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1.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 24-35, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374346

RESUMO

Background: Laboratory parameter abnormalities are commonly observed in COVID-19 patients; however, their clinical significance remains controversial. We assessed the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical impact of laboratory parameters in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Daegu, Korea. Methods: We investigated the clinical and laboratory parameters of 1,952 COVID-19 patients on admission in nine hospitals in Daegu, Korea. The average patient age was 58.1 years, and 700 (35.9%) patients were men. The patients were classified into mild (N=1,612), moderate (N=294), and severe (N=46) disease groups based on clinical severity scores. We used chi-square test, multiple comparison analysis, and multinomial logistic regression to evaluate the correlation between laboratory parameters and disease severity. Results: Laboratory parameters on admission in the three disease groups were significantly different in terms of hematologic (Hb, Hct, white blood cell count, lymphocyte%, and platelet count), coagulation (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), biochemical (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and electrolytes), inflammatory (C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), cardiac (creatinine kinase MB isoenzyme and troponin I), and molecular virologic (Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP gene) parameters. Relative lymphopenia, prothrombin time prolongation, and hypoalbuminemia were significant indicators of COVID-19 severity. Patients with both hypoalbuminemia and lymphopenia had a higher risk of severe COVID-19. Conclusions: Laboratory parameter abnormalities on admission are common, are significantly associated with clinical severity, and can serve as independent predictors of COVID-19 severity. Monitoring the laboratory parameters, including albumin and lymphocyte count, is crucial for timely treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Análise de Dados , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 79-88, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374352

RESUMO

Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are genomic imprinting disorders that are mainly caused by a deletion on 15q11-q13, the uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, or an imprinting defect. We evaluated the utility of methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) as a diagnostic tool and for demonstrating the relationship between molecular mechanisms and clinical presentation. Methods: We performed MS-MLPA using DNA samples from 93 subjects (45 PWS, 24 AS, and 24 non-PWS/AS controls) who had previously undergone MS-PCR for the diagnosis of PWS/AS. We compared the results of both assays, and patients' clinical phenotypes were reviewed retrospectively. Results: MS-MLPA showed a 100% concordance rate with MS-PCR. Among the 45 PWS patients, 26 (57.8%) had a deletion of 15q11-q13, and the others (42.2%) had uniparental disomy 15 or an imprinting defect. Among the 24 AS patients, 16 (66.7%) had a deletion of 15q11-q13, 7 AS patients (29.2%) had uniparental disomy 15 or an imprinting defect, and one AS patient (4.2%) showed an imprinting center deletion. Conclusions: MS-MLPA has clinical utility for the diagnosis of PWS/AS, and it is superior to MS-PCR in that it can identify the molecular mechanism underlying the disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Síndrome de Angelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Angelman/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Metilação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 100-104, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374355

RESUMO

Standard tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detect the presence of viral RNA using real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR. Recently, convenient, rapid, and relatively inexpensive SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Ag) detection methods have been developed. The STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test (SD Biosensor, Inc., Suwon, Korea) is a rapid immunochromatography test that qualitatively detects the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 using gold conjugated antibodies. We evaluated its performance in comparison with that of Allplex 2019-nCoV Assay (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) in a retrospective case-control study using residual samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test were 89.2% (58/65) and 96.0% (96/100), respectively. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for the three target SARS-CoV-2 genes (envelope, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and nucleocapsid genes) included in Allplex 2019-nCoV Assay were significantly lower in Ag test-positive patients than in Ag test-negative patients (P<0.001). The Ag test sensitivity was higher in samples with Ct≤30 and those collected one to five days post symptom onset. In conclusion, the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test can serve as an alternative in high-prevalence settings, when the low sensitivity is compensated or when rRT-PCR tests are limited.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Gene ; 807: 145951, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500051

