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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149746, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525773

RESUMO

The prevalence of cryptorchidism has increased over the past decades, yet its origins remain poorly understood. Testis descent is dependent on androgens and likely affected by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), targeting the androgen receptor (AR). We investigated the association between anti-androgenic activity, not derived from natural hormones, in maternal breast milk and impaired testis descent among boys. We performed a case-control study based on 199 breast milk samples from 94 mothers of cryptorchid boys and 105 random non-cryptorchid boys participating in the Norwegian HUMIS (Human Milk Study) cohort. For each participant, apolar, and polar fractions were extracted, and combined to reconstitute a mixture. Anti-androgenic activity was measured in all three fractions using the human cell-based in vitro anti-AR CALUX® assay and expressed in µg of flutamide equivalent, a well-known antiandrogen. Results from fraction analyses were compared among boys with cryptorchidism and controls using multiple logistic regression, controlling for appropriate confounders identified using a directed acyclic graph. Children's daily exposure to anti-androgenic EDCs through breastfeeding was estimated to 78 µg flutamide eq./kg of body weigh/day. The activity was higher in the polar fraction (1.48 ± 1.37 µg flutamide eq./g of milk) mainly representing non-persistent chemicals, in contrast to other fractions. However, the activity in the polar extracts was decreased when in mixtures with the apolar fraction, indicating synergistic interactions. No significant difference in the activity was observed according to cryptorchid status for polar, apolar or mixed breast milk fractions. The study showed anti-androgenic activity in nearly all human milk samples, and at levels higher than the advisory threshold. However, no significant association was observed between cryptorchidism and antiandrogenic activity measured in either polar, apolar, or mixture fractions derived from breast milk.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Leite Humano , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Androgênios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131844, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392196

RESUMO

The etiology of hypospadias and cryptorchidism, which are the two most common genital anomalies in males, has not been elucidated. Although prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risks of hypospadias and cryptorchidism, the associations have not been confirmed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to establish the relationships between prenatal exposure to EDCs and male genital anomalies. A systematic search of PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library CENTRAL for relevant published studies providing quantitative data on the associations between prenatal EDCs exposure and hypospadias/cryptorchidism in humans was conducted. In total, sixteen case-controlled studies were included. Prenatal exposure to overall EDCs was associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in males (OR, 1.34, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.60). Although there was no statistically significant association between overall EDCs exposure and cryptorchidism (OR, 1.11, 95 % CI 0.99 to 1.24), exposure to phenol substances was associated with an increased risk of cryptorchidism (OR, 1.81, 95 % CI, 1.12 to 2.93). Using the GRADE tool, we found the overall evidence to be of moderate certainty. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests prenatal EDCs exposure may increase the risk of hypospadias in males.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Disruptores Endócrinos , Hipospadia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Genitália , Humanos , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Hipospadia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez
3.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(1): 12-20, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515571

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, pneumomediastinum has been reported in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. It has been suggested that pneumomediastinum may portend a worse outcome in such patients although no investigation has established this association definitively. Research Question: We hypothesized that the finding of pneumomediastinum in the setting of COVID-19 disease may be associated with a worse clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if the presence of pneumomediastinum was predictive of increased mortality in patients with COVID-19. Study Design and Methods: A retrospective case-control study utilizing clinical data and imaging for COVID-19 patients seen at our institution from 3/7/2020 to 5/20/2020 was performed. 87 COVID-19 positive patients with pneumomediastinum were compared to 87 COVID-19 positive patients without pneumomediastinum and to a historical group of patients with pneumomediastinum during the same time frame in 2019. Results: The incidence of pneumomediastinum was increased more than 6-fold during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2019 (P = <.001). 1.5% of all COVID-19 patients and 11% of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients at our institution developed pneumomediastinum. Patients who developed pneumomediastinum had a significantly higher PEEP and lower P/F ratio than those who did not (P = .002 and .033, respectively). Pneumomediastinum was not found to be associated with increased mortality (P = .16, confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-2.09, 1.37). The presence of concurrent pneumothorax at the time of pneumomediastinum diagnosis was associated with increased mortality (P = .013 CI: 1.15-3.17, 1.91). Conclusion: Pneumomediastinum is not independently associated with a worse clinical prognosis in COVID-19 positive patients. The presence of concurrent pneumothorax was associated with increased mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfisema Mediastínico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Enfisema Mediastínico/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Mediastínico/epidemiologia , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132316, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: As both a toxic and essential trace element in humans, limited research focuses on the association between blood manganese (Mn) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to assess blood Mn concentration and its relationship with NAFLD among adults in Northern China. METHODS: We conducted a cohort-based case-control study among 1816 patients with NAFLD (970 males and 846 females) and 1111 healthy controls (598 males and 513 females). We used the restricted cubic splines method to investigate the potential non-linear relationship and logistic regression models to analyze the association between blood Mn and NAFLD. RESULTS: The median (p25, p75) of blood Mn concentration in males was 10.08 (8.42,11.98) µg/L, higher than that in females [9.79 (8.01,12.04)] µg/L, P = 0.011. Compared with the tertile 1 group of Mn in males, the odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of NAFLD for tertile 2 and tertile 3 group was 0.82 (0.61,1.10) and 0.64 (0.47,0.87), respectively. The reverse correlation was consistent in patients with different fibrosis severity determined by fibrosis-4 score. The protective association was more evident in those with triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L [odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.40 (0.22,0.75)]. We found a non-significant U-shaped relationship between Mn and NAFLD in women. CONCLUSION: There may exist sex differences for the association between blood Mn and NAFLD. Higher blood Mn may be a potential protective factor for NAFLD in males. The subjects with TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/L would benefit more from higher blood Mn levels.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manganês , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
5.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 97-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661472

