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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126683, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315024

RESUMO

Experimental studies have demonstrated that disinfection byproducts (DBPs) can cause ovarian toxicity including inhibition of antral follicle growth and disruption of steroidogenesis, but there is a paucity of human evidence. We aimed to investigate whether urinary biomarkers of exposure to drinking water DBPs were associated with ovarian reserve. The present study included 956 women attending an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China from December 2018 to January 2020. Antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured as indicators of ovarian reserve. Urinary dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were assessed as potential biomarkers of drinking water DBP exposures. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the associations of urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations with indicators of ovarian reserve. Elevated urinary DCAA and TCAA levels were monotonically associated with reduced total AFC (- 5.98%; 95% CI: - 10.30%, - 1.44% in DCAA and - 12.98%; 95% CI: - 17.00%, - 8.76% in TCAA comparing the extreme tertiles; both P for trends ≤ 0.01), and the former was only observed in right AFC but not in left AFC, whereas the latter was estimated for both right and left AFC. Moreover, elevated urinary TCAA levels were monotonically associated with decreased AMH (- 14.09%; 95% CI: - 24.79%, - 1.86% comparing the extreme tertiles; P for trend = 0.03). These negative associations were still observed for the exposure biomarkers modeled as continuous variables. Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking water DBPs may be associated with decreased ovarian reserve.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Reserva Ovariana , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção , Feminino , Humanos
2.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 49-58, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence about detrimental impacts of the pandemic on population mental health, but knowledge on risk of groups specifically affected by the pandemic and variations across time is still limited. METHODS: We surveyed approximately n=1,000 Austrian residents in 12 waves between April and December 2020 (n=12,029). Outcomes were suicidal ideation (Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), and domestic violence. We also assessed the perceived burden from the pandemic. Demographic and Covid-19 specific occupational and morbidity-related variables were used to explain outcomes in multivariable regression analyses, controlling for well-established risk factors of mental ill-health, and variations over time were analyzed. RESULTS: Young age, working in healthcare or from home, and own Covid-19 illness were consistent risk factors controlling for a wide range of known mental health risk factors. Time patterns in the perceived burden from Covid-19-related measures were consistent with the time sequence of restrictions and relaxations of governmental measures. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were relatively stable over time, with some increase of depression during the second phase of lockdowns. Domestic violence increased immediately after both hard lockdowns. Suicidal ideation decreased slightly over time, with a low during the second hard lockdown. Mental health indicators for women and young people showed some deterioration over time, whereas those reporting own Covid-19 illness improved. LIMITATIONS: Data from before the pandemic were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Among mental health outcomes, increases in domestic violence and, to some smaller extent, depressive symptoms, appeared most closely related to the timing of hard lockdowns. Healthcare staff, individuals working from home, those with Covid-19, as well as young people and women are non-traditional risk groups who warrant heightened attention in prevention during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Áustria , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 315-321, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of medical students in China have experienced home confinement and a reliance on online resources to study medicine since the outbreak of COVID-19. More time spent studying online during the COVID-19 pandemic may be a potential risk factor for problematic smartphone use, since smartphones have become the most commonly used device for accessing the internet. The objective of the present study was to explore the association between anxiety, smartphone problematic use and sleep disturbance among medical students during the enforced COVID-19 home confinement. METHODS: Altogether, 666 medical students validly answered a self-administered questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, Smartphone addiction scale - short version, and the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance scale (short form). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to explore the associated factors of anxiety. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test hypothesized associations. RESULTS: Anxiety was significantly associated with problematic smartphone use and sleep disturbance among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Problematic smartphone use not only directly affected anxiety, but also exerted a significant indirect effect on anxiety via sleep disturbance. A significant decrease of the path coefficient of problematic smartphone use on anxiety (from ß=0.53 to ß=0.22, P<0.01) was observed with sleep disturbance being modeled as a mediator. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include its cross-sectional design and samples recruited from only one medical school. CONCLUSIONS: The detrimental impact of problematic smartphone use and the importance of sleep health on mitigating anxiety should be highlighted and incorporated into medical education.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono , Smartphone
4.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 126-129, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601299