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the role of selected polymorphisms of SIRT3 and SIRT5 in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: For this study, 500 blood samples of GC patients and 500 blood samples of healthy individuals were collected. Six selected polymorphisms of mitochondrial sirtuins were analyzed for analysis using Tetra-Arms PCR followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms [rs3782116 (p < 0.0001), rs6598072 (p < 0.0001) and rs11246020 (p < 0.0001), rs938222 (p = 0.0136), rs3757261 (p = 0.0005) and rs2841511 (p = 0.0015)] were observed significant higher in GC patients vs controls. Haplotype analysis was performed, and 51 haplotypes were generated using haploview software. Among these haplotypes, eleven haplotypes were found associated with a significantly increased risk of GC. Furthermore, SNP-SNP interaction showed a significant correlation between studied SNPs and GC risk. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms are linked with a significant decrease in survival of GC patients CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that selected SNPs may be associated with enhanced risk of GC and hence can be potential prognostic markers for prognosis and predisposition of GC.


Assuntos
Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuínas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sirtuína 3/sangue , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/sangue , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine reactogenicity in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and how reactogenicity is affected by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to generate real-world multiple sclerosis-specific vaccine safety information, particularly in the context of specific DMTs, and provide information to mitigate specific concerns in vaccine hesitant PwMS. METHODS: Between 3/2021 and 6/2021, participants in iConquerMS, an online people-powered research network, reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, experiences of local (itch, pain, redness, swelling, or warmth at injection site) and systemic (fever, chills, fatigue, headache, joint pain, malaise, muscle ache, nausea, allergic, and other) reactions within 24 hours (none, mild, moderate, and severe), DMT use, and other attributes. Multivariable models characterized associations between clinical factors and reactogenicity. RESULTS: In 719 PwMS, 64% reported experiencing a reaction after their first vaccination shot, and 17% reported a severe reaction. The most common reactions were pain at injection site (54%), fatigue (34%), headache (28%), and malaise (21%). Younger age, being female, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vs BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine were associated with experiencing a reaction after the first vaccine dose. Similar relationships were observed for a severe reaction, including higher odds of reactions among PwMS with more physical impairment and lower odds of reactions for PwMS on an alpha4-integrin blocker or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator. In 442 PwMS who received their second vaccination shot, 74% reported experiencing a reaction, whereas 22% reported a severe reaction. Reaction profiles after the second shot were similar to those reported after the first shot. Younger PwMS and those who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vs BNT162b2 vaccine reported higher reactogenicity after the second shot, whereas those on a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator or fumarate were significantly less likely to report a reaction. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactogenicity profiles and the associated factors in this convenience sample of PwMS appear similar to those reported in the general population. PwMS on specific DMTs were less likely to report vaccine reactions. Overall, the short-term vaccine reactions experienced in the study population were mostly self-limiting, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and fever.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/efeitos adversos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pandemias , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitamina D/sangue
9.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2007561, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many medical schools are moving toward integrated curricula in response to the 2010 Carnegie report. However, there is often apprehension that student performance on standard assessment metrics of medical knowledge acquisition could suffer during the transition period. Therefore, we sought to analyze the impact of curriculum redesign on the medical knowledge acquisition of the transitional cohort, as measured by NBME subject exam scores. METHODS: The University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Legacy curriculum followed a standard 2 + 2 medical school educational model, including traditional, department-based, third-year clinical clerkships. In the new ForWard curriculum, students enter clinical rotations one semester earlier, and those core clinical experiences are organized within four integrated blocks combining traditional clerkship specialties. This retrospective program evaluation compares NBME subject exam scores between the final cohort of Legacy third-year students (2016-17) and first cohort of ForWard students (2018) for the Adult Ambulatory Medicine, Medicine, Neurology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, and Surgery exams. RESULTS: NBME subject exam mean scores ranged from 75.5-79.4 for the Legacy cohort and 74.9-78.7 for the ForWard cohort, with no statistically significant differences in scores identified for each individual exam analyzed. Results remained constant when controlled for student demographic variables. DISCUSSION: Faculty and students may worry about impacts to the transitional cohort during curriculum redesign, however our results suggest no substantive negative effects to acquisition of medical knowledge during transition to an integrated curriculum. Further monitoring is necessary to examine whether medical knowledge acquisition remains stable or changes after the integrated curriculum is established.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Obstetrícia , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Criança , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Faculdades de Medicina
10.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 51-55, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801195

