Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.661
Filtrar
Mais filtros








Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 12: 23247096241242237, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577756

RESUMO

Plasmacytoma is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia that grows in bones or soft tissues such as the pharynx. Soft tissue plasmacytomas are rare, and a higher burden has been reported in the upper aero-digestive tract, often manifesting as hoarseness, dysphagia, or odynophagia. Due to their rarity, extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs) have unknown prognostic factors, and guidelines for optimal management are still lacking. However, radiation therapy and surgery have been used with positive outcomes. Herein, we describe a unique case of plasmacytoma of the pharyngeal tissue in a male patient with a history of HIV disease. The patient completed 28 sessions of radiation therapy, resulting in an improvement in his throat pain and hoarseness. Given the patient's age and lack of traditional risk factors for head and neck cancers, his hoarseness and odynophagia proved to be a diagnostic conundrum. Although infrequent, soft tissue plasmacytomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of head and neck tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Plasmocitoma , Humanos , Masculino , Plasmocitoma/diagnóstico , Plasmocitoma/patologia , Plasmocitoma/radioterapia , Faringe/patologia , Rouquidão/etiologia
2.
Ann Plast Surg ; 92(4S Suppl 2): S101-S104, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharyngeal flap (PF) surgery is effective at improving velopharyngeal sufficiency, but historical literature shows a concerning prevalence rate of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), reported as high as 20%. Our institution has developed a protocol to minimize risk of postoperative obstructive complications and increase safety of PF surgery. We hypothesize that (1) preoperative staged removal of significant adenotonsillar tissue along with (2) multiview videofluoroscopy to guide patient-specific surgical approach via appropriately sized PFs can result in excellent speech outcomes while limiting occurrence of OSA. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of all patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) (aged 2-20 years) seen at the University of Rochester from 2015 to 2022 undergoing PF surgery to correct VPI. Nasopharyngoscopy was used for surgical planning and airway evaluation. Patients with tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy underwent staged adenotonsillectomy at least 2 months before PF. Multiview videofluoroscopy was used to identify anatomic causes of VPI and to determine PF width. Patients underwent polysomnography and speech evaluation before and at least 6 months after PF surgery. RESULTS: Forty-one children aged 8.5 ± 4.1 years (range, 4 to 18 years) who underwent posterior PF surgery for VPI were identified. This included 10 patients with 22q11.2 deletion and 4 patients with Pierre Robin sequence. Thirty-nine patients had both pre- and postoperative speech data and underwent both a pre- and postoperative sleep study. Polysomnography showed no significant difference in obstructive apnea-hypopnea index after posterior PF surgery (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index preop, 1.3 ± 1.2 events per hour; postop, 1.7 ± 2.1 events per hour; P = 0.111). Significant improvements in speech outcome were seen in patients who underwent PF (modified Pittsburgh score preop, 11.52 ± 1.37; postop, 1.09 ± 2.35; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Use of preoperative staged adenotonsillectomy as well as patient-specific PF dimensions results in effective resolution of VPI and a low risk of OSA.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Insuficiência Velofaríngea , Criança , Humanos , Fala , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Clínicos , Faringe/cirurgia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/cirurgia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573740

RESUMO

Salt (NaCl), is an essential nutrient for survival, while excessive salt can be detrimental. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, internal taste organs in the pharynx are critical gatekeepers impacting the decision to accept or reject a food. Currently, our understanding of the mechanism through which pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) sense high salt are rudimentary. Here, we found that a member of the ionotropic receptor family, Ir60b, is expressed exclusively in a pair of GRNs activated by high salt. Using a two-way choice assay (DrosoX) to measure ingestion volume, we demonstrate that IR60b and two co-receptors IR25a and IR76b are required to prevent high salt consumption. Mutants lacking external taste organs but retaining the internal taste organs in the pharynx exhibit much higher salt avoidance than flies with all taste organs but missing the three IRs. Our findings highlight the vital role for IRs in a pharyngeal GRN to control ingestion of high salt.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Cloreto de Sódio , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Faringe , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Neurônios
4.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 89(1): 4-9, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506018

RESUMO

Paratonsillar abscess (PTA) stands out among all otorhinolaryngological diseases, since it can cause life-threatening complications that develop in the shortest possible time due to the close connection of the cellular spaces of the head, neck and mediastinum. In addition to physical examination, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to diagnose PTA, sonography is less often used. With the help of the latter, it is possible to reliably distinguish PTA from both paratonsillitis and a number of other diseases, including an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, using the Doppler mode. However, there are significant gaps in the ultrasound diagnosis of PTA and paratonsillitis: the use of a percutaneous convex sensor is not described, there is no description of clear anatomical landmarks for reliable and rapid recognition of PTA, and diagnostically complete algorithms for verification and visualization of paratonsillitis and PTA using sonographic examination have not been developed. Our work is aimed at filling these gaps.