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal which is abundant in the environment and known to cause neurotoxicity in children even at minute concentration. However, the trace elements calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential to children due to its protective effect on neurodevelopment. The primary objective of this study was to assess the role of Pb and trace elements in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among preschool children. A total of 81 ASD children and 74 typically developed (TD) children aged between 3 and 6 years participated in the study. Self-administered online questionnaires were completed by the parents. A first-morning urine sample was collected in a sterile polyethene urine container and assayed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparisons between groups revealed that the urinary Pb, Mg, Zn and Fe levels in ASD children were significantly lower than TD children. The odds of ASD reduced significantly by 5.0% and 23.0% with an increment of every 1.0 µg/dL urinary Zn and Fe, respectively. Post interaction analysis showed that the odds of ASD reduced significantly by 11.0% and 0.1% with an increment of every 1.0 µg/dL urinary Zn and Pb, respectively. A significantly lower urinary Pb level in ASD children than TD children may be due to their poor detoxifying mechanism. Also, the significantly lower urinary Zn and Fe levels in ASD children may augment the neurotoxic effect of Pb.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Oligoelementos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Chumbo , Malásia , Oligoelementos/análise
6.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 51-54, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677152

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggers important changes in routine blood tests. In this retrospective case-control study, biochemical, hematological and inflammatory biomarkers between March 10, 2020, and November 30, 2020 from 3969 COVID-19 patients (3746 in the non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) group and 223 in the ICU group) were analyzed by dividing into three groups as spring, summer and autumn. In the non-ICU group, lymphocyte to monocyte ratio was lower in autumn than the other two seasons and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in autumn than the other two seasons. Also, monocyte and platelet were higher in spring than autumn; and eosinophil, hematocrit, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, and red blood cells decreased from spring to autumn. In the non-ICU group, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase gradually increased from spring to autumn, while albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, total bilirubin and total protein gradually decreased. Additionally, C-reactive protein was higher in autumn than the other seasons, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher in autumn than summer. The changes in routine blood biomarkers in COVID-19 varied from the emergence of the disease until now. Also, the timely changes of blood biomarkers were mostly more negative, indicating that the disease progresses severely. The study was approved by the Erzincan Binali Yildirim University Non-interventional Clinical Trials Ethic Committee (approval No. 86041) on June 21, 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131495, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293567

