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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

RESUMO

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Etanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Água , Biotransformação , Estudos Prospectivos , Fermentação
2.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2145104, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The authors explore how abortion regulations in Ohio, an abortion-restrictive state in the USA, impact obstetrician-gynecologists' (OB/GYNs) training in reproductive healthcare and describe what OB/GYNs believe to be the broader impact of Ohio's regulations on skill-building, skills maintenance, and professional retention of reproductive healthcare providers in the state. Authors discuss how their findings foreshadow abortion training limitations in Ohio and other abortion-restrictive states now that abortion regulations have returned to the states. METHODS: The authors conducted four semi-structured focus groups and five in-depth interviews between April 2019 and March 2020. Participants included OB/GYNs practicing obstetrics and gynecology in Ohio between 2010 and 2020. Thematic analysis was conducted using Atlas.ti. RESULTS: Twenty attending physicians and 15 fellows and residents participated in the study. Participants discussed the impact of Ohio's written transfer agreement, gestational-limit, and abortion method and facility bans on training and skill-building opportunities. Participants felt that Ohio's strict abortion regulations 1) limit opportunities to observe and perform abortion procedures during training; 2) require learning the ever-changing legality of abortion provision; 3) limit the number of abortions OB/GYNs can provide, leading to the atrophy of their skills over time; and 4) may prevent prospective medical students and residents from choosing to study in Ohio and may lead to physician attrition from the state. CONCLUSION: Prior to the reversal of federal protections for abortion in 2022, OB/GYNs in Ohio and other abortion-hostile states experienced barriers to training in abortion care. In returning abortion regulation to the states, access to training is likely to be increasingly restricted. This research demonstrates how abortion-restrictions hamper physicians' skills needed to care for patients, particularly in emergent situations. This puts patients at risk and places physicians in precarious ethical positions. Expanding protections and reducing restrictions on abortion will ensure OB/GYNs and trainees have the skills necessary to care for patients presenting for reproductive healthcare.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Ginecologia , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Obstetrícia/educação
3.
J Intensive Care Med ; 38(1): 60-69, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the potential interaction between sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on the 6-month clinical outcomes. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter observational study included patients who were expected to receive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h. Patients were stratified based on the incidence of sepsis and further subdivided according to the presence of ARDS. The primary endpoints for patients whose follow-up information was available included mortality (n = 162) and the occurrence of PICS (n = 96) at six months. The diagnosis of PICS was based on any of the following criteria: (1) decrease ≥ 10 points in the physical component score of the 36-item Short Form (SF36) questionnaire; (2) decrease ≥ 10 points in the mental component score of the SF-36; or (3) decline in the Short Memory Questionnaire (SMQ) score and SMQ score < 40 at six months after ICU admission. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the effect of the potential interaction between ARDS and sepsis on the 6-month clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mortality in the ARDS sub-group was higher than that in the non-ARDS subgroup [47% (7/15) versus 21% (18/85)] in the non-sepsis group. However, the mortality in the ARDS and non-ARDS subgroups was similar in the sepsis group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that ARDS was significantly associated with mortality in the non-sepsis group (adjusted OR: 5.25; 95% CI: 1.45-19.09; p = .012), but not in the sepsis group (P for interaction = .087). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed ARDS was not associated with PICS occurrence in the non-sepsis and sepsis groups (P-value for the interaction = .039). CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study suggested that the effect of ARDS on the 6-month outcomes depended on the presence or absence of sepsis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Sepse , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Incidência
4.
Oncol Rep ; 49(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367182

