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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is increasingly being recognized as key regulatory system coupled with the glucocorticoid system implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, prior studies examining the ECS in MDD have been inconclusive, of small sample size or of cross-sectional nature limiting interpretation of causal inferences or time-dependent effects. METHODS: In a prospective community-based cohort study including 128 individuals (women: 108), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9) as well as hair cortisol and endocannabinoids were measured annually over four years (T1-T4). Cortisol, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), and 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol/1-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG/1-AG) were extracted from 3 cm hair segments reflecting cumulative concentrations of the last three months prior sampling. RESULTS: Cross-sectional group comparisons at baseline revealed reduced AEA and cortisol levels in the group with a positive MDD screening compared to individuals with low depressive symptomatology (both p < .05). Cross-lagged panel models showed that AEA levels at T2 were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at T3 (p < .05). Also, depressive symptoms at T3 were negatively associated with AEA levels at T4 (p < .01). The direction of association was reversed for 2-AG/1-AG, as 2-AG/1-AG levels at T1 were positively associated with depressive symptoms at T2 (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: While cross-sectional analyses suggest higher depressive symptomatology to be associated with reduced AEA and cortisol release, longitudinal analyses reveal that primarily AEA levels are negatively associated with depressive symptoms. These longitudinal associations elucidate time-dependent relationships between depressive symptomatology and the ECS and further highlight AEA as potential treatment target in MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Endocanabinoides , Humanos , Feminino , Hidrocortisona , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Glicerol , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Cabelo
2.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 735-741, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students and examine the relationship between sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) indicators (chronotype, social jetlag, sleep duration) and depressive symptoms. METHODS: From April to May 2019, the College Student Behavior and Health Cohort Study was conducted among Chinese college students from 2 universities in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces. The current study used data from the third follow-up study. Questionnaire content includes socio-demographic and lifestyle information. Social jetlag and sleep duration were calculated by answering the question about sleep time. Chronotype was assessed by the Morning and Evening Questionnaire (MEQ-5). Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). A Chi-square test was used to examine the proportion depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression model were used to explore the associations of circadian rhythm indicators with depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild depression, moderate and above depression was 18.8 % and 6.9 %. Evening types (E-types) and short sleep duration were significantly associated with depression. Stratified analysis indicated that E-types and social jetlag≥2 h were associated with mild depression (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI: 1.83-17.51), as well as stratified analysis indicated that E-types and sleep duration<8 h were associated with mild depression (OR = 5.10, 95 % CI: 1.88-13.87). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that depressive symptoms are more severe when multiple SCRD indicators are out of whack. The intervention programs of depressive symptoms should consider the context of the multidimensional aspects of Chinese college student sleep.


Assuntos
Depressão , Síndrome do Jet Lag , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome do Jet Lag/epidemiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Sono , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , China/epidemiologia
3.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137034, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342025

RESUMO

