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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 33, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-assessment is a mandated educational requirement for use in dental undergraduate programmes. It is weakly supported for use in early clinical training and studies are criticized for the conceptual and methodology shortfalls. The aim of the study was to compare the alignment of student self-assessment to both staff assessment and written exams in early clinical training using an educational approach. METHODS: In 2014-2015, 55 third-year dental students completed three educational sessions comprising of (a) classroom teaching (lecture, video) with post-lesson written exam and (b) clinical activity with student self-assessment, staff assessment and student reflection. An intra-individual analysis approach, staff validation, and student scoring standardization were implemented. Cognitive (clinical competency) and non-cognitive (professionalism) items were separated in the analyses. RESULTS: There were medium correlations (Spearman's rho, r) between student self-assessment and staff assessment scores for cognitive items (r, 0.32) and for non-cognitive items (r, 0.44) for all three combined sessions. There were large correlations for individual sessions. Compared to the post-lesson written exam, students showed small correlation (r, 0.22, 0.29) and staff showed medium correlation (r, 0.31, 0.34) for cognitive and non-cognitive items. Students showed improvements in their mean scores for both cognitive (t-test; p > 0.05) and non-cognitive items (t-test; p = 0.000). Mean scores of students were not different statistically from that of staff (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Students may adequately act as self-assessors at the beginning of their clinical work in periodontology. Self-assessment may potentially improve the clinical performance. Self-assessment may be nurtured through clear guidelines, educational training strategies, feedback and reflection leading to better evaluative judgement and lifelong learning.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Competência Clínica , Educação em Odontologia , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estudantes
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 32, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The execution of undergraduate thesis is a period in which students have an opportunity to develop their scientific knowledge. However, many barriers could prevent the learning process. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the scientific dissemination of results from undergraduate theses in physical therapy programs and verify the existence of barriers and challenges in the preparation of undergraduate thesis. Second, to investigate whether project characteristics and thesis development barriers were associated with the dissemination of undergraduate thesis results. METHODS: Physical therapists who graduated as of 2015, from 50 different educational institutions, answered an online questionnaire about barriers faced during the execution of undergraduate thesis and about scientific dissemination of their results. RESULTS: Of 324 participants, 43% (n = 138) of participants disseminated their results, and the main form of dissemination was publishing in national journals (18%, n = 58). Regarding the barriers, 76% (n = 246) of participants reported facing some difficulties, and the main challenge highlighted was the lack of scientific knowledge (28%, n = 91). Chances of dissemination were associated with barriers related to scientific understanding and operational factors, such as the type of institution, institutional facilities, and involvement with other projects. CONCLUSION: Scientific knowledge seems to be a determining factor for the good development of undergraduate theses. In addition, it is clear the need to stimulate more qualified dissemination that reaches a larger audience. Changes in operational and teaching factors may improve the undergraduate thesis quality. However, the importance of rethinking scientific education within physical therapy programs draws attention.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Editoração
3.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 8, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989760