RESUMO

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a vital chaperone protein, regulating signaling pathways and correcting misfolded proteins in cancer cells by interacting with oncogenic client proteins and co­chaperones. The inhibition of HSP90 chaperone machinery has been demonstrated as a potential approach with which to inhibit tumor survival, proliferation, invasion and migration. Numerous HSP90 inhibitors have been reported and have exhibited value as cancer­targeted therapies by interrupting the ATPase activity of HSP90, thus suppressing the oncogenic pathways in cancer cells. These inhibitors have been classified into three categories: i) N­terminal domain (NTD) inhibitors; ii) C­terminal domain (CTD) inhibitors; and iii) isoform­selective inhibitors. However, none of these HSP90 inhibitors are used as clinical treatments. The major limiting factors can be summarized into drug resistance, dose­limiting toxicity and poor pharmacokinetic profiles. Novel HSP90­targeted compounds are constantly being discovered and tested for their antitumor efficacy in preclinical and clinical trials, highlighting the prospect of the use of HSP90 inhibitors as cancer­targeted therapies. Additionally, improved antitumor effects have been observed when HSP90 inhibitors are used in combination with chemotherapy, targeted agents, or immunotherapy. In the present review, the effects of HSP90 inhibitors on the management of the cancer process are discussed and previous and novel HSP90­based therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment are summarized. Furthermore, prospective HSP90­targeting candidates are proposed for their future evaluation as cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120239, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372475

RESUMO

A family of novel pharmacologically prospective carbohydrate polymer aminomethylpropargyl derivatives has been synthesized by CuI-catalyzed A3-coupling reaction of arabinogalactan propargyl ethers with aldehydes and secondary amines in DMSO at 23-65 °Ð¡. The arabinogalactan derivatives bearing phenyl, pyridinе, and furan moieties in combination with piperidyne, pyrrolidyne, morpholine fragments are prepared in up to 95 % yield and 0.3-2.0 degree of substitution. Conversion of the propargyl groups of the starting arabinogalactan ethers reaches in most cases 80-100 %. The non-catalyzed aminoalkylation (96-100 °Ð¡, degree of substitution up to 1.1) of propargylated AG proceeds both at the ethynyl and hydroxy centers to afford mainly the products of C-substitution. Some of the synthesized compounds and their hydrochlorination products show the pronounced bacteriostatic activity with respect to Gram-negative microorganism.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Éteres , Estudos Prospectivos , Catálise , Aminas
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120290, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372497

RESUMO

In this paper, amphiphilic chitosan and carboxymethyl modified gellan gum were synthesized to develop an active edible fresh-keeping material. The optimal weight ratio of CMCS-g-CA/CMGG was determined as 5:2 through the characterization of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical and barrier properties of the composite films. In addition, the water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of CMCS-g-CA/CMGG composite films incorporated with mustard essential oil were all declined, and the antibacterial property of the composite film solutions against E. coli, S. aureus and Bacillus anthracis was distinctly improved with the increase of mustard essential oil (MEO) dosage. Furthermore, the CMCS-g-CA/CMGG + 2.0 µL/mL MEO composite film exhibited an effective preservation on mango fruits during 20 days of storage based on the characterization of surface appearance and quality indexes of fruits. Hence, the multifunctional CMCA-g-CA/CMGG/MEO composite films can be served as a prospective eco-friendly packaging material for fruit preservation.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Mangifera , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Mostardeira , Estudos Prospectivos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade , Embalagem de Alimentos
7.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2142358, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333903

