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1.
Gene ; 807: 145950, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481003

RESUMO

This population-based longitudinal study is the first investigation that assesses the association of common MC4R SNPs with the obesity-related parameters over time and determines the effect of risk alleles during the three adulthood life periods (early, middle, and late) in a large Iranian cohort, a population with a unique genetic make-up that has been understudied and relatively unexplored. We obtained the genotype of 5370 unrelated adults who participated in the ongoing Tehran Cardiometabolic Genetic Study (TCGS) cohort project for the common MC4R SNPs. Linear regression and linear mixed model analyses were performed to examine the effect of MC4R polymorphisms on maximum BMI and other obesity-related factors over time. We recognized that several SNPs associated with the maximum BMI and the increased BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio across Iranian adults over a lifetime. Interestingly, we found that rs9954571-A has a yet unreported protective role against obesity-related factors, including BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and triglyceride level. Additionally, a survey of the impact of the MC4R risk score throughout the adulthood life periods indicated that the MC4R risk score is influenced both the elevated BMI and waist circumference only during the early adulthood period. Our findings can expand our knowledge about the MC4R genetic variant's contributions to adulthood obesity and highlight the importance of evaluating the genetic components affecting obesity over a lifetime, which could be considered for obesity clinical screening and treatment.


Assuntos
Obesidade/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
2.
Gene ; 807: 145888, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a glucose intolerance condition encounters for the first time in a fraction of pregnant women. The role of different host inflammatory molecules in GDM etiology has been deciphered. Chemerin is a chemoattractant protein primarily associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the association of chemerin and its genetic variants with the predisposition of GDM is not clear, and our present study is aimed to address the issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 703 Chinese women comprising of GDM (n = 303), glucose tolerant pregnant women (n = 211), and non-pregnant glucose tolerant controls (n = 189) were recruited in the present investigation. GDM was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization recommendation for diagnosis of gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Plasma levels of chemerin were quantified by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Common variants in the chemerin gene (rs4721, rs17173617, rs7806429, and rs17173608) were genotyped by using TaqMan assay. RESULTS: Plasma chemerin level was found higher in subjects with GDM as compared to glucose tolerant pregnant and non-pregnant women. Further, a positive correlation between plasma chemerin and HOMA-IR index suggesting an essential role of chemerin in mediating insulin resistance. Variants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with lower levels of plasma chemerin and low HOMA-IR index. Furthermore, mutants of rs4721 and rs17173608 polymorphisms were associated with protection against the development of GDM in the Chinese cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chemerin is elevated in GDM patients. Genetic variation in chemerin gene associated with lower plasma levels of chemerin, HOMA-IR index and protects against the development of GDM in Chinese.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Glicemia/genética , Quimiocinas/sangue , China , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Gravidez
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118021, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654571

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Accelerating evidence of endocrine-related morbidity has raised alarm about the ubiquitous use of phthalates in the human environment, but studies have not directly evaluated mortality in relation to these exposures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of phthalate exposure with mortality, and quantify attributable mortality and lost economic productivity in 2013-4 among 55-64 year olds. DESIGN: This nationally representative cohort study included 5303 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010 and provided urine samples for phthalate metabolite measurements. Participants were linked to mortality data from survey date through December 31, 2015. Data analyses were conducted in July 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. RESULTS: Multivariable models identified increased mortality in relation to high-molecular weight (HMW) phthalate metabolites, especially those of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). Hazard ratios (HR) for continuous HMW and DEHP metabolites were 1.14 (95% CI 1.06-1.23) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.03-1.19), respectively, with consistently higher mortality in the third tertile (1.48, 95% CI 1.19-1.86; and 1.42, 95% CI 1.13-1.78). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased in relation to a prominent DEHP metabolite, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate. Extrapolating to the population of 55-64 year old Americans, we identified 90,761-107,283 attributable deaths and $39.9-47.1 billion in lost economic productivity. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample, phthalate exposures were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, with societal costs approximating $39 billion/year or more. While further studies are needed to corroborate observations and identify mechanisms, regulatory action is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Custos e Análise de Custo , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118316, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648837