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms, and associated risk factors among a large-scale sample of adolescents from China after the pandemic and lockdown. METHOD: A total of 57,948 high school students took part in an online survey from July 13 to 29, 2020. The mental health outcomes included anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms. Risk factors included negative family relationships, COVID-19 related exposure, and a lack of social support. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms was 7.1%, 12.8%, and 16.9%, respectively. COVID-19 related exposure significantly linked to the mental health outcomes (all p < .001). The most important predictors for the mental health outcomes were family relationship and social support (all p < .001). CONCLUSION: The pandemic may have long-term adverse mental health consequences among adolescents. Adverse family relationships and lack of social support could be the major risk factors for the post-pandemic mental health outcomes of adolescents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes
5.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 370-379, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social isolation and the impact on mental health is a major concern during COVID-19. Trait equanimity is expected to protect individuals from psychological distress associated with social isolation. The aim of this study is to examine the link between social isolation and psychological distress via the mediator equanimity. It was hypothesised that objective (few social contacts) and perceived social isolation (loneliness) would predict psychological distress and that equanimity would mediate these relationships. METHODS: Five hundred and seventy-eight adult United States participants were recruited and completed measures of objective social isolation and perceived social isolation (De Jong Gierveld Social Isolation scale), trait equanimity (Phenomenological Experience of Meditative Equanimity Scale), and psychological distress (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, Short Form, DASS-21). RESULTS: Objective social isolation negatively predicted psychological distress, but equanimity did not mediate this relationship. Perceived social isolation positively predicted psychological distress and equanimity mediated this relationship. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by its cross-sectional and self-report design and by a United States sample, which may affect the generalisability of findings. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than a lack of social contact it is the "perceived" nature of isolation that is related to psychological distress and this relationship indirectly operates through trait equanimity. Individuals high in trait equanimity may be better protected from the impact of perceived social isolation. Clinical interventions can be adapted to include equanimity skills to mitigate perceived social isolation for individuals and reduce adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491581

RESUMO

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Talanta ; 236: 122832, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635222

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the application of an electronic nose and chemometric analysis to discriminate volatile organic compounds between patients with COVID-19, post-COVID syndrome and controls in exhaled breath samples. A cross-sectional study was performed on 102 exhaled breath samples, 42 with COVID-19, 30 with the post-COVID syndrome and 30 control subjects. Breath-print analysis was performed by the Cyranose 320 electronic nose with 32 sensors. Group data were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA), and Support Vector Machine (SVM), and the test's diagnostic power was evaluated through a Receiver Operaring Characteristic curve(ROC curve). The results of the chemometric analysis indicate in the PCA a 97.6% (PC1 = 95.9%, PC2 = 1.0%, PC3 = 0.7%) of explanation of the variability between the groups by means of 3 PCs, the CDA presents a 100% of correct classification of the study groups, SVM a 99.4% of correct classification, finally the PLS-DA indicates an observable separation between the groups and the 12 sensors that were related. The sensitivity, specificity of post-COVID vs. controls value reached 97.6% (87.4%-99.9%) and 100% (88.4%-100%) respectively, according to the ROC curve. As a perspective, we consider that this technology, due to its simplicity, low cost and portability, can support strategies for the identification and follow-up of post-COVID patients. The proposed classification model provides the basis for evaluating post-COVID patients; therefore, further studies are required to enable the implementation of this technology to support clinical management and mitigation of effects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Estudos Transversais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108616, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481232

RESUMO

This cross-country study investigates the potential to improve pig welfare by exploiting consumer demand, domestically and in export markets, for welfare pork produced in indoor production systems. The analysis is based on questionnaire data collected in 2019 focusing on demand for Danish welfare pork both in Denmark and in two nearby export markets, Sweden and Germany. To reduce hypothetical bias, a willingness-to-pay indicator is combined with an indicator of positive interest in buying a fictive Danish welfare labelled pork. We find that the market potential is relatively weak. Our findings indicate that there is some, albeit limited, potential in Denmark and Germany while demand is practically non-existing in Sweden, probably because the pig welfare guaranteed by Swedish legislation is similar to what is provided by the fictive welfare label employed in the study. Hence, consumer demand alone cannot secure enhanced pig welfare. Moreover, we found national differences in the characteristics of consumers who are interested in Danish welfare pork.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/normas , Adulto , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Suínos
9.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 53(1): 74-78, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881950