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Bedside clinical teaching is the backbone of clerkship education. Data-driven methods for supplementing bedside encounters with standardized content from vetted resources are needed. OBJECTIVE: To compare a flipped-classroom versus an interactive online-only instruction for improving knowledge, skills, self-directed learning (SDL) behaviors, and satisfaction in a medical school clerkship. METHODS: An IRB-approved prospective study employing a peer-reviewed clinical reasoning curriculum in neurology was conducted; 2nd-4th year medical students rotating through a required clerkship were enrolled. Students were randomized to flipped-classroom (i.e., flipped) or interactive asynchronous online instruction (i.e., online-only), which supplemented existing bedside teaching. Baseline and end-of-course knowledge, skill development, SDL behaviors, satisfaction, and long-term retention were assessed by peer-reviewed clinical reasoning exam, NBME scores, faculty/resident clinical evaluations, non-compulsory assignment completion, end-of-clerkship surveys, and objective structured clinical exam (OSCE). RESULTS: 104 students (49 flipped, 55 online-only) were enrolled. Age, gender, and training level did not differ by group (all p > 0.43); baseline knowledge was higher in the flipped group (p = 0.003). Knowledge-based exam scores did not differ by group even after adjusting for differences in baseline knowledge (2.3-points higher in flipped group, 95%CI -0.4-4.8, p = 0.07). Clinical skills were significantly higher in the flipped group, including examination skills (4.2 ± 0.5 vs. 3.9 ± 0.7, p = 0.03) and future housestaff potential (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 4.5 ± 0.6, p = 0.03). Students in the online-only group were more likely to engage in SDL (42 vs. 12%, p = 0.001) and reported more hours studying (6.1 vs. 3.8 hours, p = 0.03). Satisfaction (p = 0.51) and OSCE scores (p = 0.28) were not different by group. CONCLUSIONS: In this comparative study of two evidence-based curricular delivery approaches, we observed no difference in knowledge acquired. Greater clinical skills were observed with flipped instruction, while more SDL was observed with online-only instruction. Supplementing bedside teaching with blended instruction that balances live skill development with vetted online resources is optimal for clerkship education.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Raciocínio Clínico , Estudos Prospectivos , Currículo , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
8.
Magn Reson Med ; 89(1): 276-285, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063497

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Abdominal MRI scans may require breath-holding to prevent image quality degradation, which can be challenging for patients, especially children. In this study, we evaluate whether FID navigators can be used to measure and correct for motion prospectively, in real-time. METHODS: FID navigators were inserted into a 3D radial sequence with stack-of-stars sampling. MRI experiments were conducted on 6 healthy volunteers. A calibration scan was first acquired to create a linear motion model that estimates the kidney displacement due to respiration from the FID navigator signal. This model was then applied to predict and prospectively correct for motion in real time during deep and continuous deep breathing scans. Resultant images acquired with the proposed technique were compared with those acquired without motion correction. Dice scores were calculated between inhale/exhale motion states. Furthermore, images acquired using the proposed technique were compared with images from extra-dimensional golden-angle radial sparse parallel, a retrospective motion state binning technique. RESULTS: Images reconstructed for each motion state show that the kidneys' position could be accurately tracked and corrected with the proposed method. The mean of Dice scores computed between the motion states were improved from 0.93 to 0.96 using the proposed technique. Depiction of the kidneys was improved in the combined images of all motion states. Comparing results of the proposed technique and extra-dimensional golden-angle radial sparse parallel, high-quality images can be reconstructed from a fraction of spokes using the proposed method. CONCLUSION: The proposed technique reduces blurriness and motion artifacts in kidney imaging by prospectively correcting their position both in-plane and through-slice.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Movimento (Física) , Respiração , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 15-19, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anterior nasal sampling (AN) might be more convenient for patients than NP sampling to diagnose coronavirus disease. This study investigated the feasibility of rapid antigen tests for AN sampling, and the factors affecting the test accuracy. METHODS: This single-center prospective study evaluated one qualitative (ESP) and two quantitative (LUMI and LUMI-P) rapid antigen tests using AN and NP swabs. Symptomatic patients aged 20 years or older, who were considered eligible for reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction using NP samples within 9 days of onset were recruited. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative concordance rates between AN and NP samples were assessed for the rapid antigen tests. We investigated the characteristics that affected the concordance between AN and NP sampling results. RESULTS: A total of 128 cases were recruited, including 28 positive samples and 96 negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of AN samples using ESP were 0.81 and 1.00, while those of NP samples were 0.94 and 1.00. The sensitivity of AN and NP samples was 0.91 and 0.97, respectively, and specificity was 1.00, for both LUMI and LUMI-P. The positive concordance rates of AN to NP sampling were 0.87, 0.94, and 0.85 for ESP, LUMI, and LUMI-P, respectively. No factor had a significant effect on the concordance between the sampling methods. CONCLUSIONS: ESP, LUMI, and LUMI-P showed practical diagnostic accuracy for AN sampling compared to NP sampling. There was no significant factor affecting the concordance between AN and NP sampling for these rapid antigen tests.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Nasofaringe
10.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 162: 110122, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103798