Previous animal studies provided the evidence that prenatal titanium exposure can cause neurotoxicity in their offspring, while human data is vacant. Our aim was to identify the associations of prenatal titanium exposure with the child neurodevelopment. Participants in present study were recruited during early pregnancy between 2014 and 2017. Urinary concentrations of titanium at first trimester were determined. We assessed child neurodevelopment using the Chinese version of Gesell Developmental Schedules at first year follow-up. The multivariable linear regressions and the robust modified Poisson regressions were used to estimate the associations of specific gravity corrected urinary titanium concentrations with the child neurodevelopment. In adjusted models, children's developmental quotient scores in the language domain were 2.03 points (95% CI: -3.66, -0.40) lower in the highest tertile of prenatal urinary titanium than in the lowest tertile. Also, children with prenatal urinary titanium in the highest tertile had 1.42 times (95% CI: 1.17, 1.72) increased risk of language development delay compared to those in the lowest tertile. No statistically significant associations were observed between titanium exposure and child development delay in motor, adaptive and social areas. The findings indicated that prenatal higher titanium exposure was associated with impaired language development, suggesting that titanium might act as developmental neurotoxicants.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Titânio/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Coorte de Nascimento
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Immunomodulatory therapies reduce the relapse rate but only marginally control disability progression in patients with MS. Although serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels correlate best with acute signs of inflammation (e.g., relapses and gadolinium-enhancing [Gd+] lesions), their role in predicting progressive biology and irreversible axonal damage is less clear. We aimed to determine the ability of sNfL to dissect distinct measures of disease severity and predict future (no) evidence of disease activity (EDA/no evidence of disease activity [NEDA]). METHODS: One hundred fifty-three of 221 patients with relapsing-remitting MS initially enrolled in the Neurofilament and longterm outcome in MS cohort at the MS outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Mainz (Germany) met the inclusion criteria for this prospective observational cohort study with a median follow-up of 6 years (interquartile range 4-7 years). Progressive disease forms were excluded. Inclusion criteria consisted of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) assessment within 3 months and MRI within 12 months around blood sampling at baseline (y0) and follow-up (y6). EDSS progression at y6 had to be confirmed 12 weeks later. sNfL was measured by single-molecule array, and the following additional variables were recorded: therapy, medical history, and detailed MRI parameters (T2 hyperintense lesions, Gd+ lesions, and new persistent T1 hypointense lesions). RESULTS: Patients experiencing EDSS progression or new persistent T1 lesions at y6 showed increased sNfL levels at y0 compared with stable patients or patients with inflammatory activity only. As a potential readily accessible marker of neurodegeneration, we incorporated the absence of persistent T1 lesions to the NEDA-3 concept (NEDA-3T1: n = 54, 35.3%; EDAT1: n = 99, 64.7%) and then evaluated a risk score with factors that distinguish patients with and without NEDA-3T1 status. Adding sNfL to this risk score significantly improved NEDA-3T1 prediction (0.697 95% CI 0.616-0.770 vs 0.819 95% CI 0.747-0.878, p < 0.001). Patients with sNfL values ≤8.6 pg/mL showed a 76% risk reduction for EDAT1 at y6 (hazard ratio 0.244, 95% CI 0.142-0.419, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: sNfL levels associate with severe focal axonal damage as reflected by development of persistent T1 lesions. Baseline sNfL values predicted NEDA-3T1 status at 6-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Filamentos Intermediários , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Axônios , Estudos de Coortes
5.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104806, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thyroid deficiency may reduce mortality in older adults, but older adults prioritize independence over merely staying alive. We investigated the association between thyroid dysfunction and nursing home admission and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling older adults over 80. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based open cohort study using data from laboratory registries covering 75% of Denmark supplemented by national registries. We included all community-dwelling older adults over 80 years with a first TSH measurement between 1996 and 2019. Participants with prior thyroid disorders or medication affecting the thyroid were excluded. Participants were followed from inclusion until nursing home admission, death or loss to follow-up due to emigration. RESULTS: We included 272,495 participants at baseline. Median follow-time was 3.71 years in analyses of nursing home admissions and 4.00 years for all-cause mortality. Hypothyroidism was associated with lower nursing home admission (TSH 5-10 mIU/l: HR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91, P < 0.001); TSH >10 mIU/l HR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54-0.85, P = 0.001) and with reduced all-cause mortality (TSH >10 mIU/l: HR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93, P = 0.002). The association between hyperthyroidism and nursing home admission was of little clinical significance while hyperthyroidism was associated with increased all-cause mortality hazard both for low (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.13-1.19, P < 0.001) and suppressed (HR 95% CI: 1.14 1.07-1.21, P < 0.001) TSH. CONCLUSION: Hypothyroidism is associated with a reduced nursing home admission hazard and to a lesser extent all-cause mortality in community-dwelling adults over 80 years, while hyperthyroidism is associated with increased all-cause mortality but not hazard of nursing home admission.