RESUMO

Certain endocrine disruptor chemicals are involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hormonal disease related to infertility in women. Phthalates are the most common plasticizers found in several consumer products. Experimental and epidemiologic evidence suggests that some phthalates disrupt endocrine functions in reproductive mechanisms and development. We previously measured the levels of eight phthalate metabolites in the urine of 599 Saudi women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and were enrolled in a prospective study (2015-2017). The current nested case-control study aimed to determine the association between urinary levels of phthalate metabolites and PCOS. Overall, 441 women from the IVF study were identified as eligible for this study. Women in the case group included those diagnosed with PCOS (N = 82). The control group comprised those unable to conceive due to male azoospermia or who underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis (N = 359). Most urinary phthalate metabolite levels were several-fold higher than those reported in national surveys from other countries. The ratio of luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone, an index of PCOS, was significantly higher in the case than in the control group, with no indication of its association with phthalate metabolites. The logistic regression model was applied after adjusting for confounders to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each metabolite modeled as a natural logarithm (ln). For each ln-unit increase in the sum of the four di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑4DEHP) metabolites as well as two individual metabolites, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, the odds of PCOS increased by 40.5% [OR = 1.405 (95% CI: 1.025, 1.925)], 41.1% [OR = 1.055 (95% CI: 1.055, 1.885)], and 38.6% [OR = 1.386 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.86)], respectively. In contrast, the % odds of PCOS decreased marginally significantly by 44% [OR = 0.560 (95% CI: 0.313, 1.002)] with an ln-unit increase of %MEHP4, the ratio of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to ∑4DEHP. These findings suggest that DEHP may contribute to PCOS, and further investigation is required to understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132358, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583294

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested immunotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), but contradictory findings were reported for the associations of PFASs with allergies. The current study aimed to investigate the association of serum PFASs with incident chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in adults. A nested case-control study within a longitudinal cohort of 7051 government employees in China was conducted. Participants with urticaria at the baseline were excluded. During the first follow-up, 70 incident CSU cases were included, and 70 matched healthy controls were randomly selected. In serum samples collected at the baseline, eight PFASs were determined using the UHPLC-MS/MS approach. The median serum concentrations of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were significantly higher in participants with incident CSU. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.714 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83) based on the joint prediction by PFBA and PFHpA. The Bayesian kernel machine regression showed a nonlinear positive overall effect of the mixture of PFASs, and identified significant single effects of PFBA and PFHpA. Serum interleukin-4 was significantly higher in the case group at baseline, and was positively associated with PFHpA (r = 0.24). Causal mediation analysis indicated interleukin-4 as a partial mediator (14.8%) in the association of PFHpA with CSU. In conclusion, serum PFASs are associated with an increased risk of incident CSU, and PFBA and PFHpA might be the effective compounds.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Urticária Crônica , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 54-60, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Invasive Aspergillus infection (IA) in lung transplantation can result in poor outcomes. Itraconazole has been shown to be effective for fungal prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients. However, IA remains a major cause of death after lung transplantation. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the risk factors for IA on itraconazole prophylaxis. METHODS: We examined 120 recipients to uncover their IA epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes. In addition, a case-control study was performed to identify risk factors of IA. RESULTS: Of the 120 patients, 12 developed IA under itraconazole prophylaxis. The patient demographics and clinical characteristics were compared among the following two groups: IA group, 12 patients, and control group, 108 patients. Significant differences were observed in age (p = 0.004), history of interstitial pneumonia (p = 0.032), and CMV infection (p < 0.001) between the groups. Before the onset of IA, 92% (11/12) of the patients received itraconazole with trough concentrations above the therapeutic range. IA developed at 272.9 ± 114.1 days after lung transplantation. Of the 12 patients who developed IA, 66.7% (8/12) had early cessation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis due to toxicity of valganciclovir, as follows: leukocytopenia in 4 patients, and renal dysfunction in 4 patients. Of the 8 patients who stopped valganciclovir, 75% (6/8) developed CMV infection subsequently. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that older age, history of interstitial pneumonia, and CMV infection may be important risk factors for IA on itraconazole prophylaxis. These results may help clinicians optimize prophylactic strategies for IA.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Itraconazol , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Aspergilose/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Itraconazol/efeitos adversos , Pulmão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131880, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bisphenol A (BPA), a common endocrine disrupter, can be activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolizing enzymes and might influence the development of breast cancer (BC). We hypothesized that BPA could interact with CYP genes, synergistically contributing to the BC risk. METHODS: Urinary BPA was measured in a total of 302 newly diagnosed BC patients and 302 healthy controls by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. A set of seven CYP gene polymorphisms was genotyped by using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the associations of BPA and BPA-SNP interaction with BC risk. RESULTS: BC patients had a higher urinary BPA concentration than healthy individuals (P < 0.001). Each 1-unit increase in log-transformed urinary BPA was associated with a 54 % increased BC risk [95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.34-1.77, P < 0.001]. Individuals with the CYP19A1 rs1902580 GA + AA genotype showed a significantly higher BC risk than those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.45, 95 % CI, 1.01-2.09, P < 0.05). A significant BPA-CYP17A1 rs743572 interaction was found to be associated with a higher risk of BC (Pinteraction = 0.020). Compared with low-BPA individuals carrying CYP17A1 rs743572 GG genotypes, high-BPA individuals with the GA + AA genotype had a higher BC risk, with an odds ratio of 2.49 (95 % CI, 1.52-4.13, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The positive association of BPA exposure with BC risk might be modified by CYP17A1 rs743572, providing evidence for the interaction effect of environment-genes on the etiology of BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Fenóis , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética
11.
Gene ; 806: 145935, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478821