RESUMO

ß-Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is an important precursor in the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and confers multiple health benefits, resulting in the rapid growth of NMN market capacity in the fields of food and health care. To overcome the drawbacks of NMN production by the existing chemical or microbial fermentation method, there is an urgent need to develop a prospective NMN production strategy with low cost, low pollution, and high yield. In this study, we demonstrated an artificial in vitro multi-enzyme cascade biocatalysis using starch and nicotinamide (Nam) as substrates for the synthesis of NMN in one-pot. This multi-enzyme cascade reaction was optimized in terms of pH value, buffer concentration, inorganic phosphate concentration, enzyme composition, and phosphoenolpyruvate concentration. Under optimized conditions, a high molar yield of 87.8% for NMN was achieved using 3.2 mM Nam as substrate, and a molar yield of 55.37% for NMN was also achieved under the initial Nam concentration of 9.21 mM. This in vitro enzymatic platform provides an environmental friendliness biomanufacturing technology for the production of NMN, showing a highly promising alternative approach for NMN production.


Assuntos
Niacinamida , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Amido , Estudos Prospectivos , NAD/metabolismo
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 109-111, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116718

RESUMO

Long-acting therapy of cabotegravir and rilpivirine is expected to free people from the negative emotions of living with HIV associated with taking drugs, but problems such as increased number of hospital visits, lack of anti-HBV activity, and limited convenience in people with concomitant drugs have been noted. In this single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study, we investigated background factors of people living with HIV in Japan who chose cabotegravir plus rilpivirine. Forty-seven percent (36 of 76) of individuals chose this regimen, but many people living with HIV who visited the hospital once every 3 months or needed concomitant medications due to complications chose this regimen and there were no significant differences in background factors that could affect convenience between the groups of those who switched and those who did not.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Rilpivirina/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Transversais , Japão , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
12.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 39-42, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have recommended the use of booster vaccinations. The relationship between the degree of adverse vaccine reactions and elevated antibody titers is of interest; however, no studies have investigated the temporal changes in antibody titers based on repeated measurements after a third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 62 healthcare workers who received a third dose of the BNT162b2 at Okayama University Hospital, Japan. Venous blood draw and fingertip whole blood test sample collection were conducted at the early (3-13 days) and 1-month time points; only FWT sample collection was conducted at the 2-month time point. Information on adverse reactions within 1 week after vaccination was also obtained. The association between fever of 37.5 °C or higher and antibody titers after the third dose of BNT162b2 was examined using a mixed-effects model and Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: A trend toward higher antibody titers in the early period after vaccination was observed in the febrile individuals, but the differences were not significant at 1 and 2 months post-vaccination (the partial regression coefficient for fever was 8094.3 [-1910.2, 18,098.8] at 1 month after vaccination, and 1764.1 [-4133.9, 7662.1] at 2 months after vaccination in the adjusted models). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the presence of fever after the third vaccine does not predict a sustained elevation in serum antibody titers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Vacina BNT162 , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais
13.
Skeletal Radiol ; 52(1): 47-55, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gluteal muscle quality influences risk of falling and mobility limitation. We sought (1) to compare gluteal muscle fatty infiltration (FI) between groups of older women with urinary incontinence (UI) at risk for falling (at-risk group) and not at risk for falling (not-at-risk group), and (2) to determine correlation of gluteal FI with Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective pilot study of gluteal FI on pelvis MRI for 19 women with UI, aged ≥ 70 years. A musculoskeletal radiologist selected axial T1-weighted MR images; then, two blinded medical student research assistants analyzed gluteal FI by quantitative fuzzy C-means segmentation. TUG and SPPB tests were performed. TUG ≥ 12 s defined participants as at risk for falling. Descriptive, correlation, and reliability analyses were performed. RESULTS: Mean age, 76.3 ± 4.8 years; no difference for age or body mass index (BMI) between the at-risk (n = 5) versus not-at-risk (n = 14) groups. SPPB score (p = 0.013) was lower for the at-risk group (6.4 ± 3.1) than for the not-at-risk group (10.2 ± 1.9). Fuzzy C-means FI-%-estimate differed between the at-risk group and the not-at-risk group for bilateral gluteus medius/minimus (33.2% ± 15.6% versus 19.5% ± 4.1%, p = 0.037) and bilateral gluteus maximus (33.6% ± 15.6% versus 19.7% ± 6.9%, p = 0.047). Fuzzy C-means FI-%-estimate for bilateral gluteus maximus had significant (p < 0.050) moderate correlation with age (rho = - 0.64), BMI (rho = 0.65), and TUG performance (rho = 0.52). Fuzzy C-means FI-%-estimates showed excellent inter-observer and intra-observer reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ≥ 0.892). CONCLUSION: Older women with UI at risk for falling have greater levels of gluteal FI and mobility limitation as compared to those not at risk for falling.