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo , Hipotireoidismo , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Vida Independente , Casas de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tireotropina , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158852, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the adverse effects of preconception phthalate (PAE) exposure on birth weight in couples receiving assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to naturally conceived newborns. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between parental preconception/prenatal urinary phthalate exposure and low birth weight (LBW) risk in couples who conceived using ART or naturally. METHODS: From the Jiangsu Birth Cohort Study (China), we recruited 544 couples who conceived after infertility treatment and 940 couples who conceived naturally and gave birth to a singleton infant between November 2014 and December 2019. Seventeen metabolites of phthalate and three metabolites of phthalate alternatives were analyzed in parental spot urine samples. Clinical data were collected from medical records. We used generalized linear models, elastic net regression, Bayesian kernel machine regression, and quantile-based g-computation to examine the individual and joint effects of parental phthalate exposure on birth weight and LBW risk ratios (RR). RESULTS: The relationship between parental phthalate exposure and birth weight was consistent between ART and natural conception. Maternal exposure to mono-ethyl phthalate and mono-carboxyisooctyl phthalate was associated with an increased risk of LBW in ART-conceived infants (RR = 1.27; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.56; and RR = 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.67, respectively). In contrast, in the spontaneously conceived infants, higher paternal prenatal concentrations of mono-benzyl phthalate and mono-carboxyisononyl phthalate were associated with a 40 % and 53 % increase in LBW risk, respectively. Exposure to PAE mixtures was associated with LBW in ART-conceived infants, with the effects primarily driven by di-ethyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, and di-isononyl phthalate metabolites. Sex-specific LBW was observed, with females appearing to be more susceptible than males. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal preconception and paternal prenatal exposure to phthalates were associated with increased risk of LBW in infants. Compared with natural conception, ART-conceived fetuses were more sensitive to PAE mixtures, which requires further attention.


Assuntos
Coorte de Nascimento , Ácidos Ftálicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Masculino , Lactente , Feminino , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Teorema de Bayes , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
7.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 616-620, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of moderate to vigorous physical activity(MVPA) in lowering depression risk are well established, but there is mixed evidence on sleep, sedentary behaviour(SB), and light-intensity physical activity(LIPA). These behaviours are often considered in isolation, neglecting their behavioural and biological interdependences. We investigated how time spent in one behaviour relative to others was associated with depression risk. METHODS: We included 4738 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort study (age 46 wave). Depression status was ascertained using self-reported doctor visits and prescribed anti-depressant use. MVPA, LIPA, SB and sleep were ascertained using thigh-worn accelerometers worn consecutively for 7 days. Compositional logistic regression was used to examine associations between different compositions of time spent in movement behaviours and depression. RESULTS: More time spent in MVPA, relative to SB, sleep or LIPA, was associated with a lower risk of depression. When modelling reallocation of time (e.g. replacing time in one behaviour with another), replacing sleep, SB or LIPA with MVPA time was strongly associated with lower depression risk. Reallocating time between SB, sleep or LIPA had minimal to no effect. LIMITATIONS: Data was cross-sectional, therefore causality cannot be inferred. Accelerometers do not capture SB context (e.g. TV watching, reading) nor separate biological sleep from time spent in bed. CONCLUSIONS: Displacing any behaviour with MVPA was associated with a lower risk of depression. This study provides promising support that increasing MVPA, even in small doses, can have a positive impact on prevention, mitigation and treatment of depression.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Sono , Acelerometria