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the annual incidences and rates of progression of myopia and high myopia in Chinese schoolchildren from grade 1 to grade 6 and explore the possible cause-specific risk factors for myopia. Methods: From 11 randomly selected primary schools in Anyang city, central China, 2835 grade 1 students were examined with annual follow ups for 5 years. Students were invited to undergo a comprehensive examination, including cycloplegic autorefraction, ocular biometry, and standardized questionnaires. Results: The mean spherical equivalent refraction decreased substantially from +0.94 ± 1.03 diopter (D) in grade 1 to -1.37 ± 2.08 D in grade 6, with rapid annual myopic shifts, especially for students in grades 3 through 6 (-0.51 to -0.59 D). The prevalence of myopia increased substantially, with the yearly incidence of myopia increasing from 7.8% in grade 1 and 2 to 25.3% in grades 5 and 6, and the incidence of high myopia increased from 0.1% to 1.0%. The 5-year incidence of myopia was lowest among children who has a baseline spherical equivalent refraction of greater than +2.00 D (4.4%), and increased to nearly 92.0% among children whose baseline spherical equivalent refraction was 0.00 to -0.50 D. The incidence of myopia was higher in children who had less hyperopic baseline refraction, two myopic parents, longer axial length, deeper anterior chamber, higher axial length-corneal radius of curvature ratio, and thinner lenses. Conclusions: Both the annual incidence and progression rates of myopia and high myopia were high in Chinese schoolchildren, especially after grade 3. Hyperopic refraction of children should be monitored before primary school as hyperopia reserve to prevent the onset of myopia and high myopia.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Biometria , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Miopia Degenerativa/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes , Testes Visuais
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 17, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable efforts there continues to be a degree awarding gap within the United Kingdom (UK) between the proportion of White British students receiving higher classifications, compared to ethnic minority UK-domiciled students. Practice placement elements constitute approximately 50% of most health and social care programmes, yet surprisingly little research exists related to the factors which may contribute to ethnic minority student placement outcomes or experiences. This study bridges this evidence gap by exploring factors influencing differential placement outcomes of ethnic minority students from the perspectives of key stakeholders. METHODS: The study followed a descriptive qualitative research design and was multi-disciplinary, with participants drawn from across nursing, midwifery, social work and the allied health professions. Participants from four stakeholder categories (ethnic minority students, academic staff, placement educators and student union advisors) were invited to join separate focus groups. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Ten separate focus groups [n = 66] yielded three primary themes: 1) recognition, which highlighted stakeholder perceptions of the issues [sub-themes: acknowledging concerns; cultural norms; challenging environments]; 2) the lived experience, which primarily captured ethnic minority student perspectives [sub-themes: problematising language and stereotyping, and being treated differently]; 3) surviving not thriving, which outlines the consequences of the lived experience [sub-themes: withdrawing mentally, feeling like an alien]. CONCLUSION: This study presents a rich exploration of the factors affecting differential outcomes of ethnic minority students on practice placements through the lens of four different stakeholder groups. To our knowledge this is the first study in which this comprehensive approach has been taken to enable multiple viewpoints to be accessed across a wide range of health and social care professions. The issues and challenges raised appear to be common to most if not all of these disciplines. This study highlights the urgent need to value and support our ethnic minority students to remove the barriers they face in their practice learning settings. This is a monumental challenge and requires both individuals and organisations to step up and take collective responsibility.


Assuntos
Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Estudantes
5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 6, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Test anxiety has a detrimental effect on test performance but current interventions for test anxiety have limited efficacy. Therefore, examination of newer psychological models of test anxiety is now required. Two transdiagnostic psychological models of emotional disorders that can account for anxiety are the intolerance of uncertainty model (IUM) and the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model. Intolerance of uncertainty, the stable disposition to find uncertainty distressing, is central to the IUM, while beliefs about thinking, metacognition, are central to the S-REF model. We tested for the first time the role of both intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs in test anxiety. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used, with college students (n = 675) completing questionnaires assessing their test anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, and metacognitive beliefs. Hierarchical linear regressions examined if intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs were associated with test anxiety, after controlling for age and gender. RESULTS: Females reported significantly more test anxiety than males. Partial correlations, controlling for gender, found intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs were significantly and positively correlated with test anxiety. Hierarchical linear regressions found metacognitive beliefs explained an additional 13% of variance in test anxiety, after controlling for intolerance of uncertainty. When the order of entry was reversed, intolerance of uncertainty was only able to explain an additional 2% of variance, after controlling for metacognitive beliefs. In the final regression model, gender, intolerance of uncertainty and the metacognitive belief domains of 'negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry' and 'cognitive confidence' were all significantly associated test anxiety, with 'negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of worry' having the largest association. CONCLUSIONS: Both intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs are linked to test anxiety, but results suggest metacognitive beliefs have more explanatory utility, providing greater support for the S-REF model. Modification of intolerance of uncertainty and metacognitive beliefs could alleviate test anxiety and help students fulfil their academic potential.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ansiedade aos Exames , Incerteza
6.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 21(1): ar1, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978923