Assuntos
Faringe , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Ultrassonografia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
5.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 61: e23092, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People recurrently have difficulties swallowing solid medications, which can be associated with the size of the medication and the age and gender of individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of capsule size and adults' age and gender on oral and pharyngeal capsule transit during capsule swallows. METHODS: Videofluoroscopy was used to measure capsule oral and pharyngeal transit during swallows in 49 healthy individuals (17 men and 32 women), with a mean age of 46 years (ranging from 23 to 88 years). Smaller capsules were filled with 0.50 mL of barium sulfate, and larger capsules were filled with 0.95 mL of barium sulfate; the volume of liquid ingested with the capsules was also quantified in each ingestion. The measurements included the oral preparation time, oral transit time, swallowing reaction time, time to laryngeal vestibule closure, laryngeal vestibule closure duration, pharyngeal transit time, and upper esophageal sphincter opening duration. RESULTS: The capsule size did not influence either the oral or pharyngeal transit time. Increased liquid volume was ingested with larger capsules and by people older than 40 years. The oral transit time was shorter in older adults (60-88 years), and the time to laryngeal vestibule closure was longer in women. CONCLUSION: The size of large capsules did not make a difference in oral or pharyngeal transit when compared with smaller capsules. The capsule size and the participant's age influenced the volume of liquid ingested - larger capsules and older individuals required a larger volume. The capsule oral transit was faster in individuals older than 60 years. BACKGROUND: •Swallowing is influenced by the characteristics of what is being swallowed. BACKGROUND: •There was no difference in swallowing capsules containing 0.50 mL or 0.95 mL. BACKGROUND: •Larger capsules need more liquid ingestion to make swallowing easier. BACKGROUND: •Individuals older than 40 years need a greater volume of liquid to swallow capsules than younger adults.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Laringe , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Deglutição , Sulfato de Bário , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluoroscopia
6.
Sci Adv ; 10(13): eadi9035, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552007

RESUMO

The pharyngeal endoderm, an innovation of deuterostome ancestors, contributes to pharyngeal development by influencing the patterning and differentiation of pharyngeal structures in vertebrates; however, the evolutionary origin of the pharyngeal organs in vertebrates is largely unknown. The endostyle, a distinct pharyngeal organ exclusively present in basal chordates, represents a good model for understanding pharyngeal organ origins. Using Stereo-seq and single-cell RNA sequencing, we constructed aspatially resolved single-cell atlas for the endostyle of the ascidian Styela clava. We determined the cell composition of the hemolymphoid region, which illuminates a mixed ancestral structure for the blood and lymphoid system. In addition, we discovered a cluster of hair cell-like cells in zone 3, which has transcriptomic similarity with the hair cells of the vertebrate acoustico-lateralis system. These findings reshape our understanding of the pharynx of the basal chordate and provide insights into the evolutionary origin of multiplexed pharyngeal organs.