RESUMO

Soluble molecules of programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) are known to modulate T-cell depletion, an important mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and liver disease progression. In addition, PD-L1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR can influence PD-L1 expression and have been associated with cancer risk, although not definitively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms and circulating levels of sPD-L1 in HBV infection and live disease progression. In this study, five hundred fifty-one HBV infected patients of the three clinically well-defined subgroups chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 186), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 142) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 223) and 240 healthy individuals (HC) were enrolled. PD-L1 polymorphisms (rs2297136 and rs4143815) were genotyped by in-house validated ARMS assays. Logistic regression models were applied in order to determine the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as with progression of related liver diseases. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were quantified by ELISA assays. The PD-L1 rs2297136 AA genotype was associated with HBV infection susceptibility (HBV vs. HC: OR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0087) and disease progression (LC vs. CHB: OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.9; p = 0.018). Whereas, the rs2297136 GG genotype was a protective factor for HCC development. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were significantly high in HBV patients (p < 0.0001) and higher in the LC followed by CHB and HCC groups. High sPD-L1 levels correlated with increased liver enzymes and with advanced liver disease progression (Child-pugh C > B > A, p < 0.0001) and BCLC classification (BCLC D > C > B > A, p = 0.031). We could, for the first time, conclude that PD-L1 rs2297136 polymorphism and plasma sPD-L1 protein levels associate with HBV infection and HBV-related liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
12.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 100-104, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374355

RESUMO

Standard tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detect the presence of viral RNA using real-time reverse transcription (rRT)-PCR. Recently, convenient, rapid, and relatively inexpensive SARS-CoV-2 antigen (Ag) detection methods have been developed. The STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test (SD Biosensor, Inc., Suwon, Korea) is a rapid immunochromatography test that qualitatively detects the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 using gold conjugated antibodies. We evaluated its performance in comparison with that of Allplex 2019-nCoV Assay (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) in a retrospective case-control study using residual samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test were 89.2% (58/65) and 96.0% (96/100), respectively. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for the three target SARS-CoV-2 genes (envelope, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and nucleocapsid genes) included in Allplex 2019-nCoV Assay were significantly lower in Ag test-positive patients than in Ag test-negative patients (P<0.001). The Ag test sensitivity was higher in samples with Ct≤30 and those collected one to five days post symptom onset. In conclusion, the STANDARD Q COVID-19 Ag test can serve as an alternative in high-prevalence settings, when the low sensitivity is compensated or when rRT-PCR tests are limited.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Gene ; 807: 145951, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500051

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the role of selected polymorphisms of SIRT3 and SIRT5 in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: For this study, 500 blood samples of GC patients and 500 blood samples of healthy individuals were collected. Six selected polymorphisms of mitochondrial sirtuins were analyzed for analysis using Tetra-Arms PCR followed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms [rs3782116 (p < 0.0001), rs6598072 (p < 0.0001) and rs11246020 (p < 0.0001), rs938222 (p = 0.0136), rs3757261 (p = 0.0005) and rs2841511 (p = 0.0015)] were observed significant higher in GC patients vs controls. Haplotype analysis was performed, and 51 haplotypes were generated using haploview software. Among these haplotypes, eleven haplotypes were found associated with a significantly increased risk of GC. Furthermore, SNP-SNP interaction showed a significant correlation between studied SNPs and GC risk. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that mutant allele frequencies of selected polymorphisms are linked with a significant decrease in survival of GC patients CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that selected SNPs may be associated with enhanced risk of GC and hence can be potential prognostic markers for prognosis and predisposition of GC.


