considerably lower than controls. The free and total s.testosterone of patients were significantly reduced. The same applies to s.estradiol levels which were substantially reduced in comparison to controls. In both patients and controls, Tanner staging & male total s.testosterone levels and female s.estradiol levels had significant positive associations. There was a negative association between the sex hormones levels and the disease's and dialysis duration in the patients' group.S.testosterone and s.estradiol levels were significantly low in CKD patients on dialysis and were positively correlated with delayed pubertal growth observed in those patients.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Puberdade/sangue , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(3): 319-327, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity in adolescent males is associated with the lowering of total and free testosterone concentrations. Weight loss may increase testosterone concentrations. DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the changes in sex hormones following bariatric surgery in 34 males (age range: 14.6-19.8 years) with obesity. These participants were part of a prospective multicenter study, Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery. The participants were followed up for 5 years after surgery. Total testosterone, total estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, C-reactive protein, insulin and glucose were measured at baseline, 6 months and annually thereafter. Free testosterone, free estradiol and HOMA2-IR were calculated. RESULTS: Study participants lost one-third of their body weight after bariatric surgery, with maximum weight loss achieved at 24 months for most participants. Free testosterone increased from 0.17 (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.20) at baseline to 0.34 (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.38) and 0.27 nmol/L (95% CI: 0.23 to 0.32) at 2 and 5 years (P < 0.001 for both), respectively. Total testosterone increased from 6.7 (95% CI: 4.7 to 8.8) at baseline to 17.6 (95% CI: 15.3 to 19.9) and 13.8 (95% CI: 11.0 to 16.5) nmol/L at 2 and 5 years (P < 0.001), respectively. Prior to surgery, 73% of the participants had subnormal free testosterone (<0.23 nmol/L). After 2 and 5 years, only 20 and 33%, respectively, had subnormal free testosterone concentrations. Weight regain was related to a fall in free testosterone concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery led to a robust increase in testosterone concentrations in adolescent males with severe obesity. Participants who regained weight had a decline in their testosterone concentrations.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estradiol/sangue , Hipogonadismo/sangue , Obesidade/cirurgia , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/epidemiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 22(2): 167-180, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066857

RESUMO

Maternal inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has been associated with microvascular dysfunction and adverse cardiovascular responses. Pregnancy requires coordinated vascular adaptation and growth that are imperative for survival. Key events in pregnancy hallmark distinct periods of gestation such as implantation, spiral artery remodeling, placentation, and trophoblast invasion. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical vasoactive mediator responsible for adaptations and is implicated in the pathology of preeclampsia. If perturbations occur during gestation, such as those caused by ENM inhalation exposure, then maternal-fetal health consequences may occur. Our study aimed to identify the period of gestation in which maternal microvascular functional and fetal health are most vulnerable. Additionally, we wanted to determine if Ang II sensitivity and receptor density is altered due to exposure. Dams were exposed to ENM aerosols (nano-titanium dioxide) during three gestational windows: early (EE, gestational day (GD) 2-6), mid (ME, GD 8-12) or late (LE, GD 15-19). Within the EE group dry pup mass decreased by 16.3% and uterine radial artery wall to lumen ratio (WLR) increased by 25.9%. Uterine radial artery response to Ang II sensitivity increased by 40.5% in the EE group. Ang II receptor density was altered in the EE and LE group with decreased levels of AT2R. We conclude that early gestational maternal inhalation exposures resulted in altered vascular anatomy and physiology. Exposure during this time-period results in altered vascular reactivity and changes to uterine radial artery WLR, leading to decreased perfusion to the fetus and resulting in lower pup mass.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Microcirculação , Circulação Placentária , Titânio/toxicidade , Artéria Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Aerossóis , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Exposição por Inalação , Exposição Materna , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/agonistas , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Titânio/administração & dosagem , Artéria Uterina/fisiopatologia
15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262924, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100304