Assuntos
Limitação da Mobilidade , Incontinência Urinária , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115748, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162545

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: With high mortality and morbidity rates, lung cancer (LC) has become one of the major threats to human health. The treatment strategies for LC currently face issues, such as drug resistance and body tolerance. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is characterized by novel pharmacological mechanisms, low toxicity, and limited side effects. TCM includes a substantial number of biologically active ingredients, several of which are effective monomeric agents against LC. An increasing number of researchers are focusing their efforts on the discovery of active anti-cancer ingredients in TCM. AIM OF THE REVIEW: In this review, we summarized the anti-LC mechanisms of five types of TCM monomeric compounds. Our goal is to provide research ideas for the identification of new prospective medication candidates for the treatment of LC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected reports on the anti-LC effects of TCM monomers from web databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Europe PubMed Central. Among the keywords used were "lung cancer," "traditional Chinese medicine," "pharmacology," and their combinations thereof. Then, we systematically summarized the anti-LC efficacy and related mechanisms of TCM monomers. RESULTS: Based on the available literature, this paper reviewed the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of five types of TCM monomers on LC. The characteristics of TCM monomers include the capabilities to suppress the tumor cell cycle, inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, promote autophagy, inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and enhance efficacy or reduce drug resistance when combined with cytotoxic agents and other methods to arrest the progression of LC and prolong the survival of patients. CONCLUSIONS: TCM contains numerous flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols, and other active compounds that are effective against LC. Given their chemical structure and pharmacological properties, these monomers are suitable as candidate drugs for the treatment of LC.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Citotoxinas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estudos Prospectivos , Terpenos
15.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107472, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067637

RESUMO

Previous research has shown a reliable association between social media (SM) use and drinking among college students. However, most studies have investigated SM behaviors (e.g., time spent on a platform, posting frequency) in isolation and on a single site. While some have studied multiple SM behaviors across platforms using person-centered approaches (e.g., latent profile analysis [LPA]), these studies have failed to take alcohol-related SM behaviors into account. This longitudinal study addressed this gap in the literature by using LPA to identify subpopulations of SM users during the college transition (N = 319; 62.1% female) using general (frequency of checking, time spent on, and frequency of posting to Instagram/Facebook/Snapchat; Finstagram ownership) and alcohol-related SM behaviors (posting alcohol, partying, and marijuana content). LPA results revealed three SM user profiles at baseline: low general use with low alcohol-related posting (LGU + LAP), high general use with low alcohol-related posting (HGU + LAP), and high general use with high alcohol-related posting (HGU + HAP). Prospective analyses revealed that HGU + HAP membership was associated with greater descriptive peer drinking norms, alcohol use, and consequences relative to HGU + LAP and LGU + LAP membership. Results suggest that there are distinct patterns of general and alcohol-related SM use during the college transition associated with risky drinking that can inform interventions combating SM-related alcohol risks. These findings illustrate the importance of investigating SM use holistically and suggests studying alcohol-related SM behaviors may reveal differences in individuals' alcohol risk that general SM behaviors might not capture.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Mídias Sociais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Universidades
16.
Magn Reson Med ; 89(1): 356-369, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093915

