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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 53-61, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corn silk is a very important by-product of corn production with medicinal value. Corn silk polysaccharide (CSP) is the main active ingredient. In the present study, ultrasound and spheroidization by anti-solvent were applied to improve the biological activity of CSP. RESULTS: The results showed that ultrasonic degradation improved the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of CSP by changing its physicochemical characteristics. As the anti-solvent ratio increased, the particle size of the nanoparticles (NPs) from the spheroidization of ultrasonic-degraded corn silk polysaccharide (UCSP) gradually increased, and NP-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) results indicated that the enhanced activity might be due to more α-glucosidase binding sites with NP-1 compared with no spheroidization. Western blotting results showed that NP-1 could improve the 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) uptake in the L6 cells by regulating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway and the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). NP-1 also exhibited excellent stability in different environments. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that ultrasonic treatment and spheroidization processing showed potential applications for improving the biological activity of polysaccharides. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ultrassom , alfa-Glucosidases/química
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131012, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500293

RESUMO

Peumus boldus is an endemic tree species from Chile whose leaves have been the focus of study for decades given that their infusions are reported to relieve rheumatic symptoms, headache, dyspepsia, urinary tract inflammation, and symptoms of other illnesses. These health properties have been studied mainly using leaves and bark, then it is relevant to know more about these properties in different parts of the plant. Considering the importance of P. boldus fruits in the diet of some rural populations, we analyzed their properties to explore its impact on the Chilean population health. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids such as boldine, although aporphine N-methyl-laurotetanine was the most abundant. In addition, flavonoids catechin, chrysin and quercetin were also found in the extract. Cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activities of the fruit extract were invitro tested by using a murine macrophage cell model, observing that a diluted fraction of the extract was not cytotoxic, but showed anti-inflammatory activity, which is likely attributed to antioxidants activities. By means of quantum chemical calculations, we calculated the redox potential of the respective alkaloids and flavonoids found in the extract. Results suggest a synergistic effect between alkaloids and flavonoids, where boldine and N-methyl-laurotetanine showed similar antioxidant properties. Finally, we present a description of the oxidation mechanisms for both groups of molecules which will sustain P. boldus fruit biological properties, in order to give this kind of fruits scientific value focusing on human health.


Assuntos
Peumus , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
3.
Gene ; 806: 145921, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454033

RESUMO

Maoto, a traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo), is widely used to treat upper respiratory tract infections, including influenza virus infection. Although maoto is known to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses in a rodent model of acute inflammation, its underlying mechanism remains to be determined. In this study, we investigated the involvement of immune responses and noradrenergic function in the inhibitory action of maoto. In a mouse model of polyI:C-induced acute inflammation, maoto was administered orally in conjunction with intraperitoneal injection of PolyI:C (6 mg/kg), and blood was collected after 2 h for measurement of plasma cytokines by ELISA. Maoto significantly decreased PolyI:C-induced TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 production. Neither pretreatment with IL-10 neutralizing antibodies nor T-cell deficiency using nude mice modified the inhibitory effect of maoto, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto are independent of IL-10 and T cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of maoto on PolyI:C-induced TNF-α production were not observed in ex vivo splenocytes, suggesting that maoto does not act directly on inflammatory cells. Lastly, pretreatment with a ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist partially cancelled the anti-inflammatory effects of maoto. Collectively, these results suggest that maoto mediates its anti-inflammatory effects via ß-adrenergic receptors in vivo.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Efedrina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-10/agonistas , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Japão , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Poli I-C/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
4.
Food Chem ; 369: 130875, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438342

RESUMO

Cardoon seeds collected in Greece at four different maturity stages (samples S1 to S4) were analysed in terms of chemical composition and in vitro bioactivities. The content of phenolic compounds (six compounds in total) increased with increasing maturity, and 3,5-O-dicaffeyolquinic (14.8-33.8 mg/g extract) acid was the compound detected in higher abundance. Mature seeds (sample S4) also revealed the highest content in lipids (23 g/100 g extract) and tocopherols (29.62 mg/100 g dw) and demonstrated the highest cytotoxic (GI50 of 97-216 µg/mL) and anti-inflammatory (IC50 = 148 µg/mL) activities, and capacity to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (IC50 = 5 µg/mL). Cardoon seed hydroethanolic extracts also revealed high antibacterial and antifungal potential, particularly samples S3 and S1, respectively. This study proved the multifaceted potential associated with valorisation of cardoon seeds, while their biological and chemical composition can be influenced by the maturity stage.