RESUMO

Objectives. There is emerging evidence that network/computer analysis of epileptiform discharge free electroencephalograms (EEGs) can be used to detect epilepsy, improve diagnosis and resource use. Such methods are automated and can be performed on shorter recordings of EEG. We assess the evidence and its strength in the area of seizure detection from network/computer analysis of epileptiform discharge free EEG. Methods. A scoping review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance was conducted with a literature search of Embase, Medline and PsychINFO. Predesigned inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied to selected articles. Results. The initial search found 3398 articles. After duplicate removal and screening, 591 abstracts were reviewed, 64 articles were selected and read leading to 20 articles meeting the requisite inclusion/exclusion criteria. These were 9 reports and 2 cross-sectional studies using network analysis to compare and/or classify EEG. One review of 17 reports and 10 cross-sectional studies only aimed to classify the EEGs. One cross-sectional study discussed EEG abnormalities associated with autism. Conclusions. Epileptiform discharge free EEG features derived from network/computer analysis differ significantly between people with and without epilepsy. Diagnostic algorithms report high accuracies and could be clinically useful. There is a lack of such research within the intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism populations, where epilepsy is more prevalent and there are additional diagnostic challenges.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Convulsões
10.
Int Braz J Urol ; 48(1): 101-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been more than a year since the first case of Covid-19 was diagnosed in Brazil, and its most problematic feature is the oversaturation of the healthcare system capacity. Urolithiasis is a disease that requires timely and appropriate management. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic in hospital admissions for urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, hospital admissions were obtained from the Brazilian Public Health Information system. All hospital admissions associated with urolithiasis diagnosis (ICD-10 N20) between March 2017 and February 2021 were analyzed. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a significant decrease in hospital admissions (p<0.0001). More than 20.000 patients probably did not have the opportunity to undergo their surgeries. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on women's admissions was significantly more intense than for men, reducing from 48.91% to 48.36% of the total (p=0.0281). The extremes of age seemed to be more affected, with patients younger than 20 years and older than 60 years having a significant reduction in access to hospital services (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we have noticed a considerable reduction in overall admissions for the treatment of urolithiasis in the Brazilian public healthcare system during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. Women and individuals older than 60 years were especially affected. In contrast, we noted a rise in urgent procedures, comparing with the average of the corresponding period of the three previous years. Recovery plans will be needed while returning to activities to handle the impounded surgical volume.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Urolitíase , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107108, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509092

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that smoking is a self-regulatory strategy to relieve negative affect and that metacognitions about smoking may play a role in addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present research was designed to examine the direct and indirect roles of emotion dysregulation and negative affect in predicting urge to smoke and nicotine dependence via metacognitions about smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 450 nicotine-dependent men completed measures of urge to smoke, nicotine dependence, metacognitions about smoking, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation. The results showed that both emotion dysregulation and negative affect had indirect effects on urge to smoke via positive metacognitions about smoking as well as on nicotine dependence via negative metacognitions about smoking. The findings suggest that metacognitions about smoking have different roles in different patterns of nicotine use so that positive and negative metacognitions have important roles respectively in urge to smoke and nicotine dependence in smokers with high emotion dysregulation and negative affect. This study also adds to the literature on the metacognitive theoretical framework of addictive behaviors supporting the use of Metacognitive Therapy interventions in smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Tabagismo , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar
12.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cachimbos de Água , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(2): 258-267, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635617

RESUMO

Background: With increasing number of migrants in Korea, there is an increasing need for blood products with rare blood antigens. Accordingly, the role of blood donors among migrants has been acknowledged. We investigated migrants' experiences and perceptions of blood donation along with their sociodemographic status and identified the effects on self-reported blood donation status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a self-developed, structured questionnaire was conducted on 479 migrants. The questionnaire included items about experiences, knowledge, and perceptions on blood donation and sociodemographic factors of respondents. Results: Most migrants in this study were from Southeast Asia (54.7%) or China (39.9%). Among them, 28.6% (N=137) had donated blood previously, and 2.7% (N=13) had previously donated blood in Korea. All previous blood donors were volunteers, and the two major deterrents of blood donation for non-donors were the fear of pain and lack of knowledge about blood donation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the country of birth (odds ratio [OR]=2.65, P<0.001 [China]; OR=4.85, P=0.001 [countries other than China and Southeast Asian countries]) and employment status (OR=2.80, P=0.034) were independently associated with blood donation. Conclusions: This is the first Korean study to analyze migrants' experiences and perceptions of blood donation in relation to their sociodemographic status. Our findings can help establish blood donation policies for migrants, devise campaigns to enhance blood donation awareness, and ultimately create a pool of rare blood resources in a multicultural society.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Migrantes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , República da Coreia
14.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107096, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469784