8.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 91-97, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The course of depression is variable; however, few studies examined the relationship between long-term cumulative depressive symptoms and adverse health outcomes in the elderly. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) over 24 years and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) over 16 years. Cumulative depressive symptoms were estimated by calculating the areas under the curve based on the Center for Epidemiological Research Depression scale assessed at four examinations. Outcomes include cognitive decline, incident dementia, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 8284 American (mean age: 60.1 years; male: 35.4 %) and 4314 British (60.1 years; 42.4 %) were included in the analysis. The median follow-up was 16.1 years in the HRS and 9.9 years in the ELSA. Similar results were observed in two cohorts. Comparing with the first tertile of cumulative depressive symptoms, the third tertile experienced faster cognitive decline (p = 0.013 in the ELSA and p < 0.001 in the HRS), increased risk of dementia (both p < 0.001), CVD (both p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (p = 0.002 in the HRS). Strong dose-response relationships were observed. We did not found clearly association between cumulative depressive symptoms and incident cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that long-term cumulative depressive symptoms were associated with subsequent faster cognitive decline and greater risks for dementia, CVD and all-cause mortality, but not cancer. These findings provide insights on potential effective strategy that may improve health in the elderly, future clinical trials are needed to determine causality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depressão/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Demência/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 218-229, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased risk of depressive symptoms (DS) or anxious symptoms (AS). This study explores whether awareness of DM will contribute to prevalence of DS or AS. METHODS: The baseline data including 81,717 adults from Southwest China was analyzed. DS and AS were assessed using PHQ-2 and GAD-2. Exposures were defined as 1) having self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes (self-reported DM), 2) no prior diagnosis of diabetes but meeting diagnostic criteria (newly diagnosed DM), 3) having self-reported physician diagnosis or meeting criteria of non-diabetic diseases (non-diabetic patients), 4) healthy participants. Generalized linear mixed models were used to assess impact of presence and awareness of DM on DS or AS, adjusting for regional and individual related factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of DS in self-reported DM, newly diagnosed DM, non-diabetic patient and healthy participants was 7.08 %, 4.30 %, 5.37 % and 3.17 %. The prevalence of AS was 7.80 %, 5.77 %, 6.37 % and 3.91 %. After adjusting for related factors, compared with healthy participants, self-reported DM and non-diabetic patients were associated with DS [AORDS, self-reported = 1.443(1.218,1.710), AORDS, nondiabetic patients = 1.265(1.143,1.400)], while the association between newly diagnosed DM and DS was not statistically significant. The associations between self-reported DM, newly diagnosed DM, non-diabetic patients and AS were all statistically significant. LIMITATIONS: DS and AS were assessed through self-report and may suffer recall or information bias. CONCLUSIONS: The association between awareness of diabetes and DS/AS suggests to pay attention to distinguish between self-reported and newly diagnosed DM and screening for DS and AS in diabetic population.


Assuntos
CME-Carbodi-Imida , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Prevalência , China/epidemiologia
10.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 461-467, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural disasters can have serious mental health consequences. We aimed to examine the long-term effects of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) on postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS). METHODS: The Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Birth and Three-Generation Cohort Study recruited pregnant women in Miyagi Prefecture from 2013 to 2016. Data from 11,403 participants were used in this study. Women were asked about their traumatic experiences of the GEJE with questions addressing threat, witness, and loss. PDS were defined as Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥9 at 1 month after delivery. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of different traumatic experiences of the GEJE and number of traumatic experiences with PDS, after adjustment for age, parity, feelings toward pregnancy, education, income, social isolation, house damage caused by the GEJE, and survey year. RESULTS: About two-fifths of women had at least one traumatic experience of the GEJE. The prevalence of PDS at 1 month after delivery was 13.3 %. Life-threatening experience and witnessing another person's actual or threatened death were associated with PDS: the odds ratios (ORs) were 1.40 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.59) and 1.28 (95 % CI, 1.08-1.53), respectively. Loss of close person was not associated with PDS: the OR was 1.13 (95 % CI, 0.99-1.30). Larger number of traumatic experiences of the GEJE was associated with increased risk of PDS (p for trend <0.001). LIMITATIONS: PDS was self-reported. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic experiences of the GEJE prior to pregnancy were associated with increased risks of PDS.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão , Japão/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto
11.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 610-615, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of head and neck cancer (HNC) may lead to exhaustion and depression. Therefore, the suicide risk of patients with HNC is high. This study aimed to understand the suicide risk of patients with HNC in Taiwan compared with patients with other-cancer and general population during the period from 2010 to 2019. METHODS: A total of 74,495 patients with HNC were compared against the other two cohort consisting 148,878 patients with other-cancer and 595,512 individual without cancer by age, sex, and index year from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the risk of all-cause or suicide mortality. RESULTS: Compared to the non-cancer group, the all-cause mortality risk of the HNC group (the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 7.72; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 7.60-7.83) is lower than that of the other-cancer group (aHR, 8.87; 95 % CI, 8.77-8.98). However, the suicide mortality risk compared with non-cancer group in the HNC group (aHR, 3.89; 95 % CI, 3.46-4.37) is much higher than other-cancer group (aHR, 1.86; 95 % CI, 1.64-2.10). HNC only has the seventh highest all-cause mortality risk, but HNC has the second highest suicide mortality risk. Men always have a higher suicide mortality risk than women. Middle-aged patients (age 50-60 years) have the highest suicide mortality risk, whereas younger patients (age < 40 years) have the lowest suicide mortality risk. LIMITATIONS: In this study, some factors and information needed were limited to the existing database; thus, preventing recall bias was difficult. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that patients with HNC did not have a higher risk of all-cause mortality than patients with other cancers. However, the risk of suicide mortality in patients with HNC was higher than that of patients without cancer and patients with other cancers in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Suicídio , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 249-258, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852007

RESUMO

We are reporting (a) updated incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women who did not have colposcopic or histopathological disease at baseline and (b) disease outcomes among women treated for CIN and their follow-up HPV status; in a cohort of women living with HIV (WHIV). The median overall follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR 2.8-4.3). The incidence of any CIN and that of CIN 2 or worse disease was 16.7 and 7.0 per 1000 person-years of observation (PYO), respectively. Compared with women who were HPV negative at baseline, women who cleared HPV infection had 23.95 times increased risk of incident CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 2.40-661.07). Women with persistent HPV infection had 138.18 times increased risk of CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 20.30-3300.22). Complete disease regression was observed in 65.6% of the HPV positive women with high-grade CIN and were treated with thermal ablation but HPV persistence was seen in 44.8% of those with high-grade disease. Among those who did not have any disease at baseline and were also HPV negative, about 87% (95% CI 83.79-89.48) women remained HPV negative during consecutive HPV test/s with the median interval of 3.5 years. Long-term surveillance of WHIV treated for any CIN is necessary for the prevention of cervical cancer among them. Our study provides an early indication that the currently recommended screening interval of 3 to 5 years among WHIV may be extended to at least 5 years among HPV negative women. Increasing the screening interval can be cost saving and improve scalability among WHIV to support WHO's cervical cancer elimination initiative.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/efeitos adversos , Papillomaviridae , Estudos de Coortes , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
13.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 57(1): 1-7, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36337012

RESUMO

Background. Pacemakers are used to treat syncope in patients with bradyarrhythmia; however, the risk of recurrent syncope has only been investigated in few and smaller studies. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of recurrent syncope after pacemaker implantation in patients with bradyarrhythmia and prior syncope. Methods. This retrospective, population-based cohort study included patients with a prior syncope and implantation of a pacemaker using data from the Danish nationwide registers from 1996 to 2017. Cumulative incidence and cox regression was used to estimate the 5-year incidence and the risk of recurrent syncope, respectively. Results. In total, 11,126 patients (median age: 78 years, interquartile range: 69-85, 56% male) were included and the 5-year cumulative incidence of recurrent syncope was 19.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.8-20.3%). Sinus node dysfunction (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.17-1.42) and unspecified type of bradyarrhythmia (HR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.15-1.52) were associated with an increased risk of syncope compared to advanced atrioventricular (AV) block. Male sex (HR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.22-1.34), cerebrovascular disease (HR: 1.17, 95%CI: 1.05-1.30), and prior number of syncopes were significantly associated with a higher HR of recurrent syncope. Conclusion. Almost one-in-five patients with bradyarrhythmia and prior syncope who had a pacemaker implanted had a recurrent syncope within five years. A higher risk of syncope was observed among patients with sinus node dysfunction and unspecified type of bradyarrhythmia compared to AV block. Male sex, cerebrovascular disease, and prior number of syncopes were associated risk factors of recurrent syncope.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular , Marca-Passo Artificial , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Bradicardia/diagnóstico , Bradicardia/epidemiologia , Bradicardia/terapia , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/epidemiologia , Síncope/terapia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Live cell-based assay (CBA) can detect acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) or muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies (Abs) in a proportion of patients with radioimmunoassay (RIA)-double seronegative myasthenia gravis (dSN-MG). A commercial fixed CBA for AChR and MuSK Abs has recently become available; however, comparative studies on fixed and live CBAs are lacking. In this study, we compared the performance of fixed and live CBAs in patients with RIA-dSN MG and assessed their sensitivity in RIA-positive MG samples and their specificity. METHODS: AChR and MuSK Abs were tested in 292 serum samples from 2 Italian MG referral centers by live and fixed CBAs: 192 from patients with MG and 100 from controls. All samples had been previously assessed by RIA: 66 were AChR positive, 40 MuSK positive, and 86 dSN. All controls were negative. Two independent raters assessed the CBA results. Fixed and live CBAs were compared with the McNemar test; interrater and interlaboratory agreement were assessed with Cohen's kappa or interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), as appropriate. RESULTS: In 86 RIA-dSN samples, fixed CBA detected Abs in 10 cases (11.6%, 95% CI 5.7-20.3), whereas live CBA detected Abs in 16 (18.6%, 95% CI 11.0-28.5) (p = 0.0143). Of these sera, those positive by fixed CBA were also positive by live CBA. In addition, live CBA could detect MuSK Abs in 4 and AChR Abs in 2 samples that were negative by fixed CBA, providing an 8% (95% CI 2.9-16.6) further increase in the Ab detection rate. These results were confirmed by flow cytometry. In the RIA-positive cohort, the sensitivity for AChR Abs was 98.5% (95% CI 91.9%-99.9%) for fixed CBA and 100% (95% CI 94.6-100) for live CBA (p = 0.1573). For both assays, the sensitivity for MuSK Abs was 100% (95% CI 91.2-100), and the specificity was 100% (95% CI 96.4-100). Interrater agreement was almost perfect for live and fixed CBAs (Cohen's kappa 0.972 and 0.978, respectively), alike interlaboratory agreement. Interrater agreement for the CBA score ranged from good to excellent (ICC: 0.832-0.973). DISCUSSION: Fixed CBA represents a valuable alternative to RIA for AChR and MuSK Ab detection in patients with MG and could be considered as a first-step diagnostic test. Live CBA can be useful in the serologic evaluation of RIA- and fixed CBA-negative samples.


Assuntos
Miastenia Gravis , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases , Humanos , Autoanticorpos , Estudos de Coortes , Receptores Colinérgicos
15.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136688, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202376

RESUMO

Many studies have reported that neonates and infants are exposed to several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) via breastfeeding; however, these studies have had small sample sizes. This study aimed to determine the concentrations and time-course trend of PFASs in breast milk and identify influencing factors governing PFAS concentrations. Between July and September (2018), 207 low-risk primiparous women were recruited from a lactation counseling clinic in Korea and their breast milk samples were tested for 14 PFASs, including four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids. A questionnaire survey, comprising 84 questions covering the women's demographic, obstetrical, dietary, lifestyle, behavioral, and neonatal information, was conducted to investigate associations. Twelve of the 14 PFASs were detectable in breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorodecanoic acid were detected in 100% of the samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (detection rate: 87%), perfluorononanoic acid (87%), and perfluorohexanoic acid (73%); the median concentrations were 0.05, 0.10, 0.031, 0.007, and 0.033 ng/mL, respectively. The PFAS concentrations in breast milk measured in our study were higher than those reported in other studies or countries. In 12 years, from 2007 to 18, the mean concentration of PFOA in breast milk increased by approximately three times (278%). The major factors associated with PFAS concentrations in the bivariate association analysis were body mass index; living area (non-metropolitan); neonatal age; and frequency of fish, ice cream, and canned food consumption. In the multiple regression model, fish consumption significantly influenced the PFOS concentrations in breast milk (ß = 0.88, p = 0.033). Frequently, fish consumption has been analyzed as the main dietary factor related to PFOS concentration. Our findings suggest the need for a comprehensive cohort study on PFAS exposure and its association with infant health.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136871, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244420

RESUMO

Evidence concerning the associations of ambient air pollution exposure with bone mineral density and osteoporosis has been mixed. We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analysis of the associations between air pollution exposure and osteoporosis using data from UK Biobank study. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) of each participant at baseline survey was calculated using quantitative ultrasound data, and incident osteoporosis cases were identified during the follow-up period according to health-related records. Air pollution concentrations were assessed using land use regression models. We fitted multivariable linear and logistic regression models to estimate the associations of air pollution with eBMD and osteoporosis prevalence at baseline. We applied cox proportional hazard regression models to assess the relationships between air pollution and osteoporosis incidence. Among the 341,311 participants at baseline, higher air pollution exposure was associated with lower eBMD levels and increased odds of osteoporosis prevalence. For example, an IQR increase in PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, NO2 and NOx levels were associated with 0.0018 (95% CI: 0.0012, 0.0023) to 0.0052 (95% CI: 0.0046, 0.0058) g/cm2 decrease in eBMD. A total of 330,988 participants without osteoporosis were followed up for an average of 12.0 years. We identified 8105 incident osteoporosis cases (456 cases with pathological fracture and 7634 cases without pathological fracture) during the follow-up. The hazard ratios for an interquartile range increase in PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, NO2 and NOx were 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.12), 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.07), 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.07), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.10), and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.09), respectively. Our study suggests that ambient air pollution might be a risk factor of decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis incidence.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Fraturas Espontâneas , Osteoporose , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Osteoporose/epidemiologia
17.
Ann Pharmacother ; 57(1): 44-50, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The furosemide stress test (FST) is a safe and easy assessment of renal tubular function. Other factors, such as mean arterial pressure (MAP), which may influence the success rates of the FST, have not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between MAP and success rates of the FST in critically ill patients. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center, institutional review board (IRB)-approved cohort study. Critically ill adult patients given at least one dose of intravenous (IV) furosemide (≥1-1.5 mg/kg) were included. Primary outcome was whether a MAP ≥ 75 mm Hg would equate to a higher FST success rate. Secondary outcome was the success rates of patient on one or more vasopressors. RESULTS: Of 225 patients, 88 (39.1%) had a successful FST. In patients with a MAP ≥ 75 mm Hg, 60 out of 104 (57.7%) had a successful FST compared to 28 out of 121 (23.1%) of patients who had a MAP < 75 mm Hg (odds ratio [OR], 4.53, 95% CI, 2.55-8.74, P < 0.001). Patients on vasopressors at the time of the furosemide dose had lower rates of success compared to those not on vasoactive agents (30.4% versus 68.2%, p = 0.026). Limitations of this study include its retrospective design and reliance on documented urine output. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Patients with a MAP ≥ 75 mm Hg were significantly more likely to have a successful FST compared to those with a MAP < 75 mm Hg. This represents the first report of factors that may influence FST success rates.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Furosemida , Adulto , Humanos , Furosemida/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pressão Arterial , Teste de Esforço , Estudos de Coortes , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
18.