Assuntos
Sirtuína 3/genética , Sirtuínas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sirtuína 3/sangue , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/sangue , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
14.
Gene ; 807: 145948, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481002

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: To investigate associations of genetic and environmental factors with coronary artery disease (CAD), we collected medical reports, lifestyle details, and blood samples of 2113 individuals, and then used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ligase detection reaction (LDR) to genotype the targeted 102 SNPs. METHODS: We adopted elastic net algorithm to build an association model that considered simultaneously genetic and lifestyle/clinical factors associated with CAD in Chinese Han population. RESULTS: In this study, we developed an all covariates-based model to explain the risk of CAD, which incorporated 8 lifestyle/clinical factors and a gene-score variable calculated from 3 significant SNPs (rs671, rs6751537 and rs11641677), attaining an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.71. It was found that, in terms of genetic variants, the AA genotype of rs671 in the additive (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.51, p = 0.008) and recessive (adjusted OR = 2.12, p = 0.021) models, the GG genotype of rs6751537 in the additive (adjusted OR = 3.36, p = 0.001) and recessive (adjusted OR = 3.47, p = 0.001) models were associated with increased risk of CAD, while GG genotype of rs11641677 in additive model (adjusted OR = 0.39, p = 0.044) was associated with decreased risk of CAD. In terms of lifestyle/clinical factors, the history of hypertension (unadjusted OR = 2.37, p < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (unadjusted OR = 1.82, p = 0.007), age (unadjusted OR = 1.07, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (unadjusted OR = 1.02, p = 0.05) would significantly increase the risk of CAD, while height (unadjusted OR = 0.97, p = 0.006) and regular intake of chicken (unadjusted OR = 0.78, p = 0.008) reduced the risk of CAD. A significantinteraction was foundbetween rs671 and dyslipidemia (the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) = 3.36, p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study, we constructed an association model and identified a set of SNPs and lifestyle/clinical risk factors of CAD in Chinese Han population. By considering both genetic and non-genetic risk factors, the built model may provide implications for CAD pathogenesis and clues for screening tool development in Chinese Han population.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , beta-Caroteno 15,15'-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Idoso , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , beta-Caroteno 15,15'-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
15.
Georgian Med News ; (319): 87-92, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749329

RESUMO

The study focuses on investigation of the role of polymorphic variants of MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), MTR (A2756G) folate metabolism genes and their combinations in the development of ischemic stroke in young people. The study included 2 groups of patients: 61 young patients aged 18 - 44 years old with acute ischemic stroke (main group) and 29 middle-age patients, 45 to 59 years old with ischemic stroke (control group). To analyze polymorphic DNA loci, the standardized test systems TagMan Mutation Detection Assays Lifa-Technology (USA) were used. MTHFR C677T (rs 1801133), MTHFR A1298C (rs 1801131), and MTR A2756G (rs1805087) polymorphisms were involved. Polymorphic variants of MTHFR (C677T), MTHF (A1298C), MTR (A2756G) genes were analyzed, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The study of homocysteine level ​​in blood plasma was carried out, using the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis. The patients of the main group with the homozygous variant G/G showed a statistically significant high level of homocysteine ​- 18.9±4.8 ng/ml compared with patients with the A/A genotype - 12.4±4.2 ng/ml and A/G - 12.9±4.8 ng/ml, (p=0.045). The main group showed an increased risk of ischemic stroke associated with 677CT (OR=2.39; CI=1.12-5.06) and 677TT genotypes (OR=4.45; CI=1.08-25.44) for the MTHFR gene. When carrying out a comparative analysis of the А1298С polymorphism of the MTHFR gene, 1298CC genotype (OR=1.45; CI=0.46-3.99) and 1298AC genotype (OR=2.4; CI=1.6-5.9) were statistically significant. Comparative analysis of А2756G polymorphism of the МТR gene showed that the GG genotype was statistically significant (OR=2.68; CI=1.10-7.069). An increase in the development of ischemic brain lesions was associated with polymorphic variants of CT for the MTHFR gene, AC for the MTHFR gene, and GG for the MTR gene. An increase in the risk of developing ischemic brain lesions was associated with polymorphic variants of CT + TT (CI=1.8-10.9) for the MTHFR gene, AC + CC (CI=1.31-6.32) for the MTHFR gene, AG + GG (CI=1.57-10.08) for the MTR gene. The study shows that in young people homozygote for minor alleles C/C for A1298C of the MTHFR gene polymorphism and T/T for C677T of the MTHFR gene and G/G for A2756G of the MTR gene polymorphism increases the risk of ischemic stroke, compared with carriers of A/A for A1298C, C/C for C677T of the MTHFR gene and А/А by А2756G of the МТR gene.