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The testosterone to estradiol ratio (T/E2 ratio) reportedly exerts a stronger effect on semen quality and sexual desire than does testosterone alone. Clomiphene citrate is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has long been used as an empirical treatment option in the management of idiopathic oligozoospermia. Clomiphene may change the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and result in the alteration of the T/E2 ratio. No reliable data are available regarding the change in the T/E2 ratio after clomiphene use in eugonadism. METHODS: This study included 24 male patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic infertility with eugonadism. They all received clomiphene citrate (25 mg/day) as empirical treatment. Blood tests for serum testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were performed before and after 4 weeks of clomiphene use. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the significance of the hormone level change. RESULTS: Overall, the patients' T/E2 ratio did not increase significantly after clomiphene use. In the subgroup analysis, the T/E2 ratio of patients with a baseline ratio of <200 increased significantly after clomiphene use. CONCLUSIONS: Clomiphene citrate may significantly increase the T/E2 ratio in eugonadal men under the premise of its ceiling effect (T/E2 ratio < 200), providing practitioners with guidance on the use of clomiphene in this demographic.


Assuntos
Clomifeno/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/sangue , Hipogonadismo , Infertilidade Masculina , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/sangue , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Infertilidade Masculina/sangue , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(1): e28361, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029882

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Adequate evidence showed hormone therapy (HT) reduces the risk of new-onset diabetes in midlife women by decreasing fasting glucose and insulin. However, the improvement of these diabetic biomarkers varied with each individual in clinical observations. The objective of our study was to investigate potential baseline factors associated with the change of fasting glucose and insulin during HT.A retrospective cohort study was performed among 263 midlife participants aged 40 to 60 years with menopausal symptoms who have received 6-month individualized HT. Demographic information and laboratory indicators including reproductive hormone, lipid profiles, diabetic indicators were collected and measured at baseline and were followed-up. A series of statistical analyses were performed to confirm the effectiveness of HT and compare the baseline factors between participants with different glycemic or insulinemic response. Multivariable linear regression model with stepwise variable selection was further used to identify the associated factor with the change of fasting glucose and insulin.Of all participants, fasting glucose (P = .001) and fasting insulin (P < .001) were significantly decreased after individualized HT. Significant differences in baseline reproductive hormones were observed in participants with different glycemic response to HT (P < .001 for both follicle stimulating hormone [FSH] and estradiol). Stepwise linear regression model showed that in addition to baseline fasting glucose levels, baseline FSH was also independently associated with the change of fasting glucose (ß = -0.145, P = .019 for baseline FSH) but not fasting insulin. Greater reduction in fasting glucose in women with higher FSH levels was observed even though they have already been in better metabolic conditions (P = .037).Midlife women with higher baseline FSH levels have greater reduction in fasting glucose but not fasting insulin. FSH could be an independent predictor of glycemic response to HT in peri- and postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Fogachos/terapia , Menopausa/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Adulto , Glicemia , China , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Toxicology ; 467: 153099, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066102

RESUMO

Alginic acid (AA) is a kind of polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds and has been widely used in food industry. Certain positive effects of AA, such as anti-inflammation and anti-allergy, have been reported. Nevertheless, as a potential chemical contaminant of the environment, its impact on female reproductive system remains to be investigated. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of AA on ovary and to investigate the further cellular mechanism. Primarily, in vitro cultured mouse ovary granulosa cells (GCs) were treated with AA at a concentration of 10µM for 24 h. The cells and supernatant were collected and subjected to further measures. The results demonstrated that after being treated with 10µM AA for 24 h the levels of estradiol and progesterone in supernatant were down-regulated. And excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and declined antioxidant capacity were also determined. Additionally, a large number of apoptotic bodies and autophagic vesicles were found in the experimental cells, and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway was demonstrated to play a main role in GCs apoptosis. To further investigate the effect of AA on ovary, the female ICR mice were administered with AA (10 mg/ kg bodyweight) intraperitoneally for successive 35 days, and the estrus phase was recorded simultaneously. After exposure, the ovaries and blood samples were collected for further analysis. The results revealed that the estrus period of the mice was shortened and the interestrus period was extended after being treated with AA for 35 days. At the organismal level, the numbers of antral follicles and atresia follicles increased and the levels of pro-apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins were detected upregulated after AA treatment. Taken together, both in vivo and in vitro data suggested that AA has toxicity on female reproduction by disrupting estrogen production and inducing oxidative stress, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. Our results provide new scientific basis and the concern for controlling the increasing use of AA.