RESUMO

Since the initial report of long-term survival after lung transplantation (LT) in 1983, there has been remarkable progress in the field and LT is now the gold-standard therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. It confers a significant survival advantage and improves the quality of life in patients who often have few other treatment options. However, LT remains a complex undertaking and establishing and maintaining an LT program is resource intensive with multiple potential barriers. In this article, we focus on disparities in LT and the potential solutions to improving access to LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Pulmão , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Palliat Care ; 37(1): 18-25, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-of-life care has become an important public health issue in recent years. Place of death is a major component of end-of-life care. Despite attempts to improve end-of-life care, there has not been published any data about place of deaths in Turkey. Aim: This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigates the place of death and trends over the years in geriatric age groups in Turkey. Methods: Patients who were admitted to geriatric outpatient clinic of a university hospital during a 7-year period were included. Place and date of death information were received from the death notification system and recorded as hospital or out-of-hospital death. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the hospital information system. Deaths occurring after March 1, 2020 were not included to eliminate the effect of coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Results: A total of 4025 (20.7%) patients were determined to be dead. Approximately three-quarters of deaths (73.0%) occurred in hospital. The number of deaths reported from nursing homes was only 13 (3.0%). Patients with dementia less frequently died in hospital, however, it was not statistically significant (12.4% vs 14.7%, P = .05). The prevalence of death in hospital was significantly higher in patients with chronic renal failure (3.1% vs 1.7%, P = .02). The presence of comorbid conditions such as heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, and cancer did not affect the place of death (P = .24, .21, .24, .51, and .18). Out-of-hospital mortality increased with advanced age (P < .001). No significant difference was found in the place of death over the years (P = .41). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining the place of death in Turkey, an aging country. Our results may help to establish policies about end-of-life care in elderly people to improve quality of life by using resources effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 23-29, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672836

RESUMO

The impact of public health measures on the coronavirus-2019 pandemic was analyzed by comparing mandatory versus voluntary nonpharmaceutical interventions between 2 comparable European countries and among 3 U.S. states. Using an ecological retrospective cohort study design, we examine differences in mortality, economic impact, and equity. Compared to voluntary policies, mandatory shelter-in-place policies were associated with a 3- to 5-fold lower population-adjusted mortality in the U.S. model and between 11- to 12-fold lower in the European one. Voluntary shelter-in-place measures were associated with overall increased mortality cost, as measured by value of a statistical life; somewhat greater decreases in gross domestic product; and substantial negative impacts on minority communities, who experienced markedly increased mortality rates (the percentage of minority deaths was 2.3 and 4 times greater in the U.S. model and 14.5 times higher in the European one) and mortality cost (2.7- and 4.5-fold higher in the U.S. model and 11.1-fold higher in the European one). We conclude that voluntary policies are less effective than mandatory ones, based on historical precedent and the current analysis. Negative effects on health equity mirrored the increased mortality outcomes of voluntary policies, and there was no apparent economic benefit associated with voluntary measures.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Políticas , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150104, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525736

RESUMO

China has pledged to achieve peak carbon emissions by 2030 and to be carbon neutral by the mid-century, and buildings will be the "last mile" sector in the transition to carbon neutrality. To help buildings hit the carbon peak goal, we investigate the different emission scales of carbon emission changes of residential and commercial building operations across 30 provinces in China through the carbon Kuznets curve (CKC) model. We observe that (1) more than three-quarters of the samples can be fitted by the CKC model. Most CKCs are the inverted U-shaped, residential and commercial buildings occupying 93% and 90% at the total emission scale, respectively. In addition, the remains can be illustrated as N-shaped curves. (2) Under the premise of CKCs existence, approximately half of the provincial residential and commercial buildings peak at different emission scales, except for emission per floor space (residential: 89%; commercial: 81%). Provinces with better economic development have a higher peaking probability. In the total emissions, the peaking probability in residential buildings is 33% and 50% for provinces with economic indicators <20,000 Chinese Yuan and 30,000-40,000 Chinese Yuan, respectively, and 22% and 67% for commercial buildings, respectively. (3) Taking carbon intensity as a case study, decoupling analysis examines the robustness of the CKC estimation. Overall, we close the gap of the CKC estimation in commercial and residential buildings, and the proposed methods can be treated as a tool for other economies to illustrate the retrospective and prospective trajectories of carbon emissions in building operations.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150211, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798742