Assuntos
5-Metiltetra-Hidrofolato-Homocisteína S-Metiltransferase , Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2) , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , 5-Metiltetra-Hidrofolato-Homocisteína S-Metiltransferase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E96, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the impact of behaviors on COVID-19 severity can improve health promotion strategies. We investigated the association between health-related behaviors and odds of hospitalization for COVID-19 in a cohort of military personnel. METHODS: This case-controlled study compared all active-duty US Air Force service members hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 5, 2020, and March 10, 2021 (cases), with their geographically matched peers who had COVID-19 and were treated as outpatients (controls). We used logistic regression to compare cases and controls according to self-reported sleep duration, physical activity, dietary factors, binge alcohol consumption, and tobacco use - with and without adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, physical fitness level, pertinent disease history, and psychological distress - resulting in crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. The trend between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and hospitalization odds was assessed by using the Cochran-Armitage test. RESULTS: Ninety-three hospitalized cases were matched to 372 ambulatory controls. Adjusting for baseline characteristics and other health-related behaviors, cases were more likely than controls to report fewer than 7 hours of sleep, compared with 7 to 9 hours (OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.07-3.16), and were more likely than controls to consume 3 or more SSBs per week, compared with fewer than 3 SSBs (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.03-2.92). In a dose-response relationship, higher SSB consumption was associated with greater odds of being hospitalized (P value for trend = .02). CONCLUSION: Interventions that address short sleep duration and SSB consumption may reduce morbidity from COVID-19 among military service members and potentially in the broader US population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hospitalização , Militares , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Militares/psicologia , Razão de Chances
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 617, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults (aged 65 years and above) constitute the fastest growing population cohort in the western world. There is increasing evidence that the burden of infections disproportionately affects older adults, and hence this vulnerable population is frequently exposed to antimicrobials. There is currently no systematic review summarising the evidence for organ injury risk among older adults following antimicrobial exposure. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the relationship between antimicrobial exposure and organ injury in older adults. METHODOLOGY: We searched for original research articles in PubMed, Embase.com , Web of Science core collection, Web of Science BIOSIS citation index, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, and PsycINFO databases, using key words in titles and abstracts, and using MeSH terms. We searched for all available articles up to 31 May 2021. After removing duplicates, articles were screened for inclusion into or exclusion from the study by two reviewers. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias for cohort and case-control studies. We explored the heterogeneity of the included studies using the Q test and I2 test and the publication bias using the funnel plot and Egger's test. The meta-analyses were performed using the OpenMetaAnalyst software. RESULTS: The overall absolute risks of acute kidney injury among older adults prescribed aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, and macrolides were 15.1% (95% CI: 12.8-17.3), 19.1% (95% CI: 15.4-22.7), and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.3-0.3), respectively. Only 3 studies reported antimicrobial associated drug-induced liver injury. Studies reporting on the association of organ injury and antimicrobial exposure by age or duration of treatment were too few to meta-analyse. The funnel plot and Egger's tests did not indicate evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Older adults have a significantly higher risk of sustaining acute kidney injury when compared to the general adult population. Older adults prescribed aminoglycosides have a similar risk of acute kidney injury to the general adult population.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134241, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757409