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a deep learning-based reconstruction framework for highly accelerated two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast (PC-MRI) data with accurate and precise quantitative measurements. METHODS: We propose a modified DL-ESPIRiT reconstruction framework for 2D PC-MRI, comprised of an unrolled neural network architecture with a Complex Difference estimation (CD-DL). CD-DL was trained on 155 fully sampled 2D PC-MRI pediatric clinical datasets. The fully sampled data ( n = 29 $$ n=29 $$ ) was retrospectively undersampled (6-11 × $$ \times $$ ) and reconstructed using CD-DL and a parallel imaging and compressed sensing method (PICS). Measurements of peak velocity and total flow were compared to determine the highest acceleration rate that provided accuracy and precision within ± 5 % $$ \pm 5\% $$ . Feasibility of CD-DL was demonstrated on prospectively undersampled datasets acquired in pediatric clinical patients ( n = 5 $$ n=5 $$ ) and compared to traditional parallel imaging (PI) and PICS. RESULTS: The retrospective evaluation showed that 9 × $$ \times $$ accelerated 2D PC-MRI images reconstructed with CD-DL provided accuracy and precision (bias, [95 % $$ \% $$ confidence intervals]) within ± 5 % $$ \pm 5\% $$ . CD-DL showed higher accuracy and precision compared to PICS for measurements of peak velocity (2.8 % $$ \% $$ [ - 2 . 9 $$ -2.9 $$ , 4.5] vs. 3.9 % $$ \% $$ [ - 11 . 0 $$ -11.0 $$ , 4.9]) and total flow (1.8 % $$ \% $$ [ - 3 . 9 $$ -3.9 $$ , 3.4] vs. 2.9 % $$ \% $$ [ - 7 . 1 $$ -7.1 $$ , 6.9]). The prospective feasibility study showed that CD-DL provided higher accuracy and precision than PICS for measurements of peak velocity and total flow. CONCLUSION: In a retrospective evaluation, CD-DL produced quantitative measurements of 2D PC-MRI peak velocity and total flow with 5 % $$ \le 5\% $$ error in both accuracy and precision for up to 9 × $$ \times $$ acceleration. Clinical feasibility was demonstrated using a prospective clinical deployment of our 8 × $$ \times $$ undersampled acquisition and CD-DL reconstruction in a cohort of pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia de Contraste de Fase
17.
Magn Reson Med ; 89(1): 64-76, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop an ultrafast and robust MR parameter mapping network using deep learning. THEORY AND METHODS: We design a deep learning framework called SuperMAP that directly converts a series of undersampled (both in k-space and parameter-space) parameter-weighted images into several quantitative maps, bypassing the conventional exponential fitting procedure. We also present a novel technique to simultaneously reconstruct T1rho and T2 relaxation maps within a single scan. Full data were acquired and retrospectively undersampled for training and testing using traditional and state-of-the-art techniques for comparison. Prospective data were also collected to evaluate the trained network. The performance of all methods is evaluated using the parameter qualification errors and other metrics in the segmented regions of interest. RESULTS: SuperMAP achieved accurate T1rho and T2 mapping with high acceleration factors (R = 24 and R = 32). It exploited both spatial and temporal information and yielded low error (normalized mean square error of 2.7% at R = 24 and 2.8% at R = 32) and high resemblance (structural similarity of 97% at R = 24 and 96% at R = 32) to the gold standard. The network trained with retrospectively undersampled data also works well for the prospective data (with a slightly lower acceleration factor). SuperMAP is also superior to conventional methods. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating superfast MR parameter maps through very few undersampled parameter-weighted images. SuperMAP can simultaneously generate T1rho and T2 relaxation maps in a short scan time.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos
18.
Magn Reson Med ; 89(1): 205-216, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129110