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic shut down undergraduate research programs across the United States. A group of 23 colleges, universities, and research institutes hosted remote undergraduate research programs in the life sciences during Summer 2020. Given the unprecedented offering of remote programs, we carried out a study to describe and evaluate them. Using structured templates, we documented how programs were designed and implemented, including who participated. Through focus groups and surveys, we identified programmatic strengths and shortcomings as well as recommendations for improvements from students' perspectives. Strengths included the quality of mentorship, opportunities for learning and professional development, and a feeling of connection with a larger community. Weaknesses included limited cohort building, challenges with insufficient structure, and issues with technology. Although all programs had one or more activities related to diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice, these topics were largely absent from student reports even though programs coincided with a peak in national consciousness about racial inequities and structural racism. Our results provide evidence for designing remote Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs) that are experienced favorably by students. Our results also indicate that remote REUs are sufficiently positive to further investigate their affordances and constraints, including the potential to scale up offerings, with minimal concern about disenfranchising students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Estados Unidos
7.
Codas ; 34(3): e20200207, 2022.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the test-retest reliability of the Masking Level Difference in normal hearing female university students. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study with 78 young female adults without hearing complaints, submitted to the compact disc version of the Masking Level Difference by Auditec of Saint Louis. The threshold was determined by the difference between signal-to-noise ratios at hearing thresholds found in the antiphasic and homophasic conditions. The test was applied by the same examiner in two moments (test and retest) with an interval of seven to 14 days between them. Inferential statistical analysis included comparison of test and retest situations using Student's t test for paired samples, calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient and calculation of 95% confidence intervals for signal-to-noise ratios at hearing thresholds found in the antiphasic and homophasic conditions and for masking level difference. RESULTS: The average signal-to-noise ratio at hearing threshold ​​in the homophasic condition was -12.59 dB and -12.46 dB in the Test and Retest situations, respectively, and -21.54 dB and -21.08 dB in the antiphasic condition. The average value ​​in the final Masking Level Difference result was 8.95 dB in the Test and 8.74 dB in the Retest. Intraclass correlation coefficient values ​​obtained were 0.436, 0.625 and 0.577 for homophasic, antiphasic and Masking Level Difference conditions, respectively. CONCLUSION: The Masking Level Difference showed moderate test-retest reliability in normal hearing adults female university students.


Assuntos
Mascaramento Perceptivo , Universidades , Adulto , Limiar Auditivo , Feminino , Audição , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes
8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 186-193, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999701

RESUMO

This study intended to find out the children's usage of gadgets and the parents' role regarding their usage and finally its influence on grades. This cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative method. A total of 340 students of class four were selected by a random sampling method from four schools. Data collection was done by face-to-face interview and the study tool was structured by pretested questionnaire. The study took place at Dhanmondi Govt. Boys' High School, Kamrunnessa Govt. Girls School, Dhanmondi, Bangladesh International School and College (BISC), Mohakhali and SOS Hermann Gmeiner College, Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data collection was carried out from May 2019 to October 2019. Then the analysis of data and results were prepared in November and December 2019. Among 340 respondents of this study, a maximum (78.2%) of students watch TV, 55.9% of them play with mobile and a half (50%) of the students use tablet daily. Maximum (91.8%) parents monitor the use and time of gadgets. About 53.8% of parents use gadgets as a parenting tool. The majority of parents have a positive opinion of electronic gadgets on their children's reading (52.9% somewhat positive and 24.7% very positive) and writing (56.8% somewhat positive and 20.3% very positive) skills. The parents had negative opinion regarding attention spans to studies (33.8% somewhat negative), physical activity (38.2% somewhat negative and 16.5% parents are very negative) and sleep (38.8% are somewhat negative and 17.9% are very negative). Children are the future generation of our country. It is the duty of the parents as well as the country to establish a balanced use of this modern invention in our children's life.