RESUMO

Importance: The influence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-related hypoxemia in SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and COVID-19 outcomes remains unknown. Controversy exists regarding whether to continue treatment for SDB with positive airway pressure given concern for aerosolization with limited data to inform professional society recommendations. Objective: To investigate the association of SDB (identified via polysomnogram) and sleep-related hypoxia with (1) SARS-CoV-2 positivity and (2) World Health Organization (WHO)-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes while accounting for confounding including obesity, underlying cardiopulmonary disease, cancer, and smoking history. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study was conducted within the Cleveland Clinic Health System (Ohio and Florida) and included all patients who were tested for COVID-19 between March 8 and November 30, 2020, and who had an available sleep study record. Sleep indices and SARS-CoV-2 positivity were assessed with overlap propensity score weighting, and COVID-19 clinical outcomes were assessed using the institutional registry. Exposures: Sleep study-identified SDB (defined by frequency of apneas and hypopneas using the Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI]) and sleep-related hypoxemia (percentage of total sleep time at <90% oxygen saturation [TST <90]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection and WHO-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes (hospitalization, use of supplemental oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death). Results: Of 350 710 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, 5402 (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [14.5] years; 3005 women [55.6%]) had a prior sleep study, of whom 1935 (35.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 5402 participants, 1696 were Black (31.4%), 3259 were White (60.3%), and 822 were of other race or ethnicity (15.2%). Patients who were positive vs negative for SARS-CoV-2 had a higher AHI score (median, 16.2 events/h [IQR, 6.1-39.5 events/h] vs 13.6 events/h [IQR, 5.5-33.6 events/h]; P < .001) and increased TST <90 (median, 1.8% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-12.8% sleep time] vs 1.4% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-10.8% sleep time]; P = .02). After overlap propensity score-weighted logistic regression, no SDB measures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Median TST <90 was associated with the WHO-designated COVID-19 ordinal clinical outcome scale (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74; P = .005). Time-to-event analyses showed sleep-related hypoxia associated with a 31% higher rate of hospitalization and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.57; P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, SDB and sleep-related hypoxia were not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 positivity; however, once patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2, sleep-related hypoxia was an associated risk factor for detrimental COVID-19 outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Causas de Morte , Hospitalização , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Florida , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipóxia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Ohio , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Sono , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/patologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia
19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10789-10796, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture (HF) is a major health problem for older patients. Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common complication in HF patients. It extends the length of the hospital stay and affects the recovery of mobility. This study aims to explore the relationship between self-efficacy, resilience, and quality of life in older patients with HF after HF combined with POUR and to improve the rehabilitation plan for HF patients. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to assess 221 older patients with HF who underwent surgery for the first time at the Department of Orthopedics, Xishan People's Hospital from June 2018 to June 2021. Of these, 111 patients were in the POUR group (Group A), and the remaining 110 patients were in the non-POUR group (Group B). Three months after the operation, a questionnaire was administered to assess the relationship between POUR and self-efficacy, resilience, and quality of life. RESULTS: Self-efficacy scores of Group A (23.52±3.18) were lower than those of Group B (27.23±2.40), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Except for self-improvement, subscores and total scores of all resilience measures in Group A were lower than those of Group B, and these differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The scores of all quality of life measures of Group A were lower than those of Group B, and the differences were statistically significant except for role-emotional (RE) (P<0.05). The correlation analysis between self-efficacy and resilience in older patients with HF after the operation showed that self-efficacy was positively correlated with the total resilience score and the toughness optimism dimensions (P<0.01). Correlation analysis between self-efficacy and quality of life showed that self-efficacy was positively correlated with role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), vitality (VT), and social functioning (SF) (P<0.01). Correlation analysis between resilience and quality of life showed that total resilience scores, toughness, and optimism were positively correlated with physical functioning (PF), RP, BP, GH, VT, and SF (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of POUR after HF significantly reduces self-efficacy, resilience, and quality of life in older adults.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Retenção Urinária , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoeficácia , Retenção Urinária/etiologia
20.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10391-10400, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major social and public health problem which may be induced by intestinal flora imbalance through inflammatory response, and the specific mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we aim to explore the interaction network of intestinal flora and cell inflammation in T2DM. METHODS: This a case-control study. Patients with T2DM was the case group and healthy people as control. The differences of cytokine expression levels between patients with T2DM and healthy controls were assessed by using flow cytometry. The diversity and abundance of intestinal flora were evaluated by using 16S rRNA three-generation full-length sequencing technology. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients with T2DM and 28 healthy controls were included for analysis. Compared with the healthy control group, the expression levels of plasma cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) (P=0.0000006), IL-6 (P=0.000193), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (P=0.016), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (P=0.000036) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) (P=0.004) were significantly up-regulated in T2DM patients, and the abundance of Megamonas_funiformis (P=0.0016) and Escherichia (P=0.049) in the intestine were significantly increased. In contrast, the abundance of Bacteroides_stercoris (P=0.0068), Bacteroides_uniformis (P=0.033), and Phascolarctobacterium_faecium (P=0.033) were decreased in T2DM patients. Further, differentially expressed Escherichia had a positive correlation with IFN-γ (r=0.73) by Pearson correlation analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The interaction network between the intestinal bacteria Escherichia and the cytokine IFN-γ may drive inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), indicating insulin signal transduction can be inhibited in adipocytes to induce insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas , Escherichia , Humanos , Interferon gama , RNA Ribossômico 16S
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