Assuntos
Cynara , Anti-Inflamatórios , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química
5.
Food Chem ; 368: 130782, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392121

RESUMO

In this study, the aerial parts and bulbs of nine Allium species were investigated for their functional phytochemical profile, in vitro antioxidant activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Phenolics, alkaloids, glucosinolates and other sulfur-containing compounds were distinctively profiled in the different species. Maceration in methanol allowed recovering the highest cumulative phenolic content in A. scabrifolium (42.31 mg/g), followed by A. goekyigiti (33.15 mg/g) and A. atroviolaceum (28.35 mg/g). The aerial parts of all Allium species showed high in vitro antioxidant activity whereas methanolic extract of A. cappadocicum bulb showed the highest inhibition against AChE (2.44 mg galantamine equivalent/g) and the water extracts of A. isauricum aerial part were the best BChE inhibitors (4.31 mg galantamine equivalent/g). Bulbs were the richer source of oligosaccharides, and in vitro digestion determined an increase of oligosaccharides bioaccessibility. A promising nutraceutical potential could be highlighted in our understudied Allium species.


Assuntos
Allium , Antioxidantes , Acetilcolinesterase , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Butirilcolinesterase , Inibidores Enzimáticos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Food Chem ; 368: 130864, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438172

RESUMO

Ultra-high pressure (UHP) is a novel non-thermal pretreatment method in food processing for improving the extraction yield of polyphenols and functional properties. The present work investigated the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, and cytoprotective effects of the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic fractions from mango leaves before and after ultra-high pressure (UHP) treatment. UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 42 phenolic compounds in the different phenolic forms. UHP pretreatment could significantly influence the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids and individual compounds in the different phenolic fractions (p < 0.05). After UHP pretreatment, these phenolic fractions exhibited greater antioxidant activity, and inhibited reactive oxygen species production and cell apoptosis (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, IBP were the most potential antioxidative and cytoprotective ingredients. Therefore, UHP pretreated mango leaves with enhanced bioactivity could be used as biological agents in the health food industry to improve its application and economic values.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Mangifera , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Food Chem ; 368: 130871, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438174

RESUMO

This study is the first dynamic simulation of gastrointestinal digestion of cranberry polyphenols [1 g cranberry extract per day (206.2 mg polyphenols) for 18 days]. Samples from the simulated ascending, transverse, and descending colon of the dynamic gastrointestinal simulator simgi® were analyzed. Results showed that 67% of the total cranberry polyphenols were recovered after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Specifically, benzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, phenylpropionic acids, phenylacetic acids, and simple phenols were identified. Cranberry feeding modified colonic microbiota composition of Enterococcaceae population significantly. However, increments in microbial-derived short-chain fatty acids, particularly in butyric acid, were observed. Finally, the simgi® effluent during cranberry feeding showed significant antiadhesive activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (13.7 ± 1.59 % of inhibition). Understanding the role that gut microbiota plays in cranberry metabolism could help to elucidate its interaction with the human body and explain cranberry protective effects against urinary tract infections.


Assuntos
Vaccinium macrocarpon , Bactérias/genética , Digestão , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia
8.
Food Chem ; 368: 130832, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474242

RESUMO

Piper nigrum L. is commonly used worldwide and its pericarp, stalks, leaves will be major wastes materials. 42 amide alkaloids were identified in black, white pepper and pericarp by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS method, followed by 40 constituents in stalks and 36 constituents in leaves. 8 amide alkaloids were reported for the first time in P. nigrum. An ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC)-MS method was firstly applied to simultaneously determine 9 characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, piperanine, pipercallosine, dehydropipernonaline, pipernonatine, retrofractamide B, pellitorine and guineensine). The most abundant compound in each extract was piperine with a concentration from 0.10 to 12.37 mg/g of dry weight. The fruits, pericarp and leaves extracts could improve cell viability in 6-OHDA-induced SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed the characteristics of amide alkaloids of different parts of P. nigrum and evaluated their neuroprotective activities.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Piper nigrum , Piper , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis , Frutas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia
9.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108656, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419790

