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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149910, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500266

RESUMO

As an important pollutant, perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) has been widely concerned and reported by thousands of times, while less is known about the concentration-response pathway of PFOA. The aim of the present work was to reveal the concentration-response mechanism of PFOA in human cells. Omics results showed that calcium-related pathways play key roles in PFOA injury mechanisms. The results of GO and KEGG analyses showed that the cAMP signaling pathway was presented as the top one in all of the regulatory patterns and concentrations groups of PFOA. In the cAMP signaling pathway, the adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1) recognized the low concentration of PFOA and induced pathway "Gi-cAMP-PKA" to decrease the concentration of cAMP. This indicated that the low concentration of PFOA may promote breast hyperplasia and inhibit lactation. While adenosine A2A receptor (ADORA2A) recognized the high concentration of PFOA and induced pathway "GS-AC-cAMP-RKA" to increase the concentration of cAMP, induce cell damage and may lead to the deterioration of breast cancer. The results of molecular dynamics simulation showed that PFOA could bind to ADORA1 and ADORA2A, thus cause subsequent signal transduction. Furthermore, considering the strong binding ability of PFOA with ADORA1, PFOA tends to bind to ADORA1 at a low concentration. On the other side, PFOA at high concentration will continue to bind to another receptor protein, ADORA2A, and activate subsequent signaling pathways. Combined analyses of transcriptomic and proteomic revealed that different concentrations of PFOA regulate cellular calcium-related pathways. The cAMP pathway showed a concentration-response effect of PFOA. After treatment with different concentrations of PFOA, ADORA1 and ADORA2A were activated respectively, showing opposite cellular effects, leading to kinds of breast lesions. In the nervous system, PFOA might induce a variety of nervous system diseases. The present work was an exploration on the toxicological mechanism of PFOA, providing important information on the health impacts of PFOA in humans.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Proteômica , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptor A1 de Adenosina
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150017, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500278

RESUMO

Circular economy principle aims to achieve sustainable production systems, focusing on the waste valorisation and the reduction of gaseous losses to the atmosphere. Nitrogen (N) compounds in terms of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) represent the major losses to the atmosphere of laying hen manure management chain. We present a study aimed to evaluate NH3 and N2O emission and mitigation strategies at housing, storage and land spreading stages. The whole manure management chain was evaluated under different scenarios which combined mitigation strategies of each stage. Two intensive laying hen facilities were involved in the study. Evaluated mitigation strategies were: (i) frequency of manure removal from housing facility, (ii) dried manure storage after passing throughout a manure drying tunnel (MDT) compared to fresh manure storage and (iii) fresh or dried manure incorporation versus surface land application. Increasing the frequency of manure removal from 4 days to 1/3 daily, reduced N losses around 68%. Dried manure storage achieved around 75% reduction in N losses compared to fresh manure storage. Spreading dried manure on grassland surface reduced ≈77% NH3 losses in relation to the emission level reached by fresh manure. The reduction was similar when dried manure was incorporated compared to surface application of fresh manure (≈79%). A 40% reduction in N losses was achieved using the MDT compared to no drying strategy. In the whole manure management chain, the combination of strategies that most reduced N losses was: removal frequency of 1/3 daily, dry storage after passing through the MDT and incorporated land application. These strategies reduced N losses between 40 and 60% compared to the 4 days of removal frequency, fresh storage and surface application of fresh manure.


Assuntos
Esterco , Óxido Nitroso , Amônia/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Fazendas , Feminino , Óxido Nitroso/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150042, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525709

RESUMO

Although four major natural estrogens (i.e., estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and 17α-estradiol (αE2)) have been commonly found in livestock urine, this study reports the occurrence of eight other less-studied natural estrogens in urine of swine and cattle, i.e. 2-hydroxyestone (2OHE1), 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2OHE2), 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2), 16-epiestriol (16epiE3), 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αE1), 16-ketoestradiol (16ketoE2), and 17epiestriol (17epiE3). Results showed that each estrogen was found in at least one urine sample, and 6 of 8 the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥90% in boars, ≥70% in sows, and ≥50% in dairy cattle. Five of eight the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥33.3% in four beef cattle and one bull. On a concentration basis, the 8 less-studied natural estrogens represented 73.2%, 85.2%, 39.9%, 47.7%, 26.9%, 56.0% and 44.1% of total concentrations of the twelve natural estrogens when combining data from all animals. Similar results were observed based on estrogen equivalence, which indicated these newly detected eight less-studied natural estrogens were not negligible. This work is the first to figure out the importance of these less-studied natural estrogens in livestock urine, and their potential environmental risks associated with discharge of livestock wastewater should be urgently assessed in a holistic manner.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Estrona , Animais , Bovinos , Estradiol , Feminino , Gado , Masculino , Suínos , Águas Residuárias
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150029, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525714

RESUMO

The effect of microplastics (MPs) on the biological treatment of organic waste has been extensively studied, but little is known about the influence of different MPs on composting humification and the fungal community. In this study, PE, PVC, and PHA MPs were individually mixed with cow dung and sawdust and then composted. The results showed that different MPs had various influences on humification, and the humic acid to fulvic acid ratio of all MP-added treatments (0.44-0.83) was lower than that of the control (0.91). During the composting process, Ascomycota (26.32-89.14%) and Basidiomycota (0.47-4.78%) are the dominant phyla in all treatments and all microplastics decreased the diversity and richness of the fungal community at the thermophilic stage of composting. Exposure to MPs had an obvious effect on the fungal community at the genus level, and the addition of PHA and PE MPs increased the relative abundance of phytopathogenic fungi. LEfSe and network analysis indicated that MPs reduced the number of biomarkers and led to a simpler and more unstable fungal community structure compared to the control. This study has important implications for assessing microplastic pollution and organic waste disposal.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Compostagem , Micobioma , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Esterco , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Solo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150080, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525742

RESUMO

Sulisobenzone (BP-4) is one of the benzophenone type UV filters most frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems. As a suspected endocrine disrupting compound, scarce information is available yet about other molecular effects and its mechanism of action. Here, we used an integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic approach to improve the current understanding on the toxicity of BP-4 towards aquatic species. Gilt-head sea bream individuals were exposed at environmentally relevant concentrations (10 µg L-1) for 22 days. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 371 differentially expressed genes in liver while metabolomic analysis identified 123 differentially modulated features in plasma and 118 in liver. Integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data showed disruption of the energy metabolism (>10 pathways related to the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates were impacted) and lipid metabolism (5 glycerophospholipids and the expression of 3 enzymes were affected), suggesting oxidative stress. We also observed, for the first time in vivo and at environmental relevant concentrations, the disruption of several enzymes involved in the steroid and thyroid hormones biosynthesis. DNA and RNA synthesis was also impacted by changes in the purine and pyrimidine metabolisms. Overall, the multiomic workflow presented here increases the evidence on suspected effects of BP-4 exposure and identifies additional modes of action of the compounds that could have been overlooked by using single omic approaches.


Assuntos
Dourada , Animais , Benzofenonas , Ecossistema , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Suínos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149746, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525773

RESUMO

The prevalence of cryptorchidism has increased over the past decades, yet its origins remain poorly understood. Testis descent is dependent on androgens and likely affected by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), targeting the androgen receptor (AR). We investigated the association between anti-androgenic activity, not derived from natural hormones, in maternal breast milk and impaired testis descent among boys. We performed a case-control study based on 199 breast milk samples from 94 mothers of cryptorchid boys and 105 random non-cryptorchid boys participating in the Norwegian HUMIS (Human Milk Study) cohort. For each participant, apolar, and polar fractions were extracted, and combined to reconstitute a mixture. Anti-androgenic activity was measured in all three fractions using the human cell-based in vitro anti-AR CALUX® assay and expressed in µg of flutamide equivalent, a well-known antiandrogen. Results from fraction analyses were compared among boys with cryptorchidism and controls using multiple logistic regression, controlling for appropriate confounders identified using a directed acyclic graph. Children's daily exposure to anti-androgenic EDCs through breastfeeding was estimated to 78 µg flutamide eq./kg of body weigh/day. The activity was higher in the polar fraction (1.48 ± 1.37 µg flutamide eq./g of milk) mainly representing non-persistent chemicals, in contrast to other fractions. However, the activity in the polar extracts was decreased when in mixtures with the apolar fraction, indicating synergistic interactions. No significant difference in the activity was observed according to cryptorchid status for polar, apolar or mixed breast milk fractions. The study showed anti-androgenic activity in nearly all human milk samples, and at levels higher than the advisory threshold. However, no significant association was observed between cryptorchidism and antiandrogenic activity measured in either polar, apolar, or mixture fractions derived from breast milk.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Leite Humano , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Androgênios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Food Chem ; 370: 131057, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536781

RESUMO

Advances in Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization -Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) have led to its supremacy for complex assessment of food authenticity studies, like dairy products fraud, holding promise for the discovery of potential authenticity (bio)markers. In this study, an integrated untargeted protein-based workflow in combination with advanced chemometrics is presented, to address authenticity challenges in PDO feta cheese which is legally manufactured by the mixture of sheep/goat milk. Potential markers attributed to specific animal origin were found from protein profiles acquired for authentic feta and white cheeses (prepared from cow milk), belonging to 4 kDa-18.5 kDa mass area. Rapid detection of feta cheese adulteration from cow milk was also achieved down to 1% adulteration level. The discriminative models showed high predictive ability for feta cheese authenticity (Q2 = 0.920, RMSEE = 0.053) and its adulteration (Q2 = 0.835, RMSEE = 0.121), introducing a reliable approach in routine analysis. The methodology was successfully applied in detection of cow milk in sheep yoghurt.


Assuntos
Queijo , Animais , Bovinos , Queijo/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite , Ovinos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 49-58, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence about detrimental impacts of the pandemic on population mental health, but knowledge on risk of groups specifically affected by the pandemic and variations across time is still limited. METHODS: We surveyed approximately n=1,000 Austrian residents in 12 waves between April and December 2020 (n=12,029). Outcomes were suicidal ideation (Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), and domestic violence. We also assessed the perceived burden from the pandemic. Demographic and Covid-19 specific occupational and morbidity-related variables were used to explain outcomes in multivariable regression analyses, controlling for well-established risk factors of mental ill-health, and variations over time were analyzed. RESULTS: Young age, working in healthcare or from home, and own Covid-19 illness were consistent risk factors controlling for a wide range of known mental health risk factors. Time patterns in the perceived burden from Covid-19-related measures were consistent with the time sequence of restrictions and relaxations of governmental measures. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were relatively stable over time, with some increase of depression during the second phase of lockdowns. Domestic violence increased immediately after both hard lockdowns. Suicidal ideation decreased slightly over time, with a low during the second hard lockdown. Mental health indicators for women and young people showed some deterioration over time, whereas those reporting own Covid-19 illness improved. LIMITATIONS: Data from before the pandemic were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Among mental health outcomes, increases in domestic violence and, to some smaller extent, depressive symptoms, appeared most closely related to the timing of hard lockdowns. Healthcare staff, individuals working from home, those with Covid-19, as well as young people and women are non-traditional risk groups who warrant heightened attention in prevention during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Áustria , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 577-586, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to concerns about its potential impact on the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women as the general postpartum depression rates increased. METHODS: Three postpartum questionnaires (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale - EPDS; Anxiety and Depression Scale - HAD; and a demographic questionnaire about isolation and information acquisition) were used to evaluate the mental health of women with and without COVID-19 and determine the factors associated with depressive symptoms (EPDS ≥ 12). RESULTS: Data from 184 participants with a mean of 56 postpartum days were analyzed. The rate of symptoms compatible with postpartum depression (PPD) was 38.8%, with a 14.3% positive response to item 10 on the EPDS (suicidal ideation - SI). Listening to the news about COVID-19 averaged 4.45 hours a day. Factors related to PPD were concerns about lack of hospital beds (OR = 2.45), absence of a partner (OR = 2.70), and anxiety symptoms (OR = 10). Factors related to SI were anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.56) and friends as a source of information (OR = 5.60). LIMITATIONS: Considering the rapidly changing epidemiological conditions of this pandemic, this study may only be the photograph of an instant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of PPD in the Brazilian population are related not only to anxiety but also to an inadequate family environment, kind of information acquisition and concerns about the lack of hospital beds.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão Pós-Parto , Depressão , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131833, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426128

RESUMO

Due to the poor living and healthcare conditions, preterm birth (PTB) in rural population is a pressing health issue. However, PTB studies in rural population are rare. To explore the effects of air pollutants on PTB in rural population, we collected 697,316 medical records during 2014-2016 based on the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between air pollutants and PTB and the modifying effects of demographic characteristics. Relative contribution and principal component analysis-generalized linear model (PCA-GLM) analysis were used to explore the most significant air pollutant and gestational period. Our results demonstrated that PTB risk is positively associated with exposure to air pollutants including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO, while negatively associated with O3 exposure (P < 0.05). In addition, we found that NO2 was the largest contributor to the risk of PTB caused by air pollutants (26.5%). The third trimester of pregnancy was the most sensitive exposure window. PCA-GLM analysis showed that the first component (a combination of PM, SO2, NO2, and CO) increased the risk of PTB. Moreover, we found that rural women who are younger, had higher educated, multi-parity, or smoke appeared to be more sensitive to the association between air pollutants exposure and PTB (P-interaction<0.05). Our findings suggested that increased air pollutants except O3 were associated with elevated PTB risk, especially among vulnerable mothers. Therefore, the effects of air pollutants exposure on PTB should be mitigated by restricting emission sources of NO2 and SO2 in rural population, especially during the third trimester.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , População Rural
11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131802, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion (SAB) brings serious physical and psychological sequelae to women and their families. Though a growing body of individual studies have suggested the possible linkage between chronic particulate matter (PM) exposure and risks of SAB, the provided results were rather contradictory. We therefore performed an evidence-based meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for available studies published before February 1, 2021 which reported associations between PM exposure and SAB. Corresponding models were applied to combine relative risks (RRs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) from eligible studies according to heterogeneity test. The GRADEpro app was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Sensitivity analyses and a publication bias assessment were also utilized to determine the stability of results. RESULTS: Of the initial 2358 citations, 6 papers examining the chronic effects of PM exposure were deemed eligible and a total population of approximately 723,000 was observed. Pooled RR for SAB risks associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and particulate matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were 1.20 (95%CI: 1.01-1.40) and 1.09 (95%CI: 1.02-1.15), respectively. The GRADE results of PM2.5 and PM10 were both categorized as "moderate" certainty evidence. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed a significant increase of SAB hazards related with maternal PM exposure, and this study may therefore provide new evidence for personal protection to improve reproductive health.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
12.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 118-129, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428974

RESUMO

How interpreting training may enhance semantic integration in general language processing (instead of language processing during interpreting) was not clear, and its neural correlates remained unexplored. Two groups of university students with different amounts of interpreting training experience (more-IE and less-IE) performed a second language (L2) reading task, in which the target sentence ended with three types of lateralized words: expected words, words of related semantic violation (related violation), and words of unrelated semantic violation (unrelated violation). N400 responses elicited by the final words were used to index semantic integration. Two major findings suggested potential contributions of interpreting training to L2 semantic integration. First, the more-IE group exhibited smaller N400 amplitudes than the less-IE group for expected words, and no group differences were obtained for the two violations. Second, N400 amplitudes for related violations were generally smaller than those for unrelated violations in the right visual field, and this difference was more fully captured (more broadly distributed over the scalp) in the more-IE group than in the less-IE group. Therefore, smaller N400 amplitudes for expected words but not for violations, and broader scalp distribution of the differences between related and unrelated violations constitute the neural correlates for the potential contributions of interpreting training to general L2 semantic integration. The results also suggest possible connections between different types of language experience.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leitura
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149790, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether air pollution is associated with adverse births outcomes, but it is not clear if socioeconomic status (SES) modifies this relationship. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if maternal education and area-level socioeconomic status modified the relationship between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) on preterm births (PTB; gestational age <37 weeks) and term low birth weight (TLBW; weight < 2500 g on term deliveries). METHODS: Analyses were based on almost 1 million singleton live births in São Paulo municipality between 2011 and 2016. The final sample included 979,306 births for PTB analysis and 888,133 for TLBW analysis. Exposure to PM10, NO2 and O3 were based on date of birth and estimated for the entire gestation and for each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effect of air pollutants on both adverse birth outcomes and whether it was modified by individual and area-level SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, over the entire pregnancy, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and PM10 was associated with increased chance of PTB (odds ratio; OR = 1.14 CI 1.13, 1.16 and 1.08 CI = 1.02, 1.15 respectively) and PM10 with TLBW (OR = 1.08 CI 1.03, 1.14). Associations were modified by maternal educational and area-level SES for both outcomes. Mothers of lower education had an additional chance of PTB and TLBW due to PM10 exposure (OR = 1.04 CI 1.04, 1.05 and 1.10 CI 1.08, 1.14 respectively), while mothers living in low SES areas have an additional chance for TLBW (OR = 1.05 CI 1.03, 1.06). Similar modification effects were found for O3 exposure. Trimester specific associations were weaker but followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status modifies the effect of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Results indicate that mothers with lower SES may be more susceptible to air pollution effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Classe Social
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131636, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358894

RESUMO

Inhalation exposure to polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P), one of the primary biocides used in humidifier disinfectants, caused a fatal pulmonary disease in Korea. Pregnant women were also exposed to PHMG-P, and subsequent studies showed that PHMG-P inhalation during pregnancy adversely affects their health and embryo-fetal development. However, the postnatal developmental effects after birth on prenatally PHMG-P-exposed offspring have not yet been investigated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the postnatal development of prenatally PHMG-P-exposed offspring. Pregnant rats (22 or 24 females per group) were exposed to PHMG-P during pregnancy in a whole-body inhalation chamber at the target concentrations of 0, 0.14, 1.60, and 3.20 mg/m3. After parturition, the prenatally exposed offspring were transferred to non-exposed surrogate mothers to minimize the secondary effects of severe maternal toxicities. Postnatal development of offspring was then examined with a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study design. At 3.20 mg/m3 PHMG-P, increased perinatal death rates and decreased viability index (postnatal survival of offspring between birth and postnatal day 4) were observed. In addition, F1 offspring had lower body weight at birth that persisted throughout the study. PHMG-P-exposed pregnant rats also had severe systemic toxicities and increased gestation period. At 1.60 mg/m3 PHMG-P, a decreased viability index was also observed with systemic toxicities of PHMG-P-exposed pregnant rats. These results indicate that prenatal PHMG-P exposure adversely affects the offspring's future health and could be used for human risk assessment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Umidificadores , Animais , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Feminino , Guanidinas , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Pulmão/química , Gravidez , Ratos , Reprodução
15.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131809, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans are regularly exposed to metals and metalloids present in air, water, food, soil and domestic materials. Most of them can cross the placental barrier and cause adverse impacts on the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prenatal concentrations of metals and metalloids and to study the associated sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors in pregnant Spanish women. METHODS: Subjects were 1346 pregnant women of the INMA Project, for whom the following metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl) and zinc (Zn) were determined in urine, at both the first and the third trimesters of gestation. Sociodemographic, dietary and environmental information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy. Multiple linear mixed models were built in order to study the association between each metal and metalloid concentrations and the sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors. RESULTS: The most detected compounds were As, Co, Mo, Sb, Se and Zn at both trimesters. Zn was the element found in the highest concentrations at both trimesters and Tl was detected in the lowest concentrations. We observed significant associations between As, Cd, Cu, Sb, Tl and Zn concentrations and working situation, social class and age. Seafood, meat, fruits, nuts, vegetables and alcohol intake affected the levels of all the metals but Cd and Cu. Proximity to industrial areas, fields and air pollution were related to all metals except Cd, Sb and Se. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large prospective longitudinal study on the exposure to metals and metalloids during pregnancy and associated factors to include several cohorts in Spain. The present study shows that some modifiable lifestyles, food intakes and environmental factors could be associated with prenatal exposure to metal(loid)s, which may be considered in further studies to assess their relationship with neonatal health outcomes.


Assuntos
Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131844, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392196

RESUMO

The etiology of hypospadias and cryptorchidism, which are the two most common genital anomalies in males, has not been elucidated. Although prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risks of hypospadias and cryptorchidism, the associations have not been confirmed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to establish the relationships between prenatal exposure to EDCs and male genital anomalies. A systematic search of PubMed, EMbase, and Cochrane Library CENTRAL for relevant published studies providing quantitative data on the associations between prenatal EDCs exposure and hypospadias/cryptorchidism in humans was conducted. In total, sixteen case-controlled studies were included. Prenatal exposure to overall EDCs was associated with an increased risk of hypospadias in males (OR, 1.34, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.60). Although there was no statistically significant association between overall EDCs exposure and cryptorchidism (OR, 1.11, 95 % CI 0.99 to 1.24), exposure to phenol substances was associated with an increased risk of cryptorchidism (OR, 1.81, 95 % CI, 1.12 to 2.93). Using the GRADE tool, we found the overall evidence to be of moderate certainty. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests prenatal EDCs exposure may increase the risk of hypospadias in males.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo , Disruptores Endócrinos , Hipospadia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Criptorquidismo/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Genitália , Humanos , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Hipospadia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez
17.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131858, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399256

RESUMO

Phthalates and 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH), bisphenols (BPs), parabens (PBs), and triclosan (TCS) are high-production-volume chemicals of pseudo-persistence that are concerning for the environment and human health. This study aims to assess the exposure to 10 phthalates, DINCH, and environmental phenols (3 BPs, 7 PBs, and TCS) of Slovenian men (n = 548) and lactating primiparous women (n = 536). We observed urinary concentrations comparable to studies from other countries and significant differences among the sub-populations. In our study, men had significantly higher levels of phthalates, DINCH, and BPs, whereas the concentrations of PBs in urine were significantly higher in women. The most significant determinant of exposure was the area of residence and the year of sampling (2008-2014) that mirrors trends in the market. Participants from urban or industrialized sampling locations had higher levels of almost all monitored analytes compared to rural locations. In an attempt to assess the risk of the population, hazard quotient (HQ) values were calculated for individual compounds and the chemical mixture. Individual analytes do not seem to pose a risk to the studied population at current exposure levels, whereas the HQ value of the chemical mixture is near the threshold of 1 which would indicate a higher risk. We conclude that greater emphasis on the risk resulting from cumulative exposure to chemical mixtures and additional studies are needed to estimate the exposure of susceptible populations, such as children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Criança , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ésteres , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Parabenos , Fenóis
18.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131839, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403901

RESUMO

Although (PS)2, the primary degradation product of emerging antifouling biocides metal pyrithiones (MePTs), can disrupt the reproductive behavior of fish at an environmentally relevant ng/L level, the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. This study exposed sexually mature male guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to 20, 200, and 2000 ng/L (PS)2 to explore the compromised effect of (PS)2 on reproductive behavior through a realistic competing scenario. The results showed that (PS)2 suppressed male guppies' sexual interest to stimulus females, reduced their competitive behavior frequencies toward rival males, and decreased their mating time and frequency. (PS)2 exposure did not affect male guppies' secondary sexual characteristics or induce estrogenic activity. Whole-brain transcriptome sequencing identified 1070 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with 872 up-regulated genes, which were functionally enriched into Gene Ontology terms pertaining to extracellular matrix (ECM) and extracellular region. KEGG enrichment for the DEGs uncovered that the activations of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways could be the underlying molecular mechanism implicated in the (PS)2 induced reproductive behavior impairment. This work would deliver a substantial contribution to the understanding of the ecological safety of MePTs biocides.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poecilia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Poecilia/genética , Piridinas , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131658, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416585

RESUMO

Analysis of hair is known to provide useful information about environmental and toxic exposures. Very little historical use has been made of this type of investigation. Here we study 138 human hair samples from 19th century in France. In order to examine the potential association between contamination and historical health impacts, we characterized contamination by 33 elements in a set of hair strands sampled during the last quarter of the 19th century in the Savoy region of France. After a selected washing step on 138 hair strands conserved at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris (France), we assessed the presence of inorganics by ICP/MS, and lead level was higher than values reported in literature. We then compared concentrations and distributions between women and men, sampling locations and crossing gender and geographical origin. Hair lead level was high throughout Savoy at the end of the 19th century: significantly higher for people living in towns or industrial valleys, and lower for those of countryside and mountains areas. Environmental and economic changes (industrialization and urbanization with water adduction and leaded paints), living habits (kitchenware, cosmetics, wine, and tobacco), and local features (mines exploitation, railroad development, and industrialized narrow valleys) could be envisaged for explaining the level of lead contamination. In the same period, the two main industrial valleys of Savoy (Maurienne and Tarentaise) had high rates of endemic goiter and cretinism and among the highest hair lead levels. Other lines of evidence will need to be explore to investigate a possible link between historical Pb exposure and goiter in the study area.


Assuntos
Cabelo , Chumbo , Feminino , França , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Indústrias , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Urbanização
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 417-424, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiamethoxam is widely used to control pests in Chinese kale, popularly consumed leafy vegetables. The potential risk to the environment and human health has aroused much public concern. Therefore, it is important to investigate the degradation behavior, residue distribution and dietary risk assessment of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale. RESULTS: A sensitive analytical method for determination of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin residue in Chinese kale was established and validated through a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries were 85.4-101.2% for thiamethoxam and 79.5-108.1% for clothianidin, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.9-10.2% and 1.8-6.0%, respectively. For the dissipation kinetics, the data showed that thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was degraded with the half-lives of 4.1 to 4.5 days. In the terminal residue experiments, the residues of thiamethoxam were 0.017-0.357 mg kg-1 after application 2-3 times with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 7 days under the designed dosages. The chronic and acute dietary exposure assessment risk quotient (RQ) values of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale for different Chinese consumers were 0.08-0.19% and 0.05-0.12%, respectively, and those of clothianidin were 0.01-0.04% and 0.02-0.04%, respectively, all of the RQ values were lower than 100%. CONCLUSION: Thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was rapidly degraded following first-order kinetics models. The dietary risk of thiamethoxam and clothianidin through Chinese kale was negligible to consumers. The results from this study are important reference for Chinese governments to developing criteria for the safe and rational use of thiamethoxam, setting maximum residue levels (MRLs), monitoring the quality safety of agricultural products and protecting consumer health. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiametoxam/química , Tiametoxam/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brassica/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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