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with internet-related problematic behaviors. However, studies have not explored the linkage between PTSD symptoms and internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and IGD symptoms via network analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 341 Chinese young adults directly exposed to a typhoon and examined the network structure of PTSS and IGD symptoms, along with bridge symptoms, to elucidate how they co-occur. Results indicated that 'avoiding external reminders' and 'anhedonia' were identified as the most central symptoms in the PTSD network, whereas 'preoccupation,' 'gaming despite harms', and 'loss of control' ranked highest on centrality in the IGD network. Two bridge symptoms emerged within the combined PTSD and IGD network model: 'concentration difficulties' and 'conflict due to gaming' from among the PTSS and IGD symptoms, respectively. These findings reveal novel associations between PTSS and IGD symptoms and provide an empirically-based hypothesis for how these two disorders may co-occur among individuals exposed to natural disasters.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Palliat Care ; 37(1): 18-25, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-of-life care has become an important public health issue in recent years. Place of death is a major component of end-of-life care. Despite attempts to improve end-of-life care, there has not been published any data about place of deaths in Turkey. Aim: This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigates the place of death and trends over the years in geriatric age groups in Turkey. Methods: Patients who were admitted to geriatric outpatient clinic of a university hospital during a 7-year period were included. Place and date of death information were received from the death notification system and recorded as hospital or out-of-hospital death. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the hospital information system. Deaths occurring after March 1, 2020 were not included to eliminate the effect of coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Results: A total of 4025 (20.7%) patients were determined to be dead. Approximately three-quarters of deaths (73.0%) occurred in hospital. The number of deaths reported from nursing homes was only 13 (3.0%). Patients with dementia less frequently died in hospital, however, it was not statistically significant (12.4% vs 14.7%, P = .05). The prevalence of death in hospital was significantly higher in patients with chronic renal failure (3.1% vs 1.7%, P = .02). The presence of comorbid conditions such as heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, and cancer did not affect the place of death (P = .24, .21, .24, .51, and .18). Out-of-hospital mortality increased with advanced age (P < .001). No significant difference was found in the place of death over the years (P = .41). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining the place of death in Turkey, an aging country. Our results may help to establish policies about end-of-life care in elderly people to improve quality of life by using resources effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiologia
16.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151777, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082082

RESUMO

Dissections are a fundamental practical methodology for teaching human anatomy. However, this experience can be stressful, generating anxiety situations among students. This study tries to understand the attitudes, reactions, fears and anxiety state among students earning a physiotherapy degree when facing their first prosection. A cross-sectional before-and-after study was carried out with students who were provided with an anonymous "ad hoc" questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).The values obtained from the total STAI questionnaire remained stable and unchanged during the prosection (p>0.05). The levels of trait anxiety (TA) and state anxiety (SA) remained stable except in female students, who showed higher TA and SA scores, with a significance of p<0.05 before and after the prosection. Although 100% of the students were satisfied with the dissection practices, the experience can provoke stressful responses and should be addressed using coping mechanisms, especially among female students.


Assuntos
Anatomia , Estudantes de Medicina , Ansiedade , Cadáver , Estudos Transversais , Dissecação , Feminino , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 54-69, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698762

RESUMO

Background: Health literacy is an important multidimensional concept of public health concern and a determinant of health outcomes and access to healthcare which requires robust measurement. The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and establish the psychometric properties of the Yoruba version of the Health Literacy Questionnaire. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Nigeria Yoruba speaking adults was conducted with the Health Literacy Questionnaire following its translation and adaptation. Data were subject to psychometric evaluation (confirmatory factor analysis, composite reliability, Cronbach's alpha, intra class correlation) and association with sociodemographic variables. Results: A total of 258 adults with mean age 26.7 years participated in the study. The easiest scale to score highly was 'Actively managing my health' and hardest was 'Ability to find good health information' and 'Navigating the healthcare system'. Six one-factor models fitted well without correlated residuals but the other three had a good fit after model modification. Composite reliability and Cronbach's α of ≥ 0.7 were observed for all scales, suggesting good internal consistency of the scales. Test-retest reliability of the Yoruba translation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire was moderate to good in all scales, intra class correlation ranging from 0.66 to 0.76. Conclusion: The Health Literacy Questionnaire was successfully translated and culturally adapted and demonstrated good content and construct validity and high composite reliability. The Yoruba translation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire has the potential of being a useful clinical tool for the assessment of health literacy, especially among Yoruba speaking community of Nigeria. Thereby helping to improve the health outcomes through access to healthcare.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 70-78, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698763