RESUMO

The effect of enterocin (Ent)7420 and sage on rabbit meat carcass quality and amino acid (AA) conetnt was evaluated. Ninty-six Hyla male rabbits (35 days aged) were divided into experimental: E (Ent7420), S (sage), E + S (Ent7420 + sage) and control (C) groups. The additives were administrated in drinking water during 21 days. Time and time and treatment interaction effect were noted on carcass traits. The highest protein level was noted in rabbits LTL receiving Ent7420 in combination with sage. Essential (EAA) and non-essential amino acid (NEAA) levels increased in all experimental groups, with the highest EAAs in group E + S (E + S vs. E, S: P < 0.01; E + S, E, S vs. C: P < 0.001) and NEAAs in group E (E vs. S, E + S, C: P < 0.001). The dietary inclusion of Ent7420 alone and in combination with sage can improve the rabbit meat quality due to its higher protein, EAAs and NEAAs profile.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salvia officinalis/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Coelhos
10.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132276, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601372

RESUMO

Phytoconstituents of plants had enormous therapeutic potential against the wounds on skin. Plants like Tecoma stans, Manilkara zapota and Cassia fistula were some which had the ability to heal the wounds. However, there was limited research in Cassia fistula flowers and its synergism with plants on wound healing and its mechanism. Qualitative analysis was performed to confirm the presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, saponins and tannins in solvents:aqueous ethanol and methanol. All three components showed their attributes towards wound healing. Results of antimicrobial activity clearly stated that, methanol extract of the Cassia fistula flowers at increasing concentration, showed the maximum zone of inhibition of 27 mm at 100 µl (antibacterial assay) and 18 mm at 100 µl (anti-fungal assay). They had higher potential against the selective microbes Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger. The combination of C. fistula flowers and C. fistula leaves; C. fistula flowers and M. zapota leaves showed maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm and 21 mm for anti-bacterial; 22 mm and 23 mm for antifungal at 100 µl respectively. The C. fistula flowers along with the Manilkara zapota leaves and C. fistula leaves enhanced the antimicrobial nature than the individual plants. The antimicrobial properties present in the plants would engage them in future for developing an improved medicine for wound healing. Thus a polyherbal plant solution containing equal proportions of plants, tested for the antibacterial activity, succeeded by showing its higher inhibition of 25 mm at 100 µl.This concluded that the synergism of plants had higher efficiency in microbial activity than the individual samples hence proving the plants attributes towards the wound healing.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bignoniaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109463, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742143

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds contained in propolis and to evaluate the effect of propolis and its extracts on the antifungal activity, pH, color, and sensory analysis of creamy cheese with thyme (thyme labneh). Ethanolic and water extracts of propolis were evaluated to determine its phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds in propolis were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antifungal activities, color, pH, and sensory evaluation of propolis and its extracts (water and ethanolic) were investigated at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%. The results showed 11 phenolic compounds in the propolis extract. Our findings revealed a significant difference in phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of propolis when compared with the water extract (P < 0.05). Microbial counts in thyme labneh treated with propolis powder and its extracts (ethanolic and water) showed significant differences compared with the control at all concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%). Propolis powder and ethanolic extracts at concentrations of 1% and 1.5% were limited the rapid growth of mold and yeast, so the results showed no significant difference between 14 and 21 days for these samples. In addition, the 1.5% water extract did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05) between Days 14 and 21. The sensory panel did not detect a significant difference in any sensory attribute in the thyme labneh treated with propolis extracts. This study identified the significant antioxidant and antimicrobial effectiveness of using propolis in dairy products, suggesting its potential as a natural preservative.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Própole , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etanol , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem ; 371: 131116, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583181

RESUMO

Porophyllum ruderale subsp. ruderale is a food product used for seasoning in Central and Southern America. The present research aimed to investigate the chemical composition of an extract prepared from aerial parts of P. ruderale using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS, to isolate and identify major natural products present in the extract, and to furtherly investigate their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Twenty-five compounds were detected and characterized using UV-Vis and MS data. All characterized compounds were quantified. Ten major phenolics were isolated and identified by NMR. One previously undescribed natural product was isolated and established as 1-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy)benzoyl-6-O-galloyl-ß-d-glucose (12). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated based on the influence of the extract and isolated compounds on the TLR4-dependent secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α by human primary neutrophils in vitro. Phenolic acids, and caffeic acid derivatives in particular, contributed to the extract's bioactivity.


Assuntos
Coriandrum , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bolívia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102484, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688884

RESUMO

In this study, a combination therapy of several natural products was evaluated in vivo in the Giardia duodenalis infection model. G. duodenalis infected mice were treated as follows: distilled water (infected control C+), BIOintestil® (BIO; natural products of Cymbopogon martinii and Zingiber officinale), MicrobiomeX® (MBX; extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi), MBX + BIO, Camellia sinensis tea (CPR; black tea). These natural compounds were administered in a dose of 100 mg/day and were compared to G. duodenalis-infected mice treated with albendazole (ALB; 50 mg/Kg/day) and metronidazole (MET; 500 mg/Kg/day), the conventional therapies used to this day. One group remained un-infected and untreated as our control group (C-). Treatment started 8 days after infection, and after 5 days of treatment (7 days for MET), all animals were followed for 15 days. We continuously checked for the presence of G. duodenalis by Faust method, in association with detection of the parasite by PCR from feces, as well for the presence of trophozoites in the intestinal mucosa after sacrifice. Animals treated with MBX, BIO and MBX + BIO presented an undetectable parasitic load until the 15th day of monitoring, while animals treated with CPR, MET and ALB continued to release cysts. Animals in the MBX, MBX + BIO, ALB groups consumed lower feed, MBX, CPR, MET had greater weight and MBX, MBX + BIO, BIO, CPR, C- consumed more water when compared to infected-group control. MBX and BIO alone or associated eliminated G. duodenalis without apparent adverse effects and animals of these groups showed better clinical performance in relation to those with high parasitic load. MET, ALB and CPR only decreased the number of cysts, indicating limitations and therapeutic failure.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Microbiota , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Albendazol/química , Albendazol/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/química , Citrus/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Masculino , Metronidazol/química , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Chá/química
14.
Food Chem ; 372: 131224, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624787

RESUMO

Triterpenoids are hypoglycemic substances and flavor components of Momordica charantia L., whether their bitterness correlated with hypoglycemic potential remain unknown. Thus, triterpenoids in M. charantia were isolated by phytochemical methods and identified by spectroscopic analysis. The bitterness levels and hypoglycaemic activity of isolated triterpenoids were evaluated by electronic tongue and hepatic gluconeogenesis assay. Eighteen triterpenoids including two new ones, Momordicoside Y and Z, were identified. Among the six identified bitter triterpenoids, karaviloside III, goyaglycoside C, and momordicoside F2 were bitterer than caffeine (P < 0.05), with caffeine equivalent (CE) values of 289.19, 4.32, and 41.24 mg CE/mg, respectively. Momordicoside Y, charantoside C, momordicoside F1, and momordicoside G could inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis by 23.9%, 36.2%, 33.4%, 34.4% at 40 µM, respectively. These four compounds could interact with active site of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in molecular docking simulation. No correlation was observed between hepatic gluconeogenesis inhibitory activity and bitterness of triterpenoids.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia , Triterpenos , Frutas , Gluconeogênese , Glicosídeos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 280-290, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polysaccharide was purified in this study, which was acquired from the fermentation broth of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. We aimed to investigate the structural features and bioactivity of this polysaccharide. RESULTS: The polysaccharide was purified and the main polysaccharide fraction (i.e., DOP-1) was obtained. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) revealed that the molecular weight of DOP-1 was 447.48 kDa. Galactose, glucose and mannose were found to be present in DOP-1 via monosaccharide composition analysis, at a ratio of 1:1.79:6.71. Methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis indicated that the backbone of DOP-1 was →4)-α-d-Glcp-(1 → 4)-α-d-Manp-(1 → 4)-α-d-Manp-(1 → 4,6)-α-d-Manp-(1→, and its repeating units were also preliminarily established. In vitro tests proved that DOP-1 not only protects RAW264.7 macrophages from the cytotoxic effect induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but also inhibits cytokines (i.e., interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α) induced by LPS. DOP-1 demonstrated good scavenging activity in vitro toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, as well as good metal chelating activity. Therefore, DOP-1 has potential antioxidant applications. CONCLUSION: The structural characteristics of DOP-1 support its favourable biological activities and lay a strong foundation for further exploration of its structure-activity relationships and activity development, providing experimental data for the development and utilisation of fermentation broth of D. officinale. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sequência de Carboidratos , Cromatografia em Gel , Fermentação , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 372: 131335, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818743

RESUMO

Mulberry leaves (MLs) have been used traditionally to raise silkworms and as herbs and herbal drinks. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence of health benefits, mostly for ML extracts. ML extracts showed antioxidant, hypoglycemic, anticholesterol (affecting lipid metabolism), antiobesity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities, and so on. These might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, reduction of foam cell formation, inhibition of fat formation, decrease of NF-κB activity, and the promotion or induction of apoptosis. Phenolic constituents, especially flavonoids, phenolic acids and alkaloids, are likely to contribute to the reported effects. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of MLs confer the traditional and current uses as medicine, food, fodder, and cosmetics. This paper reviews the economic value, chemical composition and pharmacology of MLs to provide a reference for the development and utilization of MLs.