Assuntos
Ácido Algínico/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Estradiol/sangue , Ciclo Estral/sangue , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Progesterona/sangue , Via Secretória , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): e467-e474, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601599

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The causal role of endogenous estradiol in cancers other than breast and endometrial cancer remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This Mendelian randomization study assessed the causal associations of endogenous 17ß-estradiol (E2), the most potent estrogen, with cancer risk in women. METHODS: As primary genetic instrument, we used a genetic variant in the CYP19A1 gene that is strongly associated with serum E2 levels. Summary statistics genetic data for the association of the E2 variant with breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer were obtained from large-scale consortia. We additionally estimated the associations of the E2 variant with any and 20 site-specific cancers in 198 825 women of European descent in UK Biobank. Odds ratios (OR) of cancer per 0.01 unit increase in log-transformed serum E2 levels in pmol/L were estimated using the Wald ratio. RESULTS: Genetic predisposition to higher serum E2 levels was associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (OR 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P = 2.5 × 10-3), endometrial cancer overall (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11; P = 7.3 × 10-13), and endometrial cancer of the endometrioid histology subtype (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.13; P = 2.1 × 10-11). There were suggestive associations with breast cancer overall (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02; P = 0.02), ovarian cancer of the endometrioid subtype (OR 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10; P = 0.02), and stomach cancer (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26; P = 0.05), but no significant association with other cancers. CONCLUSION: This study supports a role of E2 in the development of ER-positive breast cancer and endometrioid endometrial cancer but found no strong association with other cancers in women.


Assuntos
Aromatase/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Aromatase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Toxicology ; 465: 153059, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864092

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) may have an impact on the reproductive development of humans and mammals. However, any effects of MPs exposure on male and female reproductive systems and fertility are still ambiguous. In this study, male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline or 0.1 mg/d polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) for 30 days or 44 days to determine the effects of MPs on reproductive systems, following which some of the mice were caged for 10 days to mate to test fertility. Another group of mice were given fluorescent PS-MPs to determine the accumulation of MPs. The results show that PS-MPs exposure resulted in more significant accumulation and oxidative stress in the ovary than in the testis. In male mice, the number of viable epididymis sperm and spermatogenic cells in the testes after PS-MPs exposure was significantly reduced, and the rate of sperm deformity increased. In female mice, PS-MPs exposure induced a decrease in ovary size and number of follicles. After exposure to PS-MPs, the levels of Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone and testosterone were reduced, and the estradiol levels increased in the serum of male mice, while the changes in these hormone levels of female mice was the opposite. The mice exposed to PS-MPs had a reduced pregnancy rate and produced fewer embryos. These findings suggest that exposure to PS-MPs damaged the testes and ovaries, induced oxidative stress, altered the serum hormone levels, and induced changes in reproduction and fertility. Female mice appear to be more susceptible to MPs in reproduction and fertility than male mice.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(2): 285-295, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus of opinion if exercise beneficially affects sex hormones if added to weight-loss diets. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of adding exercise to a hypo-caloric diet during a weight-loss program, on serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in adults with overweight/obesity. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. METHODS: Online databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2021. A random-effects model was applied to compare mean changes in sex hormones and SHBG between participants undergoing a hypo-caloric diet with or without exercise. RESULTS: In total, 9 eligible clinical trials with 462 participants were included. Out of these, seven, three, and four studies illustrated changes in testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG, respectively. The meta-analysis revealed that exercise had no significant effect on circulating testosterone (WMD = -0.03 nmol/L, 95% CI: -0.11, 0.06, P = 0.51), estradiol (WMD = -0.46 pg/mL, 95% CI: -1.57, 0.65, P = 0.42), and SHBG (WMD = 0.54 nmol/L, 95% CI: -2.63, 3.71, P = 0.74) when added to low-calorie diets. CONCLUSION: The addition of exercise to a hypo-caloric diet provided no additional improvement in sex hormone profiles. Further, well-designed randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods in both sexes are recommended to confirm and expand the current results.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Exercício Físico , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
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