RESUMO

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a problematic group of chemicals used in various industrial and household products. They have been extensively detected in wastewater as a result of day-to-day product usage. Due to concerns about their safety, voluntary and regulatory action to limit the manufacture and use of some individual PFAS has occurred since the year 2000. The impact that this intervention has had on the use and potential exposure of Australians has not been measured. Wastewater serves as a powerful tool to assess the chemical use or consumption patterns of a population over time. We accessed a ten-year wastewater archiving program to conduct a temporal analysis of PFAS trends in an urban Australian population between the years 2010 and 2020. Results showed a decline in the concentrations for most PFAS, and a change in the PFAS profile from perfluorosulfonic acids and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids, to the short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and PFOS-replacement degradation products such as 5:3 FTCA. Intermittent pulses of PFAS that were significantly higher than 'background' levels (i.e., representing the PFAS input from primarily households) were observed, suggesting continuing industrial PFAS input within the wastewater catchment. This study highlights the long-term consequences of the diffuse use of persistent chemicals in products, and their ability to continue to enter the wastewater stream for decades.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Purificação da Água , Austrália , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Águas Residuárias
15.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(1): 120-127, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) via the RAM cannula nasal interface, variables predicting subsequent intubation, or NIV non-response, are understudied. We sought to identify predictors of NIV non-response. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in infants admitted for respiratory failure from bronchiolitis placed on NIV in a quaternary children's hospital. We excluded children with concurrent sepsis, critical congenital heart disease, or with preexisting tracheostomy. The primary outcome was NIV non-response defined as intubation after a trial of NIV. Secondary outcomes were vital sign values before and after NIV initiation, duration of NIV and intubation, and mortality. Primary analyses included Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, student's t test, paired analyses, and adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression assessing heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) before and after NIV initiation. RESULTS: Of 138 infants studied, 34% were non-responders. There were no differences in baseline characteristics of responders and non-responders. HR decreased after NIV initiation in responders (156 [143-156] to149 [141-158], p < 0.01) compared to non-responders (158 [149-166] to 158 [145-171], p = 0.73). RR decreased in responders (50 [43-58] vs 47 [41-54]) and non-responders (52 [48-58] vs 51 [40-55], both p < 0.01). Concurrent bacterial pneumonia (OR 6.06, 95% CI: 2.54-14.51) and persistently elevated HR (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) were associated with NIV non-response. CONCLUSION: In children with acute bronchiolitis who fail to respond to NIV and require subsequent intubation, we noted associations with persistently elevated HR after NIV initiation and concurrent bacterial pneumonia.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Bronquiolite/terapia , Cânula , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2214): 20210123, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802276

RESUMO

Sociocentric network maps of entire populations, when combined with data on the nature of constituent dyadic relationships, offer the dual promise of advancing understanding of the relevance of networks for disease transmission and of improving epidemic forecasts. Here, using detailed sociocentric data collected over 4 years in a population of 24 702 people in 176 villages in Honduras, along with diarrhoeal and respiratory disease prevalence, we create a social-network-powered transmission model and identify super-spreading nodes as well as the nodes most vulnerable to infection, using agent-based Monte Carlo network simulations. We predict the extent of outbreaks for communicable diseases based on detailed social interaction patterns. Evidence from three waves of population-level surveys of diarrhoeal and respiratory illness indicates a meaningful positive correlation with the computed super-spreading capability and relative vulnerability of individual nodes. Previous research has identified super-spreaders through retrospective contact tracing or simulated networks. By contrast, our simulations predict that a node's super-spreading capability and its vulnerability in real communities are significantly affected by their connections, the nature of the interaction across these connections, individual characteristics (e.g. age and sex) that affect a person's ability to disperse a pathogen, and also the intrinsic characteristics of the pathogen (e.g. infectious period and latency). This article is part of the theme issue 'Data science approach to infectious disease surveillance'.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio , População Rural , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rede Social
17.
Libyan J Med ; 17(1): 2003968, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802395