Assuntos
Morus , Frutas , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 541, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762183

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of Mitracarpus scaber leaves extract (MSLE) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, physiological, antioxidants, and mucosal immune profiles of North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and resistance to Edwardsiella tarda infection. Four isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 2, 4, or 6 MSLE g/kg were fed to North African catfish fingerlings (n = 240; mean weight = 5.80 g) for 56 days. After the feeding trial, 10 fish from each experimental tank were intraperitoneally injected with E. tarda (ATCC 15,947; 1.0 × 108 CFU/mL) while clinical signs and mortalities were observed for 14 days. The results show that North African catfish fed dietary MSLE had better growth performance, physiological antioxidants, and mucosal immune profiles than when fed a control diet. The best growth, physiological, antioxidant, and mucosal immune response profiles were noticed in the fish fed diet containing 6 MSLE g/kg. Furthermore, fish fed 6 MSLE g/kg diet had a higher survival rate after E. tarda infection. These results indicated that supplementation of MSLE at 6 g/kg improves growth, physiological, antioxidant, and mucosal immune profiles, and promotes resistance of North African catfish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Edwardsiella tarda , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
18.
Acta Cir Bras ; 36(9): e360905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755765

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the morphological, biochemical, and histological effects of aqueous extracts of peanut (skinless and added to 1% skin) in Swiss mice submitted to a high-fat diet. METHODS: Forty male Swiss mice were divided into four groups (n=10 per group): GI) normocaloric diet; GII) high-fat diet; GIII) high-fat diet + 0.5 mL of peanut extract; GIV) high-fat diet + 0.5 mL of peanut extract + 1% peanut skin. The animals were weighed weekly and euthanized after 12 weeks for histopathological and biochemical analyses. The study was approved by the Animal Use Ethics Committee. RESULTS: The animals in the GIV group had higher body weight when compared to the other ones. Increase in total cholesterol in GIII, increase in blood glucose in groups GII, GIII and GIV, decrease in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration in groups GI and GIV and increase in serum concentration of C-reactive protein in GII were seen. The presence of vacuolar fat deposits was found in animal livers from GII. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts improved the plasma concentrations of animals that received a high-fat diet, including preventing morphological damage to liver tissue. These benefits were enhanced by the association of peanut shells with the extract.


Assuntos
Arachis , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Camundongos , Sobrepeso , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3539-3546, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739805

RESUMO

We have developed a simple, robust environment-friendly and efficient method for ZnO nanoparticles biosynthesis using Dalbergia sissoo fresh leaf extract. Before using these nanoparticles for antimicrobial assay, a detailed characterization was performed using techniques like Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Particle size analysis (PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM),Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) etc. The average size of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles was around 30 nm and they were pure and crystalline by nature. The effectiveness of these biosynthesized nanoparticles were checked against both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes. A total of eight bacterial strains-Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus entericus, Bacillus cereus, Pantoea cypripedii and three fungal strains-Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger and Aspergilus flavus were studied to have a clear view of the spectrum of ZnO nanoparticles anti-microbial activity. The effectiveness of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles against the microbes was found to be better than the standard reference antibiotics used (streptomycin, chloramphenicol and rifampicin). The results seem to be very promising and can be used for some practical applications of ZnO nanoparticles in nearfuture.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Óxido de Zinco , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pantoea/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia
20.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3580-3587, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739810

RESUMO

The study focused on the medicinal properties of citrus fruits and their ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. As the resistance against the modern antibiotic agents is on increase, finding new and effective natural antibiotic agents is the need of the modern era. Similarly, bio-synthesis of nanoparticles is also being encouraged for eco-friendly reasons. Due to remarkable medicinal and industrial applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), citrus fruit juice is used to reduce silver ions for the green synthesis of AgNPs. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various constituents which impart antibacterial property to citrus fruits, analyzed against four pathogenic bacteria. Also, citrus fruit juice exhibits radical scavenging activity because of these constituents. Further, the AgNPs synthesized using citrus fruits were characterized using Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to study the shape and size of the AgNPs. Anticancer activity of AgNPs was also evaluated against Colo-205 cell lines and found to inhibit 37.9% growth of cell lines at the concentration of 10 µg/ml. Hence, synthesized AgNPs can be used effectively against cancer cell lines in combination with other anti-cancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Citrus , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Frutas , Química Verde , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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