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to apply a fast data-driven optimization algorithm, called bias-accelerated subset selection, for MR brain T mapping to generate optimized sampling patterns (SPs) for compressed sensing reconstruction of brain 3D-T MRI. METHODS: Five healthy volunteers were recruited, and fully sampled Cartesian 3D-T MRIs were obtained. Variable density (VD) and Poisson disc (PD) undersampling was used as the input to SP optimization process. The reconstruction used 3 compressed sensing methods: spatiotemporal finite differences, low-rank plus sparse with spatial finite differences, and low rank. The performance of images and T maps using PD-SP and VD-SP and their optimized sampling patterns (PD-OSP and VD-OSP) were compared to the fully sampled reference using normalized root mean square error (NRMSE). RESULTS: The VD-OSP with spatiotemporal finite differences reconstruction (NRMSE = 0.078) and the PD-OSP with spatiotemporal finite differences reconstruction (NRMSE = 0.079) at the highest acceleration factors (AF = 30) showed the largest improvement compared to the respective nonoptimized SPs (VD NRMSE = 0.087 and PD NRMSE = 0.149). Prospective undersampling was tested at AF = 4, with VD-OSP NRMSE = 0.057 versus PD-OSP NRMSE = 0.060, with optimized sampling performing better that input PD or VD sampling. For brain T mapping, the VD-OSP with low rank reconstruction for AFs <10 and VD-OSP with spatiotemporal finite differences for AFs >10 perform better. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that the appropriate use of data-driven optimized sampling and suitable compressed sensing reconstruction technique can be employed to potentially accelerate 3D T mapping for brain imaging applications.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aceleração , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130016, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179625

RESUMO

To address the difficulty of precisely regulating the two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e-ORR) and investigate the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS), a heterogeneous electro-catalyst was synthesized via carbonation of boron (B) and sulfur (S) co-doping electrospun nanofibers containing iron and cobalt (B, S-Fe/Co@C-NCNFs-900), and used to degrade levofloxacin (Levo) in the electro-activating PMS with self-made cathode material (E-cathode-PMS) system. The morphological, structural, and electrochemical characteristics have been investigated. The results showed that B and S co-doping could remarkably enhance electron transfer and manage two-electron oxygen reduction, which was more favorable for H2O2 generation. Levo degradation efficiency could reach 99.63% with a reaction rate of 0.3056 min-1 in 20 min under the appropriate conditions (pH = 4, current = 20 mA, and [PMS] = 8.0 mM). The steady-state concentration of singlet oxygen (1O2) was calculated to be 669.17 × 10-14 M, which was 15.42, 29.74, and 45.00 times respectively than that of HO2·/O2·- (43.40 × 10-14 M), ·OH (22.25 × 10-14 M) and SO4-·(14.87 × 10-14 M), signifying that 1O2 was the predominant reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in Levo removal. The high TOC removal (74.19%), low energy consumption (0.14 kWh m-3 order-1), few intermediates toxicity, and excellent Levo degradation efficiency for complex wastewater with various anions and matrixes showed the prospective practical applications of the E-cathode-PMS system. Overall, this study provides a useful strategy to regulate and control the 2e-ORR pathway.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbono/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Levofloxacino , Águas Residuárias , Boro , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Oxigênio Singlete , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/química , Eletrodos , Ferro/química , Enxofre , Cobalto , Oxigênio
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414428

RESUMO

Many challenges exist in the precise diagnosis and clinical management of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) because of the lack of definitive clinical, imaging, immunologic, or pathologic criteria that demarcate the transition from relapsing-remitting MS to SPMS. This review provides an overview of the diagnostic criteria/definition and the heterogeneity associated with different SPMS patient populations; it also emphasizes the importance of available prospective/retrospective tools to identify patients with SPMS earlier in the disease course so that approved disease-modifying therapies and nonpharmacological strategies will translate into better outcomes. Delivery of such interventions necessitates an evolving patient-clinician dialog within the context of a multidisciplinary team.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos
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