RESUMO

Describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the last two decades (2000-2019) in the East region of Tunisia (city of Sousse). This was a descriptive retrospective analysis of notified incident cases of tuberculosis from 2000 to 2019 in Sousse Governorate, Tunisia. The data collection was done via the regional registry of tuberculosis. Stata software was used to characterize the socio-demographic and clinical profile of tuberculosis, to calculate its incidence, mortality and fatality rates and to determine predictive factors of mortality. R software was used to analyze the chronological trend of tuberculosis incidence and mortality. A total of 2606 incident cases of tuberculosis were declared from 2000 to 2019 in Sousse. The mean age was 39 ± 19 years with a sex ratio (male/female) of 1.19. Only one case was HIV positive among the total 2606 incident cases. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis was the most recorded (1,534 cases, 58.9%). The mean annual case notification and deaths were 130 and four respectively. After adjusting for confounders, individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis were 1.9 significantly more likely to die from tuberculosis compared to those suffering from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. There was a trend of increasing mortality with increasing age. The association was statistically significant only for those above 60 years' old who had 12.5 times higher odds of dying compared to those below 60 years. After adjusting for age and gender, with every year there was an increase in the total incidence rate (+0.35 per 100,000) with p = 0.005 and in the extra-pulmonary incidence (+0.27 per 100,000), with p = 0.001. This study demonstrated the increasing trend of tuberculosis in Sousse, Tunisia from 2000 to 2019. The national program against tuberculosis should enhance community knowledge and centralize the national and regional epidemiological information for better epidemiological surveillance.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E1-E8, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797247

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pediatric providers across the United States have sought guidance on how to care for the nation's children during the uncertain historic times of the COVID-19 pandemic. The health care community has been challenged by the unprecedented burden of caring for patients when they have evolving guidelines and limited information about the effects of the virus on children. PROGRAM: In response, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) rapidly launched a national initiative to increase child health professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy. This COVID-19 ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) program created communities of learners among child health professionals and subject matter expert faculty using didactic and case-based presentations that foster an "all-teach, all-learn" approach. IMPLEMENTATION: The initial AAP COVID-19 ECHO program hosted more than 900 participants in 127 individual virtual sessions, with approximately 25 participants per session. The evolving nature of the pandemic necessitated dynamic and continuous bidirectional flow of concerns and information relevant to participants. Session topics were selected in a "just-in-time" fashion based on participant feedback from the prospective postsession surveys and faculty recommendations; speakers brought data and expert recommendations. EVALUATION: To assess impact, the AAP used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the program's effectiveness in meeting its educational objectives. The 2-phase evaluation collected quantitative and qualitative data through an integrated feedback structure that utilized prospective postsession and retrospective postprogram surveys, along with postprogram focus groups. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic surges and another influenza season is upon us, the ECHO model is an effective strategy for facilitating bidirectional communication and education to build child health professionals' knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy during an unprecedented and ongoing public health emergency. KEY POINTS: The ECHO model is an effective strategy for health care organizations to facilitate bidirectional communication and education in building health professionals' clinical knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy during the unprecedented and ongoing public health emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pediatria , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
19.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 39(1): 57-71, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809795

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limb are frequent in pediatric patients and represent the most common cause of emergency department admissions. Acute sports-related injuries commonly involve the lower extremity, as the knee and ankle are the most frequently injured parts. Physeal fractures are common injuries in children and adolescents participating in contact sports, which may lead to growth disturbances and cause limb length discrepancy. It is imperative for pediatric trauma centers to implement evidence-based multispecialty protocols for the perimanagement of the injured child, especially through the postdischarge and rehabilitation phases, in order for the child to resume active daily living.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Fraturas Ósseas , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Criança , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am ; 30(1): 23-30, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809884

RESUMO

This article outlines current methods in the evaluation and management of nasal fractures including clinical workup, imaging, and treatment.


Assuntos
Rinoplastia , Fraturas Cranianas , Humanos , Osso Nasal , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Cranianas/cirurgia
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