Assuntos
Urocordados , Animais , Urocordados/genética , Faringe , Vertebrados , Evolução Biológica , Diferenciação Celular
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(13): e37674, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pharyngitis (AP) refers to the acute inflammation of the pharynx, characterized by swelling and pain in the throat. Shuangyang houbitong granules (SHG), a traditional Chinese medicine compound, have been found to be effective in providing relief from symptoms associated with AP. METHODS: The chemical components of SHG were screened using Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database, HERB database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. The targets of the granules were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction database. A network was constructed based on the targets of AP obtained from Genecards database, and protein-protein interaction analysis was performed on the intersection targets using STRING database. Key targets were screened for Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis, and the binding activity of components and targets was predicted using AutoDockTools-1.5.7. RESULTS: A total of 65 components of SHG that met the screening criteria were retrieved, resulting in 867 corresponding targets. Additionally, 1086 AP target genes were retrieved, and 272 gene targets were obtained from the intersection as potential targets for SHG in the treatment of AP. Molecular docking results showed that the core components genkwanin, acacetin, apigenin, quercetin can stably bind to the core targets glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor, serine/threonine protein kinase, tumor protein 53, and epidermal growth factor receptor. CONCLUSION: The research results preliminarily predict and verify the mechanism of action of SHG in the treatment of AP, providing insights for further in-depth research.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Faringite , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringe , Pescoço , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
8.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 63, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obligate blood-feeding insects obtain the nutrients and water necessary to ensure survival from the vertebrate blood. The internal taste sensilla, situated in the pharynx, evaluate the suitability of the ingested food. Here, through multiple approaches, we characterized the pharyngeal organ (PO) of the hematophagous kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus to determine its role in food assessment. The PO, located antero-dorsally in the pharynx, comprises eight taste sensilla that become bathed with the incoming blood. RESULTS: We showed that these taste sensilla house gustatory receptor neurons projecting their axons through the labral nerves to reach the subesophageal zone in the brain. We found that these neurons are electrically activated by relevant appetitive and aversive gustatory stimuli such as NaCl, ATP, and caffeine. Using RNA-Seq, we examined the expression of sensory-related gene families in the PO. We identified gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, transient receptor potential channels, pickpocket channels, opsins, takeouts, neuropeptide precursors, neuropeptide receptors, and biogenic amine receptors. RNA interference assays demonstrated that the salt-related pickpocket channel Rproppk014276 is required during feeding of an appetitive solution of NaCl and ATP. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence of the role of the pharyngeal organ in food evaluation. This work shows a comprehensive characterization of a pharyngeal taste organ in a hematophagous insect.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Paladar , Animais , Paladar/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Faringe , Insetos , Trifosfato de Adenosina
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(11): e2312136121, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446848

RESUMO

Anxiety is a remarkably common condition among patients with pharyngitis, but the relationship between these disorders has received little research attention, and the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that the densely innervated pharynx transmits signals induced by pharyngeal inflammation to glossopharyngeal and vagal sensory neurons of the nodose/jugular/petrosal (NJP) superganglia in mice. Specifically, the NJP superganglia project to norepinephrinergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTSNE). These NTSNE neurons project to the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) that induces anxiety-like behaviors in a murine model of pharyngeal inflammation. Inhibiting this pharynx→NJP→NTSNE→vBNST circuit can alleviate anxiety-like behaviors associated with pharyngeal inflammation. This study thus defines a pharynx-to-brain axis that mechanistically links pharyngeal inflammation and emotional response.


Assuntos
Faringite , Faringe , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Ansiedade , Encéfalo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Inflamação
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 286, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), including sepsis and meningitis, can develop when Neisseria meningitidis bacteria breach the barrier and gain access to the circulation. While IMD is a rare outcome of bacterial exposure, colonization of the oropharynx is present in approximately 10% of the human population. This asymptomatic carriage can be long or short term, and it is unknown which determining factors regulate bacterial colonization. Despite descriptions of many bacterial virulence factors and recent advances in detailed genetic identification and characterization of bacteria, the factors mediating invasion and disease vs. asymptomatic carriage following bacterial colonization remain unknown. The pharyngeal epithelia play a role in the innate immune defense against pathogens, and the aim of this study was to investigate the proinflammatory response of pharyngeal epithelial cells following meningococcal exposure to describe the potential inflammatory mediation performed during the initial host‒pathogen interaction. Clinically relevant isolates of serogroups B, C, W and Y, derived from patients with meningococcal disease as well as asymptomatic carriers, were included in the study. RESULTS: The most potent cellular response with proinflammatory secretion of TNF, IL-6, CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1ß and IL-18 was found in response to invasive serogroup B isolates. This potent response pattern was also mirrored by increased bacterial adhesion to cells as well as induced cell death. It was, however, only with serogroup B isolates where the most potent cellular response was toward the IMD isolates. In contrast, the most potent cellular response using serogroup Y isolates was directed toward the carriage isolates rather than the IMD isolates. In addition, by comparing isolates from outbreaks in Sweden (epidemiologically linked and highly genetically similar), we found the most potent proinflammatory response in cells exposed to carriage isolates rather than the IMD isolates. CONCLUSION: Although certain expected correlations between host‒pathogen interactions and cellular proinflammatory responses were found using IMD serogroup B isolates, our data indicate that carriage isolates invoke stronger proinflammatory activation of the epithelial lining than IMD isolates.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas , Neisseria meningitidis , Humanos , Células Epiteliais , Faringe , Epitélio
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7340, 2024 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538631