Assuntos
Pais , Estudantes , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Eletrônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 242-251, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999710

RESUMO

Due to the massive transition from traditional face-to-face classes to distance online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the perception of university students towards online education. The study was conducted among undergraduate students of Riyadh Elm University, KSA, in June 2021. Data were collected through a self-administered online questionnaire created via the Google Form platform. The link was distributed to the students by email through the administration office. The survey questionnaire contains 11 questions assessing students' perceptions related to students' experiences with online learning, the quality of online learning, the challenges faced by the students and the effectiveness of online learning during Covid-19 pandemic. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 25.0. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the differences between groups while Spearman Rho test was used to evaluate correlation strength between the variables. A total of 309 students participated in this study, 66.0% were 18 to 24 years, and 71.5% were from the Faculty of Dentistry. The major constituents of online education were lectures (77.3%) and quiz (77.0%). There was a significant association between age groups and online learning participation. Age groups significantly correlated with 'independent learner' and 'accomplish assignments effectively'. IT and technical skills had a strong correlation with online learning technology, effective communication and convenience learning. This study demonstrated students' positive attitudes towards online learning and the effectiveness of blended learning in maintaining the quality of education during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Universidades
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142100, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985517

RESUMO

Importance: Although negative associations of COVID-19 pandemic high school closures with adolescents' health have been demonstrated repeatedly, some research has reported a beneficial association of these closures with adolescents' sleep. The present study was, to our knowledge, the first to combine both perspectives. Objective: To investigate associations between adolescents' sleep and health-related characteristics during COVID-19 pandemic school closures in Switzerland. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used cross-sectional online surveys circulated among the students of 21 public high schools in Zurich, Switzerland. The control sample completed the survey under regular, prepandemic conditions (May to July 2017) and the lockdown sample during school closures (May to June 2020). Survey respondents were included in the study if they provided their sex, age, and school. Exposures: High school closures during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave in Switzerland (March 13 to June 6, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: Sleep-wake patterns, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, assessed by the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire), substance use (caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine), and depressive symptoms (lockdown sample only; assessed using the withdrawn/depressed scale from the Youth Self Report). Multilevel regression models were used to assess sample differences and associations of health-related characteristics with sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Results: The total sample consisted of 8972 students, including 5308 (59.2%) in the control sample (3454 [65.1%] female) and 3664 (40.8%) in the lockdown sample (2429 [66.3%] female); the median age in both samples was 16 years (IQR, 15-17 years). During school closures, the sleep period on scheduled days was 75 minutes longer (semipartial R2 statistic [R2ß*], 0.238; 95% CI, 0.222-0.254; P < .001) and the students had better HRQoL (R2ß*, 0.007; 95% CI, 0.004-0.012; P < .001) and less consumption of caffeine (R2ß*, 0.010; 95% CI, 0.006-0.015; P < .001) and alcohol (R2ß*, 0.014; 95% CI, 0.008-0.022; P < .001). Longer sleep duration was associated with better HRQoL (R2ß*, 0.027; 95% CI, 0.020-0.034; P < .001) and less caffeine consumption (R2ß*, 0.013; 95% CI, 0.009-0.019; P < .001). In the lockdown sample, an inverse association was found between depressive symptoms and HRQoL (R2ß*, 0.285; 95% CI, 0.260-.0311; P < .001) and a positive association was found with caffeine consumption (R2ß*, 0.003; 95% CI, 0.000-0.008; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, 2 opposing associations between school closures and adolescents' health were identified: a negative association with psychological distress and a beneficial association with increased sleep duration. These findings should be considered when evaluating and implementing school closures. Furthermore, the findings provide support for delaying school start times for adolescents.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
11.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 6701364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35003573