RESUMO

Background: Pregnancy is a unique experience in a woman's life, which comes with physiological, metabolic, social, and psychological changes. The combination of these changes along with migration, may reduce the quality of life of pregnant women and mothers. This study aims to determine the quality of life in rural pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Three hundred pregnant Iranian and Afghan women who attended the public health centers in regional Tehran, Iran, were systematically selected and included in the study. Different dimensions of health status were investigated using the standard health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-26) through interviews. SPSS version 23 was used for data analysis. Results: The psychological health subscale (38.00) in the Iranian pregnant women and the physical health subscale (38.83) in the Afghan pregnant women had the highest scores. The lowest score was in social functioning subscale in both groups (20.59 in Iranian and 21.22 in Afghans). In general, Iranian mothers had lower scores compared to Afghan mothers. There was a relationship between the quality of life of Iranian pregnant women, their level of education and family's monthly income (P <0.05), and between the quality of life of Afghan pregnant women with the lesser number of pregnancies (P <0.05). Conclusions: In rural Iran, the quality of life score and its subscales is comparably low in both Iranian and Afghan pregnant women. Interventions are needed to improve the quality of life in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Gravidez , População Rural
19.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106216, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717889

RESUMO

The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, a fish-borne zoonotic trematode that can provoke cholangiocarcinoma, is high in the Northeast Thailand. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of O. viverrini metacercariae in the cyprinid fish and determine its association of O. viverrini infection among the consumers who regularly buy fish in the markets. A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine provinces covering 20 districts of Thailand, and we examined 778 cyprinoid fish specimens belonging to five species purchased from local markets. Pepsin-HCl digestion method was used to recover O. viverrini metacercariae from fish. In all districts surveyed, O. viverrini metacercariae-positive fish were found with the infection rates ranging from 3.9 to 21.1%. All five fish species studied were positive for O. viverrini metacercariae: Henicorhynchus siamensis (13.7%), Cyclocheilichtys spp. (12.7%), Hampala spp. (8.1%), Systomus spp. (6.9%) and Barbonymus goniatus (5.0%). An average prevalence of O. viverrini infection was 7.1% in the fish consumers surveyed in the markets. The source of fish was determined and our results showed that parasitized fish are sold in markets up to 100 km away from the point of capture, which contributes to the dispersion and maintenance of this helminthiasis. Our results point to the transmission of liver flukes via markets, in spite of many active programs of health education, elimination, prevention and control aimed to reduce O. viverrini infection and subsequent cholangiocarcinoma in the endemic areas of Thailand.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Doenças dos Peixes , Opistorquíase , Opisthorchis , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metacercárias , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/veterinária , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Res ; 203: 111795, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 epidemic period, people showed a stronger connection to the environment within their communities. Although tree canopy in residential areas has been shown to positively affect psychological distress, it is not clear whether the COVID-19 epidemic played a role in this process. Elucidation of the relationship between tree canopy and the impact on psychological distress during the COVID-19 epidemic could provide valuable information as to the best methods to help individuals cope with urban mental stress events. METHODS: A total of 15 randomly selected residential areas of Beijing were enrolled in this repeated cross-sectional study. A total of 900 residents were included in the two-waves of the investigation (450 residents per wave) before and during the COVID-19 epidemic (i.e., May 2019 and May 2020). Psychological distress was estimated using the 12-question General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Tree canopy coverage (TCC) was measured through visual interpretation based on the 2013 data sources (World View 2 satellite imagery of Beijing urban areas with a resolution of 0.5 m). The demographic characteristics, distance to the nearest surrounding green or blue space, residential area house price, household density, and construction year were also collected in this study. A multivariate logistic regression, relative risk due to interaction (RERI), and synergy index (SI) were used to explore the relationships among tree canopy, COVID-19, and psychological distress. RESULTS: The negative impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health was significant, with the prevalence of psychological distress increased 7.84 times (aOR = 7.84, 95% CI = 4.67-13.95) during the COVID-19 epidemic period. Tree canopy coverage in the group without psychological distress was significantly higher than that of the psychologically distressed group (31.07 ± 11.38% vs. 27.87 ± 12.97%, P = 0.005). An increase in 1% of TCC, was related to a 5% decrease in the prevalence of psychological distress (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93-0.98). An antagonism joint action between tree canopy and the COVID-19 epidemic existed (RERI = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.72-1.47; SI = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.05-0.52), and persisted enhancing only in medium (26.45%-33.21%) and above TCC level. Correlation of GHQ items and TCC significantly differed between the COVID-19 non-epidemic and epidemic periods, with the effects of tree canopy on GHQ-12 items covering topics, such as social function and depression, presumably absent because of epidemic limitations. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the COVID-19 epidemic harmed mental health and verified the positive effects of residential tree canopy on psychological distress in Beijing. We suggest paying more attention to residents in areas of low TCC and dealing with psychological distress caused by public health stress events based on tree canopy strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Angústia Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Árvores
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