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Class III correction appliances including the Facemask (FM), and the new non-compliance fixed functional appliances such as the Reversed Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD), as well as the CS-2000 (CS), on the sagittal pharyngeal airway dimension (SPAD). Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients who underwent Class III appliance treatment, using either FM, Reversed FRD, or CS were collected from the files of treated patients. SPAD changes were evaluated in each group, and comparisons were conducted between the three study groups. Additionally, sagittal and vertical skeletal measurements were conducted. The FM, the Reversed FRD, and the CS, were found to generate a significant increase in the SPAD, with the Reversed FRD contributing to the most significant change at the OPAA (116.80 ± 26.36 mm2). All three appliances elicited significant antero-posterior changes in the SNA°, SNB°, and ANB°, also with the greatest intermaxillary change documented with the employment of the Reversed FRD (ANB° = 3.33 ± 0.82°). As for the vertical dimension, the FM, the Reversed FRD, and the CS elicited significant FMA° increases, with the greatest change attributed to the FM (FMA° = 2.32 ± 0.97°). Therefore, the three tested Class III corrective appliances generated significant SPAD, antero-posterior, and vertical changes. However, the Revered FRD showed a superior impact in increasing the SPAD at the OPAA level and in eliciting significant intermaxillary changes.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Funcionais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle/terapia , Mandíbula , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/terapia , Cefalometria/métodos , Faringe
12.
Eur J Orthod ; 46(2)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniofacial skeletal discrepancies have been associated with upper airway dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in upper airway volume across different sagittal and vertical skeletal patterns. SEARCH METHODS: Unrestricted literature searches in eight databases/registers for human studies until May 2023. SELECTION CRITERIA: Cross-sectional studies measuring upper airway volumes using three-dimensional imaging in healthy patients of different sagittal (Class I, Class II, and Class III) or vertical (normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent) craniofacial morphology. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Duplicate independent study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Random-effects frequentist network meta-analysis was performed followed by subgroup-analyses and assessment of the quality of clinical recommendations (confidence in effect estimates) with the CINeMA (Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis) approach. RESULTS: Seventy publications pertaining to 66 unique studies were included with 56 studies (5734 patients) contributing to meta-analyses. Statistically significant differences were found for total  pharyngeal airway volume, with Class II having decreased airway volume (-2256.06 mm3; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -3201.61 to -1310.51 mm3) and Class III increased airway volume (1098.93 mm3; 95% CI 25.41 to 2172.45 mm3) compared to Class I. Significant airway volume reductions for Class II were localized mostly at the oropharynx, followed by the palatopharynx, and the glossopharynx. Significant airway volume increases for Class III were localized mostly at the oropharynx, followed by the intraoral cavity, and hypopharynx. Statistically significant differences according to vertical skeletal configuration were seen only for the oropharynx, where hyperdivergent patients had reduced volumes compared to normodivergent patients (-1716.77 mm3; 95% CI -3296.42 to -137.12 mm3). Airway differences for Class II and Class III configurations (compared to Class I) were more pronounced in adults than in children and the confidence for all estimates was very low according to CINeMA. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences in upper airway volume were found between sagittal and vertical skeletal configurations. However, results should be interpreted with caution due to the high risk of bias, owing to the retrospective study design, inconsistencies in anatomic compartment boundaries used, samples of mixed children-adult patients, and incomplete reporting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42022366928).


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Faringe , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Metanálise em Rede , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cefalometria/métodos , Faringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Faringe/anatomia & histologia
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475029

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a notable rise in the number of patients afflicted with laryngeal diseases, including cancer, trauma, and other ailments leading to voice loss. Currently, the market is witnessing a pressing demand for medical and healthcare products designed to assist individuals with voice defects, prompting the invention of the artificial throat (AT). This user-friendly device eliminates the need for complex procedures like phonation reconstruction surgery. Therefore, in this review, we will initially give a careful introduction to the intelligent AT, which can act not only as a sound sensor but also as a thin-film sound emitter. Then, the sensing principle to detect sound will be discussed carefully, including capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and piezoresistive components employed in the realm of sound sensing. Following this, the development of thermoacoustic theory and different materials made of sound emitters will also be analyzed. After that, various algorithms utilized by the intelligent AT for speech pattern recognition will be reviewed, including some classical algorithms and neural network algorithms. Finally, the outlook, challenge, and conclusion of the intelligent AT will be stated. The intelligent AT presents clear advantages for patients with voice impairments, demonstrating significant social values.