RESUMO

To provide a basic quantitative mathematical model for data analysis, decision-making support, and application of information systems oriented to emergency research, this paper established an information transmission response model for school students under such system mathematically based on actual school information transmission data during COVID-19 prevention. This paper proposes an emergency information management method-a two-step emergency information management method. It can be referenced for promotion of the development of IT-based school management, enhancement of IT application in school emergency information management, and improvement of the speed and accuracy of information transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Emergências , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes
12.
In Vivo ; 36(1): 241-250, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women in Vietnam, but the country is yet to introduce a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme targeted at adolescents. We determined HPV prevalence and HPV vaccine knowledge among female university students in Vietnam. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We surveyed and screened 1,491 female university students in Hanoi, Hue, and Ho Chi Minh City for their sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge and low- and high-risk HPV infection. RESULTS: The prevalence of any HPV infection and any high-risk HPV infection were 4.2% (95%CI=3.3%-5.4%) and 3.4% (95%CI=2.5%-4.4%), respectively. Being sexually active [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 6.22; 95%CI=3.4-11.37] and having ever been pregnant (aPR: 4.82; 95%CI=1.93-12.04) were positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Whilst 60% of participants had heard of HPV vaccine, only 4.6% had received the vaccine. CONCLUSION: The low HPV prevalence found in university students in Vietnam indicates that they can benefit from HPV vaccination, along with a well-designed HPV health promotion programme.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudantes , Universidades , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e050867, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A COVID-19 outbreak has been contained in China through effective prevention measures with the collaboration of the citizens. However, there is resistance to self-reported symptoms as required in the international student community. This study explored knowledge level and symptoms reporting behaviours toward COVID-19 among international students. METHODS: An online cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 119 international students across Heilongjiang province and questionnaires implemented through WeChat between 1 and 25 March 2020. The results were explained using descriptive Χ2 test and binary logistic regression analysis using SPSS V.20. RESULTS: In total, 119 international students participated, with a response rate of 90.16%. Of the 119 respondents, 96 (80.7%) knew COVID-19 symptoms, 109 (91.6%) took cognisance of questions on the importance of the maintenance of wearing masks and 113 (95%) on questions regarding hand hygiene in the prevention of disease transmission. However, results show that there were still large gaps in knowledge about questions regarding the virus and the treatment methods (many participants incorrectly believed that the virus could be kill by drinking alcohol or smoking). In addition, more than half of the participants declared compliance with positive health behaviours, however 27.7% did not agree with vaccination (if any), and 31.1% did not agree to be quarantined after being diagnosed with COVID-19. Furthermore, 20 participants (16, 80%) expressed an inclination to deliberately withhold symptoms. Variables in the Health Belief Model showed a significant association with behavioural change. CONCLUSION: From our study, we found that there is evident knowledge about COVID-19 among international students, although orientation and sensitisation are still required. Those who were aware of the benefits of reporting, the severity of COVID-19 and the legal consequences of deliberately concealing information showed a greater willingness to report; conversely, those who believed reporting is very inconvenient and feared being quarantined after reporting showed less willingness to report. A study focusing on international students' knowledge and behaviour amid the pandemic will provide information for countries to cut off the chain of disease transmission of all variants of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present strategic options to support the adoption of mental health strengthening policies for university students in the field of health, to be implemented by university institutions. METHODS: Rapid review, without period delimitation, with searches carried out from May to June 2020, in 21 sources of bibliographic data, including gray literature. The following keywords were used: mental health, students and university. The selection process prioritized systematic reviews of mental health interventions for university students in health care courses, and also considered other types of review and relevant primary studies. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were included: 34 systematic reviews, an evidence synthesis, an overview, a scope review, three narrative reviews, three experience reports and two opinion articles. The evidence from these studies supported the development of four options: 1) to establish and support policies to strengthen the mental health of students in health care courses; 2) to integrate mental health care programs, expand their offer and facilitate access by students; 3) to promote educational programs and communication strategies related to contemporary psychic suffering and its confrontation, so that students can get to know the services and resources and identify strengthening practices; 4) to continuously monitor and assess the mental health needs of students in health care courses. CONCLUSIONS: The options are challenging and require universities to establish institutional commissions to implement a policy to strengthen the mental health of university students in the health area, with the ability to recognize the different health needs, including manifestations of psychic suffering ; to integrate the university's internal actions with each other and with the services of the Unified Health System; to implement and monitor the actions that make up the mental health policy.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Estudantes , Brasil , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Universidades
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 34, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a flipped classroom, students acquire knowledge before class and deepen and apply this knowledge during class. This way, lower-order learning goals are achieved before class and higher-order skills are reached during class. This study aims to provide an overview of the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors can be stimulated. The effectiveness of the flipped classroom is conceptualized in this study as test scores, the achievement of higher learning goals, and student perceptions. METHODS: A state-of-the-art review was conducted. The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were consulted. The timeframe is 2016 till 2020. The studies were qualitatively analyzed according to the grounded theory method. RESULTS: After screening the studies based on the inclusion-and exclusion criteria, 88 studies were included in this review. The qualitative analysis of these studies revealed six main factors that affect the effectiveness of the flipped classroom: student characteristics, teacher characteristics, implementation, task characteristics, out-of-class activities, and in-class activities. Mediating factors are, amongst other factors, the learner's level of self-regulated learning, teacher's role and motivation, assessment approach, and guidance during self-study by means of prompts or feedback. These factors can be positively stimulated by structuring the learning process and focusing the teacher training on competencies and learning-and teaching approaches that are essential for the flipped classroom. CONCLUSION: This paper provides insight into the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors could be stimulated. In order to stimulate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, the positively and negatively affecting factors and mediating factors should be taken into account in the design of the flipped classroom. The interventions mentioned in this paper could also be used to enhance the effectiveness.


Assuntos
Currículo , Aprendizagem , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105171, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the high percentage of need for clinical techniques in the field of midwifery, evaluation of clinical skills of graduates is necessary. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the validation characteristics of comprehensive examination checklists in midwifery students. DESIGN: The present study was a methodological study in which seven checklists related to important midwifery skills were entered into the psychometric process. SETTING: The study was conducted in the School of Nursing and Midwifery and the Persian Gulf martyrs and Salman Farsi Hospitals, Nabi-e-Akram comprehensive health center in Bushehr city. PARTICIPANTS: Quantitative face validity was performed by examining the item impact score based on the opinions of 10 midwifery graduates. Quantitative content validity was performed by examining the content validity ratio and index based on the opinions of 12 experts. For structural validity as well as reliability assessment, checklists were used for 78 midwifery students who had completed their studies and were about to graduate. To determine the convergent validity, the correlation of the score of each checklist with the mean score of the similar fields of each skill was measured. Divergent validity was assessed by measuring the correlation between the score of each checklist and the score of other checklists and comparing it with the internal consistency of each checklist. Internal consistency and agreement between evaluators were used to assess reliability. Data were analyzed using SPSS19. RESULTS: Content validity index and content validity ratio for each item were more than 0.79 and 0.67, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the score of each skill and the mean score of similar fields of that skill (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to the results, it can be concluded that comprehensive midwifery student evaluation checklists are a valid and reliable tool.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Tocologia , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes
17.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108695, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695682

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the behaviour of Swiss students regarding meat consumption by analysing their current consumption habits, attitudes and knowledge, acceptance of meat alternatives and willingness to reduce meat intake. Data were collected through an online survey conducted in universities and universities of applied sciences among German- and French-speaking students in Switzerland (n = 498). By segmenting the student population using an adapted transtheoretical model of change, four distinct clusters were identified: passive (14.7%), curious (6%), awoken (44.7%) and active consumers (34.6%). The results provide a deeper insight into Swiss students' dietary patterns, attitudes and knowledge concerning the impact of meat consumption as along with concrete practical interventions to target the different clusters and initiate and promote behaviour change regarding meat consumption. The ideal recommendations depend on the current stage of behaviour change. However, to reduce meat consumption, policy makers need to set specific, quantifiable goals within defined time frames while involving a variety of stakeholders.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Carne , Adulto , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
18.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105181, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715562

RESUMO

Paramedics provide care in medical emergencies to patients with varying ages and from a range of settings, cultures, backgrounds and experiences. As such, the paramedic needs a very diverse skill set which is difficult to obtain at university. For this reason, undergraduate paramedic students often engage in clinical placements to apply their knowledge to real world experiences. Most of these placements, however, are in hospitals or ambulance settings, but part of the diverse community that paramedics treat are children with special needs, including children with disabilities. This study measured the attitudes of paramedic students to people with disabilities and explored the effectiveness of paramedic student clinical placements in special needs schools. 109 paramedic students enrolled in their first year of the Bachelor of Paramedicine at Monash University undertook placements in special needs schools across Victoria, Australia. These students completed the Interactions with Disabled Persons Scale. Of these students, 5 participated in two focus groups to gain a deeper understanding of their placement experience. The results showed that paramedic students enjoyed their placements and gained a more positive attitude towards special needs students, but also felt challenged and overwhelmed. Also found were four main characteristics that students believed paramedics needed to be effective; empathy, being genuine, the ability to listen to someone even though they are not speaking to you verbally, and the ability to gain the trust of someone quickly where gaining trust is difficult. This study was the first time an entire cohort of paramedic students have undertaken placements at special needs schools. The findings provide a baseline and incentive for further exploration of the benefits of the placement of paramedic students (and student from a variety of healthcare professions) in special needs schools, as well as other marginalised communities.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Auxiliares de Emergência , Criança , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades , Vitória
19.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105184, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex physiological processes are often difficult for midwifery students to comprehend when using traditional teaching and learning approaches. Face to face instructional workshops using simulation have had some impact on improving understanding. However, in the 21st century new technologies offer the opportunity to provide alternative learning approaches. AIM: To investigate the impact of using three-dimensional (3D) visualisation in midwifery education on student's experience of learning, and retention of knowledge at three points in time. DESIGN: A pilot study involving a two-armed parallel Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) comparing the retention of knowledge scores between the control and intervention groups. SETTING: An Australian University in the Northern Territory. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included second year Bachelor of Midwifery students (n = 38). All received traditional midwifery education before being randomly allocated to either the intervention (n = 20) or control (n = 18) group. METHODS: A new immersive virtual environment was introduced to complement existing traditional midwifery education on the third stage of labour. This intervention was evaluated using a demographic survey and multiple-choice questionnaire to collect baseline information via Qualtrics. To measure change in knowledge and comprehension, participants completed the same multiple-choice knowledge questionnaire at three time points; pre, immediately post and at 1 month post intervention. In addition, the intervention group completed a 3D student satisfaction survey. RESULTS: Baseline knowledge scores were similar between the groups. A statistically significant increase in knowledge score was evident immediately post intervention for the intervention group, however there was no significant difference in knowledge score at one month. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the creation of further three-dimensional visualisation teaching resources for midwifery education. However, a larger randomised controlled study is needed to seek generalisation of these findings to confirm enhanced student learning and retention of knowledge post 3DMVR, beyond the immediate exposure time.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudantes
20.
Midwifery ; 104: 103173, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For peer learning to be useful in clinical practice, we need to know how parents experience peer learning during labour and childbirth. This study explored how parents experienced having two students present during labour and childbirth in a peer-learning model. DESIGN: A qualitative approach using individual interviews followed by thematic inductive analysis. SETTING: Three hospitals and obstetric units in Stockholm, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven women and nine partners. FINDINGS: The overarching theme was that of a fruitful model of health care, in which there were gains for both parents and students. Parents described feeling seen and cared for, being made aware of what was going on, and never being left alone (subtheme 1, Trustful relationship). Parents appreciated being able to observe student midwives' attendance to the tasks at hand and that they, the two students, learned from each other (subtheme 2, Advantages for students). CONCLUSIONS: The parent couple was able to build a trustful relationship with both students. Furthermore, could parents only see advantages for students in a peer-learning model. Parents reported generous support and were willing to contribute to student education. Parents took advantage of the learning taking place between the two students. The model deserves to be incorporated in the midwifery-student internships to complement more individually assisted births.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes , Suécia
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