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Pb exposure on full-scale IQ score in pediatric subjects. Following PRISMA guidelines, the data from January 2010 to April 2020 were systematically searched and collected on electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Embase). The eligibility criteria included cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control studies that were published in English, from 2010 to 2020, that analyzed the blood Pb levels of pediatric subjects (0-19 years) and possible changes in the full-scale IQ score. In this study, 2174 scientific papers were collected from three electronic databases. From those, 726 were duplicates and 1421 were excluded because they did not meet the eligibility criteria, resulting in a total of 27 papers, from which, seven were used to perform the meta-analysis. The 27 scientific papers systematically selected for this study were separated by the country where the study was realized in developed and underdeveloped/developing countries. In the underdeveloped/developing countries the blood Pb levels are higher and showed a greater variation (1.30-11.66 µgPb/dL of blood) than in countries with higher development index (0.57-4.80 µgPb/dL of blood). The full-scale IQ score are inversely proportional to the blood Pb values, and it is possible to see that in the underdeveloped/developing countries the full-scale IQ score showed lower values and greater variation (59.2-111) compared to the individuals from developed countries (91.9-114.5). In conclusion, it was observed that blood Pb levels alter the full-scale IQ score. Thus, policies for the prevention of environmental contamination and the reduction of Pb exposure must be taken, mainly, in underdeveloped/developing countries.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Inteligência , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 567-576, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increases in mental health problems have been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives were to examine the extent to which mental health symptoms changed during the pandemic in 2020, whether changes were persistent or short lived, and if changes were symptom specific. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies examining changes in mental health among the same group of participants before vs. during the pandemic in 2020. RESULTS: Sixty-five studies were included. Compared to pre-pandemic outbreak, there was an overall increase in mental health symptoms observed during March-April 2020 (SMC = .102 [95% CI: .026 to .192]) that significantly declined over time and became non-significant (May-July SMC = .067 [95% CI: -.022 to .157]. Compared to measures of anxiety (SMC = 0.13, p = 0.02) and general mental health (SMC = -.03, p = 0.65), increases in depression and mood disorder symptoms tended to be larger and remained significantly elevated in May-July [0.20, 95% CI: .099 to .302]. In primary analyses increases were most pronounced among samples with physical health conditions and there was no evidence of any change in symptoms among samples with a pre-existing mental health condition. LIMITATIONS: There was a high degree of unexplained heterogeneity observed (I2s > 90%), indicating that change in mental health was highly variable across samples. CONCLUSIONS: There was a small increase in mental health symptoms soon after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic that decreased and was comparable to pre-pandemic levels by mid-2020 among most population sub-groups and symptom types.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131963, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution has been linked with altered immune function in adults, but little is known about its effects on early life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to air pollution during prenatal and postnatal windows on cell-mediated immune function in preschoolers. METHODS: Pre-school aged children (2.9 ± 0.5 y old, n = 391) were recruited from a mother-child cohort study in Wuhan, China. We used a spatial-temporal land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the specific trimesters of pregnancy and the first two postnatal years. We measured peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and plasma cytokines as indicators of cellular immune function. We used multiple informant models to examine the associations of prenatal and postnatal exposures to air pollution with cell-mediated immune function. RESULTS: Prenatal exposures to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 during early pregnancy were negatively associated with %CD3+ and %CD3+CD8+ cells, and during late pregnancy were positively associated with %CD3+ cells. Postnatal exposures to these air pollutants during 1-y or 2-y childhood were positively associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and TNF-α. We also observed that the associations of prenatal or postnatal air pollution exposures with cellular immune responses varied by child's sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during different critical windows of early life may differentially alter cellular immune responses, and these effects appear to be sex-specific.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 149986, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was linked to depression incidence, although the results were limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on depression risk prospectively in China. METHODS: The present study used data from Yinzhou Cohort on adults without depression at baseline, and followed up until April 2020. Two-year moving average concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured using land-use regression (LUR) models for each participant. Depression cases were ascertained using the Health Information System (HIS) of the local health administration by linking the unique identifiers. We conducted Cox regression models with time-varying exposures to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of depression with each pollutant, after adjusting for a sequence of individual covariates as demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and comorbidity. Besides, physical activity, baseline potential depressive symptoms, cancer status, COVID-19 pandemic, different outcome definitions and air pollution exposure windows were considered in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Among the 30,712 adults with a mean age of 62.22 ± 11.25, 1024 incident depression cases were identified over totaling 98,619 person-years of observation. Interquartile range increments of the air pollutants were associated with increased risks of depression, and the corresponding HRs were 1.59 (95%CI: 1.46, 1.72) for PM2.5, 1.49 (95%CI: 1.35, 1.64) for PM10 and 1.58 (95%CI: 1.42, 1.77) for NO2. Subgroup analyses suggested that participants without taking any protective measures towards air pollution were more susceptible. The results remained robust in all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was identified as a risk factor for depression onset. Strategies to reduce air pollution are necessary to decrease the disease burden of depression.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 37(1): 47-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccinations are a preventive health quality measure. Home telehealth nursing staff interventions can reduce influenza disease burden and complications. PURPOSE: To improve seasonal flu vaccine rates using novel home telehealth clinical and technology interventions. METHODS: A pre- and postintervention concurrent cohort study for 513 outpatients was conducted. Interventions included automated 2-way patient messaging using remote monitoring equipment, a new note template to record vaccination status in the electronic health record, and flu vaccine patient education. RESULTS: Interventions resulted in vaccination rates of 70.4% for Veterans ages 19 to 65 years, and 81.7% for Veterans 66 years and older, exceeding national, regional, and local Veterans Administration targets. CONCLUSIONS: Two-way messaging and standardized documentation increased rates. Declinations persisted despite education. Reasons included fear of side effects, and rarely leaving home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nursing interventions can increase influenza vaccination quality measures for primary care home telehealth patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118482, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763020

RESUMO

Living in walkable neighborhoods has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Features of walkable neighborhoods, however, may be related to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), which could increase risk of cardiovascular disease. The interaction effect between walkability and PM2.5 on risk of ischemic stroke remains to be elucidated. In this study, we recruited a total of 27,375 participants aged ≥40 years from Yinzhou District, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China to investigate the associations of walkability and PM2.5 with risk of ischemic stroke. We used amenity categories and decay functions to evaluate walkability and high-spatiotemporal-resolution land-use regression models to assess PM2.5 concentrations. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median follow-up of 4.08 years, we identified a total of 637 incident cases of ischemic stroke in the entire cohort. Higher walkability was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke (quartile, Q4 vs. Q1 walkability: HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.47-0.75), whereas PM2.5 was positively associated with risk of ischemic stroke (Q4 vs. Q1 PM2.5: HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.29-2.25). Furthermore, we observed a significant interaction between walkability and PM2.5 on risk of ischemic stroke. Walkability was inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke at lower PM2.5 concentrations, but this association was attenuated with increasing PM2.5 concentrations. Although walkable neighborhoods appear to decrease the risk of ischemic stroke, benefits may be offset by adverse effects of PM2.5 exposure in the most polluted areas. These findings are meaningful for future neighborhood design, air pollution control, and stroke prevention.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132117, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney dysfunction is considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of air pollution on kidney function. We evaluated associations between long-term air pollution exposure and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using data from a cohort of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) study in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 1839 subjects (aged 52-71 years in 2002) from the EGAT1 cohort study during 2002-2012. eGFR, based on creatinine, was measured in 2002, 2007, and 2012. Annual mean concentrations of air pollutants (i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)) prior to a measurement of creatinine were assessed with the ordinary kriging method. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to assess associations between air pollutants and eGFR, while controlling for potential covariates. eGFR values are expressed as percent change per interquartile range (IQR) increments of each pollutant. RESULTS: Lower eGFR was associated with higher concentrations of PM10 (-1.99%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.33, -0.63), SO2 (-4.89%, 95%CI: -6.69, -3.07), and CO (-0.97%, 95%CI: -1.96, 0.03). However, after adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, PM10, and SO2, no significant association was observed between CO and eGFR. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that long-term exposure to high concentrations of PM10 and SO2 is associated with the progression of kidney dysfunction in subjects of the EGAT cohort study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Rim/química , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tailândia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
13.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(1): 134-143, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on the association between afterhours discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We examined the effects of afterhours discharge, including the potential effect of residual organ dysfunction, on hospital mortality in a large integrated health region. METHODS: We performed a multi-center retrospective cohort study of 10,463 adults discharged from 9 mixed medical/surgical ICUs in Alberta from June 2012 to December 2014. We applied a 2-stage modeling strategy to investigate the association between afterhours discharge (19:00h to 07:59h) and post-ICU hospital mortality. We applied mixed-effect multi-variable linear regression to assess the relationship between discharge organ dysfunction and afterhours discharge. We then applied mixed-effect multi-variable logistic regression to evaluate the direct, indirect and integrated associations of afterhours discharge on hospital mortality and hospitalization duration. RESULTS: Of 10,463 patients, 23.7% (n = 2,480) were discharged afterhours, of which 27.4% occurred on a holiday or weekend. This varied significantly by ICU size, type, and site. Patients discharged afterhours were more likely medical admissions, had greater multi-morbidity and illness acuity. A greater average SOFA score in the 72 hours prior to ICU discharge was not associated with afterhours discharge. However, a greater average SOFA score was associated with hospital mortality (adjusted-odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.18-1.28). Afterhours discharge was associated with higher hospital mortality (adjusted-OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39), increased hospital stay (adjusted-risk ratio [RR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09-1.11) and increased post-ICU stay (adjusted-RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.14-1.17) when compared with workhours discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Afterhours discharge is common, occurring in 1 in 4 discharges, and is widely variable across ICUs. Patients discharged afterhours have greater risk of hospital mortality and prolonged hospitalization.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Alta do Paciente , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131566, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293557

RESUMO

It is well documented that fine particles matter (PM2.5), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. However, most epidemiologic studies have focused on understanding their additive effects, despite that individuals are exposed to multiple air pollutants simultaneously that are likely correlated with each other. Therefore, we applied a novel method - Bayesian Kernel machine regression (BKMR) and conducted a population-based cohort study to assess the individual and joint effect of air pollutant mixtures (PM2.5, O3, and NO2) on all-cause mortality among the Medicare population in 15 cities with 656 different ZIP codes in the southeastern US. The results suggest a strong association between pollutant mixture and all-cause mortality, mainly driven by PM2.5. The positive association of PM2.5 with mortality appears stronger at lower percentiles of other pollutants. An interquartile range change in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a significant increase in mortality of 1.7 (95% CI: 0.5, 2.9), 1.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.7) and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.1, 2.6) standard deviations (SD) when O3 and NO2 were set at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles, respectively. BKMR analysis did not identify statistically significant interactions among PM2.5, O3, and NO2. However, since the small sub-population might weaken the study power, additional studies (in larger sample size and other regions in the US) are in need to reinforce the current finding.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
15.
Infectio ; 25(4): 256-261, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286719

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo en adultos con COVID-19 en población rural andina durante 2020. Métodos: En este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo multicéntrico, incluimos a 184 pacientes adultos (≥18 años) con pruebas serológicas y moleculares para CO VID-19 de tres hospitales de la sierra peruana (Ancash y Apurímac) incluidos con sospecha clínica entre abril y junio. Se utilizó análisis descriptivos y regresión logística univariable para explorar los factores de riesgo asociados a los pacientes con COVID-19. Resultados: Del total de pacientes, 14 (7.6%) tuvieron SARS-CoV-2. En los pacientes infectados 12 (85.7%) fueron varones con promedio de edad de 47.3±21 años. Las comorbilidades estuvieron presentes en cerca de la tercera parte de pacientes, siendo la hipertensión y diabetes las más frecuentes (ambas 14.3%), y la sinto matología más frecuentes fueron fiebre y cefalea (57.2%). La regresión univariable mostró mayores probabilidades de infección con SARS-CoV-2 en la población rural andina asociada con la edad avanzada (OR: 1.1 IC95% 0.7-1.8; p=0,019), comorbilidades previas (OR: 1.7, IC95% 0.32-9.39; p=0,006), y sintomatología previa (OR: 49.8, IC95% 5.6-436.9; p=0,0011). Conclusiones: Los posibles factores de riesgo como la edad avanzada, las comorbilidades y sintomatología previas están relacionados con el desarrollo de CO VID-19 en población rural andina de Perú.


Abstract Objective: To determine the risk factors in adults with COVID-19 in the rural Andean population during 2020. Methods: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 184 adult patients (≥18 years) with COVID-19's serological and molecular tests from three Hospitals in the Peruvian mountains (Ancash and Apurímac) included with clinical suspicion between April and June. Descriptive analysis and univariate logistic regression were used to explore the risk factors associated with patients with COVID-19. Results: Of total of patients, 14 (7.6%) had a SARS-CoV-2. In infected patients 12 (85.7%) were men with an average age of 47.3±21 years. Comorbidities were present in about a third of patients, with hypertension and diabetes being the most frequent (both 14.3%), and the most frequent symptoms were fever and hea dache (57.2%). Univariate regression showed higher probabilities of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the rural Andean population associated with advanced age (OR: 1.1 95% CI 0.7 - 1.8; p = 0.019), previous comorbidities (OR: 1.7, 95%CI 0.32 - 9.39; p = 0.006), and previous symptoms (OR: 49.8, 95%CI 5.6 - 436.9; p = 0.0011). Conclusions: Possible risk factors such as advanced age, comorbidities and previous symptoms are related to the development of COVID-19 in the rural Andean population of Peru.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , COVID-19 , Peru , População Rural , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , SARS-CoV-2 , Cefaleia , Hospitais , Hipertensão , Infecções
16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(38): 6476-6488, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional methods of developing predictive models in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) rely on using statistical regression approaches to deriving clinical scores such as the Crohn's disease (CD) activity index. However, traditional approaches are unable to take advantage of more complex data structures such as repeated measurements. Deep learning methods have the potential ability to automatically find and learn complex, hidden relationships between predictive markers and outcomes, but their application to clinical prediction in CD and IBD has not been explored previously. AIM: To determine and compare the utility of deep learning with conventional algorithms in predicting response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in CD. METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center cohort study of all CD patients who commenced anti-TNF therapy (either adalimumab or infliximab) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. Remission was defined as a C-reactive protein (CRP) < 5 mg/L at 12 mo after anti-TNF commencement. Three supervised learning algorithms were compared: (1) A conventional statistical learning algorithm using multivariable logistic regression on baseline data only; (2) A deep learning algorithm using a feed-forward artificial neural network on baseline data only; and (3) A deep learning algorithm using a recurrent neural network on repeated data. Predictive performance was assessed using area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) after 10× repeated 5-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: A total of 146 patients were included (median age 36 years, 48% male). Concomitant therapy at anti-TNF commencement included thiopurines (68%), methotrexate (18%), corticosteroids (44%) and aminosalicylates (33%). After 12 mo, 64% had CRP < 5 mg/L. The conventional learning algorithm selected the following baseline variables for the predictive model: Complex disease behavior, albumin, monocytes, lymphocytes, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase, and had a cross-validated AUC of 0.659, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.562-0.756. A feed-forward artificial neural network using only baseline data demonstrated an AUC of 0.710 (95%CI: 0.622-0.799; P = 0.25 vs conventional). A recurrent neural network using repeated biomarker measurements demonstrated significantly higher AUC compared to the conventional algorithm (0.754, 95%CI: 0.674-0.834; P = 0.036). CONCLUSION: Deep learning methods are feasible and have the potential for stronger predictive performance compared to conventional model building methods when applied to predicting remission after anti-TNF therapy in CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Aprendizado Profundo , Adalimumab , Adulto , Algoritmos , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral
17.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2025-2032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To obtain the estimates of the сurrent incidence rate of perinatal infections, risk factors, as well as their associated impact on mortality and determine the antimicrobial resistance of responsible pathogens in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study was based on surveillance data. This study included infants aged 0 to 6 days delivered in 2017-2019 at 11 Ukrainian regional perinatal centers. Definitions of perinatal infections and mortality were used from the CDC/WHO/UNICEF. RESULTS: Results: Of 18,348 liveborn infants, 472 (2.6%) perinatal infections were detected. The incidence of perinatal infection was 25.7 per 1000 live births. The most frequently identified types of infections were: bloodstream infections, 35.6 %, lower respiratory tract infections, 21.4%, Meningitis, 18.2%, Conjunctivitis, 11.9%, skin and soft tissue infections, 6.6%, Dacryocystitis, 3.8%, and urinary tract infections, 2.5%. Early mortality rates from perinatai infections was 51.1%, with an incidence of 13.1 deaths/1000 live births. Potential risk factors the development of perinatal infections and mortality were low birth weight, prematurity, low gestasional age, mode of delivery (manual aid), premature rupture of membranes, preterm premature rupture of membranes, prolonged rupture of membranes, turbid and meconeal amniotic fluid, infection of the mother during labor. resuscitation during delivery, invasive procedure, asphyxia. Main causative agents of perinatal infections were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, CoNS, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: This study showing that the high incidence rate of perinatal bacterial infections, as well as their associated impact on mortality, and presents a significant burden to the Ukraine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
18.
Cir Esp (Engl Ed) ; 99(9): 660-665, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749925

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Proctologic issues entail a frequent reason for consultation in the emergency department (ED). We aim to analyze how the SARS-COV-2 pandemic has impacted in the demand for proctological consultations. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive comparative retrospective study of cross-sectional cohorts of patients attending the ED for proctological complaints from March to April in 2020 and 2019. Demographic variables, comorbidities, reasons for consultation and diagnosis, treatment and readmission were included. Four periods were analyzed according to the different stages of the pandemic derived limitations. RESULTS: A total of 191 patients were reviewed, 58 in 2020 and 133 in 2019 with an average age of 48 years (SD 20.1) and 112 (58.6%) males. The average number of daily consultations was 2.18 patients in 2019 versus 0.95 in 2020 (p=0.025) meaning a 56% reduction in consultations for proctological reasons. This difference in average consultations was significant in both periods of lockout (p=0.001) and previous de-escalation (p=0.014). The diagnosis distribution was similar between both periods; however, perianal abscesses doubled their rate in 2020, 22.4% versus 11.3% (p=0.045). There was an increasing need for surgery, 31% vs 15% (p=0.011) with no difference in outpatients regimen after emergency surgery (12.5% vs 7.5%, p=0.201). Three patients in 2020 required readmission to the ED (5.2% vs 12.9%, p=0.086). CONCLUSION: There was a decrease of a 56% in proctologic emergency consultation, however, the need for surgery was twice more frequent during the study period. Reflection on the use of emergencies for proctological reasons is warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2997-3008, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754185

RESUMO

Purpose: Bronchiectasis (BE) is a poor prognostic factor in COPD. However, it is not clear whether the poor prognosis is a result of BE alone or accompanying chronic bronchitis symptoms. Therefore, we investigated the effect of chronic bronchitis symptoms on clinical outcomes in COPD patients with BE. Patients and Methods: We analyzed data of COPD patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort. The presence of BE was verified by chest computed tomography. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined using items in the symptomatic domain of the SGRQ, which is also used as an alternative definition of chronic bronchitis (CB). Patients were divided into four groups according to the presence of BE and CB symptoms: BE/CB, BE-only, CB-only, and no BE/CB. Demographic features and clinical outcomes were compared among these groups. Results: In total, 389 COPD patients were included in the analysis. BE was present in 148 (38%) patients and CB symptoms were found in 123 patients (33.2%). The patients were divided according to BE and CB symptoms, and the numbers and percentages of each group were as follows: BE/CB, 52 (13.4%); BE-only, 96 (24.7%); CB-only, 77 (19.8%); no BE/CB, 164 (42.2%). No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics of lung function, radiological findings, and inflammatory markers among the four groups. The proportion of annual exacerbators was higher in the BE/CB and CB-only groups than the other two groups. After adjusting other parameters, the BE/CB group was significantly associated with acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) (OR = 2.110, p = 0.045). Conclusion: BE accompanying CB symptoms is associated with AE-COPD, while BE alone was not significantly associated. This finding suggests that it is more important to examine chronic bronchitis symptoms of BE to predict acute exacerbation than simply to identify BE in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Bronquite Crônica , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Bronquite Crônica/diagnóstico , Bronquite Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
20.
Scand J Immunol ; 94(4): e13084, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780073

RESUMO

BCG infections occur more frequently in patients with underlying primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ratio of PIDD in the patients with BCG infections. Patients with BCG infections were analyzed in a tertiary referral centre in the 2015-2020 period. Forty-seven patients with BCGitis/BCGosis were evaluated; thirty-four (72.3%) had BCGitis, and 13 (27.7%) had BCGosis. Common tissue and organs affected are lymph nodes (57.4%), skin and subcutaneous tissue (48.9%), lungs (23.4%) and liver (17%). PIDD was shown in 26 patients (55.3%), including 92.3% of patients with BCGosis and 41.2% of patients with BCGitis. Ten patients had Mendelian susceptibility to Mycobacterial disease (MSMD) (21.2%), six had predominantly antibody deficiency (PAD) (12.7%), five had severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (10.6%), three had CGD (6.3%), and two had CID (4.2%). Mortality was reported in two patients (4.2%) with CID (ZAP70 deficiency (n = 1) and PIK3R1 deficiency (n = 1)). Parental consanguinity (84%), axillary lymphadenopathy (65%), mycobacterial lung disease (42%), hepatomegaly (30%) and growth retardation (19%) were significantly high in patients with PIDD diagnosis. Isolated vaccination site infection was also recorded in patients with PIDD (CID (n = 1), SCID (n = 1), PAD (n = 5)). BCG vaccination should be planned with caution for the cases with suspected PIDD. This study indicates that almost all patients (92.3%) with BCGosis and one in every two patients (41.2%) with BCGitis have an underlying PIDD. Parental consanguinity, axillary lymphadenopathy, mycobacterial lung disease, hepatomegaly and growth retardation (19%) are important clinical features in the differential diagnosis of PIDD.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/complicações , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/complicações , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/etiologia , Tuberculose/imunologia
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