Assuntos
Faringe , Voz , Humanos , Som , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação
14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 29, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355651

RESUMO

Notifications of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections have significantly increased in many European Countries compared to the previous season. In Italy, there has been an increase in streptococcal pharyngitis and scarlet fever cases since January 2023, which sparked concerns about a GAS epidemic in the pediatric population. This rise may be ascribed to the GAS infection season that began earlier than usual (off-season outbreak) and the increase in the spread of respiratory viruses and viral coinfections that raised the risk of iGAS disease. Moreover, this phenomenon was also facilitated by increased travel after reduced GAS circulation during the COVID-19 pandemic.The increase in cases of GAS disease has raised some critical issues regarding the potential reactions to administering amoxicillin, the first-line antibiotic therapy, many of which have been erroneously labeled as "allergy."For these reasons, the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (SIAIP) intends to provide simple clinical indications to help pediatricians manage GAS pharyngitis, discerning the allergic from non-allergic drug hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Hipersensibilidade , Faringite , Escarlatina , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Criança , Humanos , Escarlatina/tratamento farmacológico , Faringe , Pandemias , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2302660121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315866

RESUMO

The pharynx of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a neuromuscular organ that exhibits typical pumping motions, which result in the intake of food particles from the environment. In-depth inspection reveals slightly different dynamics at the various pharyngeal areas, rather than synchronous pumping motions of the whole organ, which are important for its effective functioning. While the different pumping dynamics are well characterized, the underlying mechanisms that generate them are not known. In this study, the C. elegans pharynx was modeled in a bottom-up fashion, including all of the underlying biological processes that lead to, and including, its end function, food intake. The mathematical modeling of all processes allowed performing comprehensive, quantitative analyses of the system as a whole. Our analyses provided detailed explanations for the various pumping dynamics generated at the different pharyngeal areas; a fine-resolution description of muscle dynamics, both between and within different pharyngeal areas; a quantitative assessment of the values of many parameters of the system that are unavailable in the literature; and support for a functional role of the marginal cells, which are currently assumed to mainly have a structural role in the pharynx. In addition, our model predicted that in tiny organisms such as C. elegans, the generation of long-lasting action potentials must involve ions other than calcium. Our study exemplifies the power of mathematical models, which allow a more accurate, higher-resolution inspection of the studied system, and an easier and faster execution of in silico experiments than feasible in the lab.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Nematoides , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Faringe/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
16.
Microsurgery ; 44(2): e31149, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363100

RESUMO

There is minimal information regarding free tissue transfers in very young infants, especially those less than a year old. It is often thought that that age remains a limit to free tissue transfers, with younger patients having smaller vessels, making the operation technically challenging. In this case report, we discuss the youngest and smallest recorded case of a free flap reconstruction. A 3-month-old patient with a malignant parapharyngeal undifferentiated round cell sarcoma underwent a resection and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap (RFFF). The defect was 35 by 20 by 15 mm, and required a pharyngeal "patch," as opposed to a "tube," reconstruction. The defect was templated, and the RFFF then raised in a standard subfascial fashion, and inset with resorbable sutures. The patient was observed in the ICU postoperatively. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with Stage IV primary undifferentiated sarcoma with regional metastasis and received adjuvant chemotherapy. Fifteen-month follow up revealed no signs of recurrence, full oral intake, a well-reconstructed pharynx on nasoendoscopic examination, and minimal donor site morbidity. This report illustrates several unique adaptations of free flap transfer in infants and adds to the emerging body of evidence that age is not a contraindication for head and neck reconstruction.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica , Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Humanos , Lactente , Faringe , Pescoço , Sarcoma/cirurgia
17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297855