Ann Pharmacother ; 57(1): 36-43, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen overdose is a leading cause of liver failure, and a leading cause of pediatric poisoning requiring hospital admission. The antidote, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is traditionally administered as a three-bag intravenous infusion. Despite its efficacy, NAC is associated with high incidence of nonallergic anaphylactoid reactions (NAARs). Adult evidence demonstrates that alternative dosing regimens decrease NAARs and medication errors (MEs). OBJECTIVES: To compare NAARs and MEs associated with two- versus three-bag NAC for acetaminophen overdose in a pediatric population. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational cohort study comparing pediatric patients who received three- versus two-bag NAC for acetaminophen toxicity. The primary outcome was incidence of NAARs. Secondary outcomes were rates of MEs and relevant hospital outcomes (length of stay [LOS], intensive care unit (ICU) admission, liver transplant, death). RESULTS: Two hundred forty-three patients met inclusion criteria (median age of 15 years): 150 (62%) three-bag NAC and 93 (38%) two-bag NAC. There was no difference in overall NAARs (p = 0.54). Fewer cutaneous NAARs were observed in the two-bag group, three-bag: 15 (10%), two-bag: 2 (2%), p = 0.02. MEs were significantly decreased with the two-bag regimen, three-bag: 59 (39%), two-bag: 21 (23%), p = 0.01. No statistical differences were observed in LOS, ICU admissions, transplant, or death. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: A significant decrease in cutaneous NAARs and MEs was observed in pediatric patients by combining the first two bags of the traditional three-bag NAC regimen. In pediatric populations, a two-bag NAC regimen for acetaminophen overdose may improve medication tolerance and safety.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos , Overdose de Drogas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico
19.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 104: 104841, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the association between consistent subjective cognitive decline and fall occurrence six months later. METHOD: A cohort study was conducted at two time points in community-dwelling older adults. The first survey was conducted from May to July 2020 and the second from November 2020 to January 2021. Older adults without missing data who had not fallen during the past year were analyzed. The questionnaire included sociodemographic data, a questionnaire for medical checkup of older adults, and a frailty screening index. We divided the participants into three groups according to the occurrence of subjective cognitive decline (SCD): 1) no SCD (did not complain of SCD at both time points), 2) unstable SCD (complained of SCD once), and 3) consecutive SCD (consistently complained of SCD). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between fall occurrence and SCD. Fall occurrences were obtained from the second survey. RESULTS: In total, 322 participants were included in the analysis. The numbers of patients with no SCD, unstable SCD, and consecutive SCD were 226 (70.2%), 61 (19.0%), and 35 (10.9%), respectively. In the second survey, the number of falls was 26 (8.1%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that consecutive SCD was associated with fall occurrence, even after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, cohabitants, and frailty status (OR:3.143, 95% CI:1.076-9.388); however, unstable SCD was not (OR:2.348, 95% CI:0.816-6.468). CONCLUSION: Consistent complaints of SCD were associated with the occurrence of falls. We highlighted the importance of evaluating SCD over time when considering falls.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Fragilidade , Humanos , Idoso , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kappa free light chains (KFLC) seem to efficiently diagnose MS. However, extensive cohort studies are lacking to establish consensus cut-offs, notably to rule out non-MS autoimmune CNS disorders. Our objectives were to (1) determine diagnostic performances of CSF KFLC, KFLC index, and KFLC intrathecal fraction (IF) threshold values that allow us to separate MS from different CNS disorder control populations and compare them with oligoclonal bands' (OCB) performances and (2) to identify independent factors associated with KFLC quantification in MS. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study involving 13 French MS centers. Patients were included if they had a noninfectious and nontumoral CNS disorder, eligible data concerning CSF and serum KFLC, albumin, and OCB. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to their diagnosis: MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), other inflammatory CNS disorders (OIND), and noninflammatory CNS disorder controls (NINDC). RESULTS: One thousand six hundred twenty-one patients were analyzed (675 MS, 90 CIS, 297 OIND, and 559 NINDC). KFLC index and KFLC IF had similar performances in diagnosing MS from nonselected controls and OIND (p = 0.123 and p = 0.991 for area under the curve [AUC] comparisons) and performed better than CSF KFLC (p < 0.001 for all AUC comparisons). A KFLC index of 8.92 best separated MS/CIS from the entire nonselected control population, with better performances than OCB (p < 0.001 for AUC comparison). A KFLC index of 11.56 best separated MS from OIND, with similar performances than OCB (p = 0.065). In the multivariate analysis model, female gender (p = 0.003), young age (p = 0.013), and evidence of disease activity (p < 0.001) were independent factors associated with high KFLC index values in patients with MS, whereas MS phenotype, immune-modifying treatment use at sampling, and the FLC analyzer type did not influence KFLC index. DISCUSSION: KFLC biomarkers are efficient tools to separate patients with MS from controls, even when compared with other patients with CNS autoimmune disorder. Given these results, we suggest using KFLC index or KFLC IF as a criterion to diagnose MS. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that KFLC index or IF can be used to differentiate patients with MS from nonselected controls and from patients with other autoimmune CNS disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central , Doenças Desmielinizantes , Esclerose Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias kappa de Imunoglobulina , Bandas Oligoclonais , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes
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