RESUMO

Objective:To explore the feasibility of using self-made visual throat forceps to remove hypopharyngeal foreign bodies. Methods:The throat forceps were combined with the endoscope and connected to a monitor via a data cable resulting in a visual throat forceps apparatus. This device was utilized to examine and treat the hypopharyngeal foreign bodies. Results:Among 53 patients, foreign bodies were detected in 51,with 48 cases involving hypopharyngeal foreign bodies. All were successfully extracted using the visual throat forceps. Three cases, diagnosed as esophageal foreign bodies by electronic gastroscopy, were treated using the same method. Conclusion:Visual throat forceps can be used to examine the hypopharynx and remove foreign bodies. It has the advantages of simple operation, rapid operation, and high success rate of foreign body removal from the hypopharynx. It is worthy of clinical application.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos , Hipofaringe , Humanos , Hipofaringe/cirurgia , Faringe/cirurgia , Endoscópios , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico
18.
Int Wound J ; 21(3): e14728, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385835

RESUMO

Pediatric otolaryngology surgeries are crucial interventions requiring careful consideration of surgical methods to optimize outcomes. The choice between open and minimally invasive surgical approaches in this context warrants thorough investigation. While both methods aim to address ear, nose, and throat conditions in children, a comparative study assessing their impact on crucial factors such as intraoperative parameters, wound healing, complications, and postoperative pain is essential. This study aims to compare the effects of open and minimally invasive surgical methods on wound healing and infection in pediatric otolaryngology surgery, and provide a scientific basis for the selection of surgical methods. Two groups of patients were selected, with 90 people in each group. One group received open surgery and the other received minimally invasive surgery. Recording the intraoperative time, anesthesia time, and intraoperative blood loss; the number of days required for wound healing; the occurrence of wound-related complications; the comparison of pain on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 7; and the factors influencing postoperative wound healing were analyzed. In the minimally invasive surgery group, the intraoperative time was shorter, the anesthesia time was relatively reduced, and the amount of bleeding was significantly reduced. Wounds also take fewer days to heal and have lower rates of wound-related complications. When comparing the pain on 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery, the minimally invasive surgery group had relatively mild pain. Analysis of postoperative wound healing factors showed that minimally invasive surgical methods have a positive impact on healing. In pediatric otolaryngology surgery, minimally invasive surgery performs better than open surgery in terms of intraoperative operation time, anesthesia time, blood loss, wound healing time, complication rate, and postoperative pain. Therefore, minimally invasive surgery may be a safer and more effective surgical method.


Assuntos
Otolaringologia , Faringe , Criança , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Cicatrização
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 25(2): 31, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326518

RESUMO

Drug delivery to the buccal mucosa is one of the most convenient ways to treat common mouth problems. Here, we propose a spray-dried re-dispersible mucoadhesive controlled release gargle formulation to improve the efficacy of chlorhexidine. The present investigation portrays an approach to get stable and free-flowing spray-dried porous aggregates of chlorhexidine-loaded sodium alginate nanoparticles. The ionic gelation technique aided with the chlorhexidine's positive surface charge-based crosslinking, followed by spray drying of the nanoparticle's dispersion in the presence of lactose- and leucine-yielded nano-aggregates with good flow properties and with a size range of about 120-350 nm. Provided with the high entrapment efficiency (87%), the particles showed sustained drug release behaviors over a duration of 10 h, where 87% of the released drug got permeated within 12 h. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared formulation was tested on S. aureus, provided with a higher zone of growth inhibition than the marketed formulation. Aided with an appropriate mucoadhesive strength, this product exhibited extended retention of nanoparticles in the throat region, as shown by in vivo imaging results. In conclusion, the technology, provided with high drug retention and extended effect, could be a potential candidate for treating several types of throat infections.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Faringe , Staphylococcus aureus , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Antissépticos Bucais , Tamanho da Partícula
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 281(5): 2691-2698, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review long-term (> 5 years) outcomes of ESP surgery for OSA treatment over 17 years. METHODS: Systemic review of MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Evidence Based Medicine Reviews to identify publications relevant to OSA and Expansion Pharyngoplasty and its variants. All relevant studies published between January 2007 and June 2023 were included. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this systematic review with a combined total of 1373 patients who had the ESP procedure were included. The clinical outcomes included encouraging long-term success rate, reductions in Epworth sleepiness scale, good mean disease alleviation, anatomical structural area and volume improvements, blood pressure reductions, biochemical improvements in acute phase reactants after ESP surgery, reductions in intra-ocular pressures, and post-operative reduction of sympathetic overdrive. CONCLUSIONS: Seventeen years on, the expansion sphincter pharyngoplasty has demonstrated not only increase in anatomical area and volume but significant desired improvements in polysomnographic, clinical and biochemical parameters post-surgery.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Faringe/cirurgia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA