Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.875.443
Filtrar
Mais filtros








Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 374, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On line platforms offer access to an almost unlimited variety of pornographic material that shows high levels of sexism. Despite this fact, there are still few studies that assess the effect of pornography on sexism in young adults The aim of this study is to analyze the association of pornography consumption and sexual orientation with benevolent sexism (BS) and hostile sexism (HS) in young men and women. METHODS: We surveyed 2,346 people aged 18-35 years old. Multiple regression models were carried out for BS and HS. The independent variables: current pornography consumption and sexual orientation. Covariates: socio-demographic variables -age, sex, level of education and place of birth-. RESULTS: A) HS: Men who consumed pornography had higher median values of HS than those who did not [ß(95%CI):2.39(0.67;4.10)]. Homosexual/ bisexual men displayed lower values of HS than heterosexual men [ß(95%CI):-2.98(-4.52;-1.45)]. The increase in HS levels associated with pornography consumption was notably greater in homosexual and bisexual women relative to heterosexual women, where that pattern was not observed [ß(95%CI for interaction): 2.27(0.11; 4.43)]. B) BS: Mean values of BS were observed to be lower for both women [ß(95%CI):-2.16(-2.99;-1.32)] and men [ß(95%CI):-4.30(-5.75;-2.86)] who consumed pornography compared to those who did not. Homosexual/bisexual men recorded mean values of BS lower than heterosexual men [ß(95%CI):-3.10(-4.21;-1.99)]. CONCLUSIONS: Pornography consumption is related to sexism and differs according to sex and sexual orientation. As sexism is the substratum of inequality between men and women, it is urgent to launch affective-sexual education programs for young people that take into account the determinants of sexism.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica , Sexismo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Espanha , Comportamento Sexual , Heterossexualidade
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 185, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the association between maternal cocaine abuse during pregnancy and the prevalence of cleft lip/palate (CL/P) in offspring, synthesizing existing evidence through a systematic review and meta-analysis. CL/P is a congenital craniofacial anomaly with complex etiology, and prior research has suggested potential links between maternal cocaine use and CL/P. However, these associations remain inconclusive. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies published up to the study's cutoff date in September 2021. Several databases were systematically searched using predefined search terms. Inclusion criteria were set to encompass studies reporting on the prevalence of CL/P in infants born to mothers with a history of cocaine use during pregnancy, with a comparison group of non-cocaine-using mothers. Data were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and relative risks (RR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The review included data from 4 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The combined OR from two studies was 0.05 (95% CI: 0.00, 4.41), which does not suggest a statistically significant association between prenatal cocaine exposure and the incidence of CL/P due to the confidence interval crossing the null value. Additionally, the combined RR was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.66), indicating a statistically significant decrease in the risk of CL/P associated with prenatal cocaine exposure. These results, with an OR that is not statistically significant and an RR suggesting decreased risk, should be interpreted with caution due to considerable heterogeneity and variability among the included studies' findings. Further research is needed to clarify these associations. CONCLUSION: The findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that maternal cocaine use during pregnancy is not a statistically significant independent risk factor for the development of CL/P in offspring. These results underscore the multifactorial nature of CL/P etiology and emphasize the importance of considering other genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors in understanding the condition's origins. While the study provides important insights, limitations such as data heterogeneity and potential confounders should be acknowledged. Future research should adopt rigorous study designs and explore a broader range of potential risk factors to comprehensively elucidate CL/P development.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína , Cocaína , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/genética , Incidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Pais , Cocaína/efeitos adversos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 380, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During a COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to investigate the outcomes of all non-COVID-19 diseases. This study determines hospital admissions and mortality rates related to non-COVID-19 diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic among 41 million Iranians. METHOD: This nationwide retrospective study used data from the Iran Health Insurance Organization. From September 23, 2019, to Feb 19, 2022, there were four study periods: pre-pandemic (Sept 23-Feb 19, 2020), first peak (Mar 20-Apr 19, 2020), first year (Feb 20, 2020-Feb 18, 2021), and the second year (Feb 19, 2021-Feb 19, 2022) following the pandemic. Cause-specific hospital admission and in-hospital mortality are the main outcomes analyzed based on age and sex. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the monthly adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) to compare hospital admission rates in aggregated data. A logistic regression was used to estimate the monthly adjusted in-hospital mortality Odds Ratio (OR) for different pandemic periods. RESULTS: During the study there were 6,522,114 non-COVID-19 hospital admissions and 139,679 deaths. Prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, the standardized hospital admission rate per million person-month was 7115.19, which decreased to 2856.35 during the first peak (IRR 0.40, [0.25-0.64]). In-hospital mortality also increased from 20.20 to 31.99 (OR 2.05, [1.97-2.13]). All age and sex groups had decreased admission rates, except for females at productive ages. Two years after the COVID-19 outbreak, the non-COVID-19 hospital admission rate (IRR 1.25, [1.13-1.40]) and mortality rate (OR 1.05, [1.04-1.07]) increased compared to the rates before the pandemic. The respiratory disease admission rate decreased in the first (IRR 0.23, [0.17-0.31]) and second years (IRR 0.35, [0.26-0.47] compared to the rate before the pandemic. There was a significant reduction in hospitalizations for pneumonia (IRR 0.30, [0.21-0.42]), influenza (IRR 0.04, [0.03-0.06]) and COPD (IRR 0.39, [0.23-0.65]) during the second year. There was a significant and continuous rise in the hematological admission rate during the study, reaching 186.99 per million person-month in the second year, reflecting an IRR of 2.84 [2.42-3.33] compared to the pre-pandemic period. The mortality rates of mental disorders (OR 2.15, [1.65-2.78]) and musculoskeletal (OR 1.48, [1.20-1.82), nervous system (OR 1.42, [1.26-1.60]), metabolic (OR 1.99, [1.80-2.19]) and circulatory diseases (OR 1.35, [1.31-1.39]) increased in the second year compare to pre-pandemic. Myocardial infarction (OR 1.33, [1.19-1.49]), heart failure (OR 1.59, [1.35-1.87]) and stroke (OR 1.35, [1.24-1.47]) showed an increase in mortality rates without changes in hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: In the era of COVID-19, the changes seem to have had a long-term effect on non-COVID-19 diseases. Countries should prepare for similar crises in the future to ensure medical services are not suspended.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , População do Oriente Médio , Infarto do Miocárdio , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 370, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested inconclusive associations between bisphenols exposure and hyperuricemia risk. Our objective was to assess the potential association of bisphenol A (BPA) and its substitutes bisphenol S and F (BPS and BPF) exposure with serum uric acid (SUA) levels, hyperuricemia, and gout prevalence among US adults within the NHANES 2013-2016 datasets. METHODS: Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to explore the associations of urinary bisphenols concentrations with SUA levels, hyperuricemia, and gout prevalence, in total population and different sex groups. The restricted cubic spline (RCS) model was used to explore the dose-response relationship. RESULTS: In total population, doubling of urinary BPS and ∑BPs concentrations showed associations with an increase of 2.64 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.54, 4.74) and 3.29 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.59, 5.99) in SUA levels, respectively. The RCS model indicated a significantly "J"-shaped dose-response relationship between BPS exposure and SUA levels. Compared to the reference group of urinary BPS, males in the highest quartile displayed a 13.06 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.75, 25.37) rise in SUA levels. For females, doubling of urinary BPS concentrations was associated with a 3.30 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.53, 6.07) increase in SUA levels, with a significant linear dose-response relationship. In total population, doubling of urinary BPA concentrations showed a 1.05-fold (95% CI: 0.97, 1.14) adjusted risk of having hyperuricemia, with an inverted "U" curve. Doubling of urinary ∑BPs concentrations was associated with a 1.05-fold (95% CI: 0.96, 1.14) adjusted risk of hyperuricemia in total population, with a significant monotonic dose-response relationship. In females, doubling of urinary BPS concentrations was associated with a 1.45-fold (95% CI: 1.01, 2.08) adjusted increased risk of having gout, with a "J" shaped relationship. CONCLUSIONS: BPA and BPS exposure to some extent were associated with elevated SUA levels and increased risk of hyperuricemia, with different dose-response relationships and sex differences.


Assuntos
Gota , Hiperuricemia , Fenóis , Sulfonas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gota/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos
5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 111, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hallux Valgus (HV) deformity is associated with misalignment in the sagittal plane that affects the first toe. However, the repercussions of the first toe hyperextension in HV have been scarcely considered. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of the association between first-toe hyperextension and the risk of first toenail onycholysis in HV. METHODS: A total of 248 HV from 129 females were included. The extension of 1st MTP joint was measured while the patient was in the neutral position of the hallux using a two-branch goniometer. The classification of the HV severity stage was determined by the Manchester visual scale, and the height of the first toe in the standing position was measured using a digital meter. An interview and clinical examination were performed to collect information on the presence of onycholysis of the first toe. RESULTS: Of the 248 HV studied, 100 (40.3%) had onycholysis. A neutral extension > 30 degrees was noted in 110 (44.3%) HV. The incidence of onycholysis was higher in HV type C than in type B (p = 0.044). The probability of suffering onycholysis in the right foot was 2.3 times greater when the neutral position was higher than 30 degrees (OR = 2.3; p = 0.004). However, this was not observed in the left foot (p = 0.171). Onycholysis was more frequent in HV with more than 2 cm height of the first toe (p < 0.001). For both feet, the probability of suffering onycholysis was greater for each unit increase in hallux height (right foot OR = 9.0402, p = 0.005; left foot OR = 7.6633, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of onycholysis appears to be significantly associated with HV showing more than 30º extension, and more than 2 cm height of the first toe. Height and hyperextension of the first toe together with first toenail pathology should be mandatory in the evaluation of HV.


Assuntos
Joanete , Hallux Valgus , Hallux , Articulação Metatarsofalângica , Onicólise , Humanos , Feminino , Hallux Valgus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Onicólise/patologia , Articulação Metatarsofalângica/patologia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 377, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317170

RESUMO

Adolescence is a crucial period for noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors, and interventions to reduce the NCD burden must target this age group. This study aimed to evaluate the NCD behavioural risk factors in adolescents attending state secondary schools in an urban setting in Cameroon. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using adapted structured questionnaires to assess the prevalence and correlates of NCD behavioural risk factors among adolescents attending selected urban state secondary schools in Douala IV, one of the six subdivisions in Douala, Cameroon. Of the 645 students who completed the study questionnaires, half of them did not have adequate knowledge about NCDs and their risk factors. Only 20% met recommended physical activity levels, nearly half lived sedentary lifestyles, and only 7% ate a healthy diet. Almost half of all participants reported drinking alcohol during the month, while 3% reported cigarette smoking. Participants with inadequate knowledge of NCDs were more likely to have elevated blood pressure values, and males had increased odds of high blood pressure. Contrarily, being male appeared to be protective against overweight and obesity. The odds of being sedentary decreased with age, and the odds of alcohol drinking seemed to grow with a higher maternal level of education. Our survey shows inadequate knowledge about NCDs and a high prevalence of NCD behavioural risk factors in adolescents in urban state secondary schools in Cameroon. These findings predict a higher NCD burden in future adults in the country, reinforcing the need for urgent public health interventions, especially regarding knowledge and sedentary living. Further research is needed to establish the transition of adolescent risk factors to adult disease through life course approaches in these settings.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Prevalência
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 385, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older people experiencing depression and anxiety have higher rates of health service utilisation than others, but little is known about whether these influence their seeking of emergency care. The aim was to examine the associations between symptoms of depression and the use of emergency health care, in an Australian context, among a population of people aged 70 years and over initially free of cardiovascular disease, dementia or major physical disability. METHODS: We undertook secondary analyses of data from a large cohort of community-dwelling Australians aged [Formula: see text]70 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the association of symptoms of depression (measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale 10 question version, CESD at baseline) with subsequent episodes of emergency care, adjusting for physical and social factors of clinical interest. Marginal adjusted odds ratios were calculated from the logistic regression. RESULTS: Data were available for 10,837 Australian participants aged at least 70 years. In a follow-up assessment three years after the baseline assessment, 17.6% of people self-reported an episode of emergency care (attended an ED of called an emergency ambulance) in the last 12 months. Use of emergency healthcare was similar for men and women (17.8% vs. 17.4% p = 0.61). A score above the cut-off on the CESD at baseline was associated with greater use of emergency health care (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11,1.64). When modelled separately, there was a greater association between a score above the cut-off on the CESD and emergency healthcare for women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique in demonstrating how depressive symptoms among healthy older persons are associated with subsequent increased use of emergency healthcare. Improved understanding and monitoring of mental health in primary care is essential to undertake effective healthcare planning including prevention of needing emergency care.


Assuntos
População Australasiana , Depressão , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ansiedade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
8.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 59, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) poses cognitive and emotional challenges for Chinese children. This study addresses the potential benefits of Working Memory Training for ADHD-affected children. Understanding its impact on Attention, cognitive regulation, and emotional responses is crucial for tailored interventions in the Chinese context. The Trial Registration Number (TRN) for this study is [TRN-2023-123,456], and it was officially registered on July 15, 2023, by Changchun Normal University. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated how Working Memory training influences Attention, adaptive cognitive regulation, and non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation in Chinese children with ADHD. It also assessed changes in attentional focus, improvements in adaptive cognitive regulation, and alterations in non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. METHODOLOGY: This quasi-experimental study aimed to assess the impact of working memory training on Chinese children with ADHD. Using pretest-posttest measures, 120 female students underwent Cogmed software training, targeting attention deficits and cognitive emotion regulation. Three reliable instruments measured outcomes. The procedure involved informed consent, questionnaires, 25 training sessions, and a two-month follow-up. Statistical analyses, including repeated measures ANOVA, assessed training effects. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed a significant impact of Working memory training on attention deficit. Repeated measures ANOVA for cognitive emotion regulation indicated positive changes in adaptive and non-adaptive strategies over time, with sustained improvements in self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others. Bonferroni follow-up tests showed significant differences between pre-test, post-test, and follow-up, favoring the post-test and follow-up tests. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this research sheds light on the positive impact of memory training on Attention and cognitive emotion regulation in children with ADHD. The study underscores the potential of working memory interventions, particularly software-focused approaches, in enhancing attention levels and improving cognitive emotion regulation. The findings align with existing literature emphasizing the role of working memory deficits in ADHD. IMPLICATIONS: Practically, incorporating memory training interventions into educational settings emerges as a viable strategy to support children with ADHD. This includes integrating memory training programs into both classroom activities and home-based interventions. Additionally, sustained implementation and long-term follow-up assessments are crucial for maximizing the effectiveness of memory training interventions. Tailoring interventions to specific ADHD subtypes and seamlessly integrating memory training activities into daily routines offer practical and personalized solutions for managing ADHD symptoms in diverse settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Regulação Emocional , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Treino Cognitivo , Cognição
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 21, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317184

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the health needs of each region have an impact. In this context and the name of the principle of equity, the SUS organizes actions especially aimed at social groups such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and indigenous peoples. The concept of justice proposed by John Rawls is one of equity, which is essential to this country. METHODS: This is an ecological, descriptive study, which analyzed hospital spending on cardiovascular diseases in the Unified Health System (SUS) among the indigenous elderly population and other ethnicities/colors in Brazil, between 2010 and 2019. RESULTS: Hospitalization costs and fatality rates for indigenous populations and other colors/ethnicities, between 2010 and 2019, were evaluated. A reduction in hospitalization costs for the indigenous population and an increase in other populations was observed throughout the historical series, while there was an increase in fatality rates for both groups. A comparison was made between hospitalization costs and the fatality rates of indigenous populations and other colors/ethnicities according to sex, between 2010 and 2019. It was observed that regardless of sex, there are significant differences (p<0.05) between hospitalization costs and fatality rates, with higher costs for patients of other colors/ethnicities and higher fatality rates for the indigenous population. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization costs due to cardiovascular diseases in elderly people from indigenous populations were lower compared to other ethnicities in most federative units, which may suggest an unequal allocation of resources or access for this indigenous population to the SUS. Although there is no strong correlation between spending on hospital admissions and fatality rates, it was found that these rates increased between 2010 and 2019, while spending was reduced.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Hospitalização , Povos Indígenas , Justiça Social , Masculino
10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 15(1): 30, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317195

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a common morbid complication during pregnancy, affecting 2%-8% of pregnancies globally and posing serous risks to the health of both mother and fetus. Currently, the only effective treatment for PE is timely termination of pregnancy, which comes with increased perinatal risks. However, there is no effective way to delay pathological progress and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. In light of this, it is of great significance to seek effective therapeutic strategies for PE. Exosomes which are nanoparticles carrying bioactive substances such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, have emerged as a novel vehicle for intercellular communication. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) participate in various important physiological processes, including immune regulation, cell proliferation and migration, and angiogenesis, and have shown promising potential in tissue repair and disease treatment. Recently, MSC-Exos therapy has gained popularity in the treatment of ischaemic diseases, immune dysfunction, inflammatory diseases, and other fields due to their minimal immunogenicity, characteristics similar to donor cells, ease of storage, and low risk of tumor formation. This review elaborates on the potential therapeutic mechanism of MSC-Exos in treating preeclampsia, considering the main pathogenic factors of the condition, including placental vascular dysplasia, immunological disorders, and oxidative stress, based on the biological function of MSC-Exos. Additionally, we discuss in depth the advantages and challenges of MSC-Exos as a novel acellular therapeutic agent in preeclampsia treatment.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Placenta , Cicatrização , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo
11.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 73, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases contribute to global morbidity and mortality, and temperature is a significant factor. We investigated the association between ambient temperature and emergency department (ED) visits for various respiratory diseases in Seoul, South Korea. METHODS: Using data from the National Emergency Department Information System (2008-2017), we analysed 1,616,644 ED visits for respiratory diseases, categorised according to the Korean Standard Classification of Diseases 7th revision codes (J00-J99). Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and a distributed lag nonlinear model, we investigated the effect of temperature exposure on ED visits for respiratory diseases, calculating the relative risk (RR) for the maximum risk temperature (MaxRT) of both cold and hot extremes compared to the minimum risk temperature (MinRT). RESULTS: Cold temperatures (MaxRT: -9.0 °C) resulted in a 2.68-fold increase (RR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.26-3.14) in ED visits for total respiratory diseases, while hot temperatures (MaxRT: 29.4 °C) led to a 1.26-fold increase (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.11-1.42) compared to the MinRT (24.8 °C). Cold temperatures increased the risk of most respiratory diseases, except interstitial lung disease, whereas hot temperatures increased ED visits for acute upper respiratory infections and influenza. Cold temperatures increased ED visits for all age groups, especially those aged 18-64 (RR = 3.54, 95% CI = 2.90-4.33), while hot temperatures significantly affected those < 18 (RR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.27-1.66). The risk levels were similar in both males and females, regardless of hot and cold temperatures. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the significant impact of both cold and heat exposure on ED visits for respiratory diseases, with varying intensities and risk profiles across different population groups.


Assuntos
Transtornos Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Temperatura , Estudos Cross-Over , Seul/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
12.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 35, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PAQR7 plays a key role in cell apoptosis as a progesterone membrane receptor. The physiological mechanism of PAQR7 in ovarian function and its anti-apoptotic action in mammals remain poorly understood. METHODS: We first added 0.2 µM aminoglutethimide (AG), an inhibitor of endogenous progesterone (P4) secretion, and transfected siPAQR7 co-incubated with P4 in human KGN cells to identify granulosa cell apoptosis, respectively. Additionally, we used Paqr7 knockout (PAQR7 KO) mice to assess the role of PAQR7 in the ovary. RESULTS: The PAQR7 deficiency significantly increased apoptosis of KGN cells, and this significant difference disappeared following P4 supplementation. The Paqr7-/- female mice showed a prolonged estrous cycle, reduced follicular growth, increased the number of atresia follicles, and decreased the concentrations of E2 and AMH. The litters, litter sizes, and spontaneous ovulation in the Paqr7-/- mice were significantly decreased compared with the Paqr7+/+ mice. In addition, we also found low expression of PAQR7 in GCs from human follicular fluids of patients diagnosed with decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) and ovaries of mice with a DOR-like phenotype, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has identified that PAQR7 is involved in mouse ovarian function and fertilization potential. One possible mechanism is mediating the anti-apoptotic effect of P4 on GC apoptosis via the BCL-2/BAX/CASPASE-3 signaling pathway. The mechanism underlying the effect of PAQR7 on ovarian development and aging remains to be identified.


Assuntos
Progesterona , Progestinas , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Progesterona/farmacologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Progestinas/farmacologia , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Apoptose , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
13.
World J Surg Oncol ; 22(1): 44, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is insensitive to immunotherapy due to its poor immunogenicity; thus, suitable biomarkers need to be identified for better prognostic stratification and individualized treatment. CD47 is a novel immunotherapy target; however, its impact on EOC prognosis is controversial and correlation with genetic features is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of CD47 and its correlations with biological behaviors and genetic features of EOC. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) were performed to examine expressions of CD47, PD-L1, and genomic mutations in the tissue samples of 75 EOC patients. Various clinicopathologic and genomic features were then evaluated to determine their correlation with CD47 expression. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Risk score modeling was then established, and the predictive capacity of this model was further confirmed by nomogram analysis. RESULTS: CD47 was mainly expressed in the tumor cell membrane and cytoplasm, and the rate of high CD47 expression was 63.7%. CD47 expression was associated with various clinicopathological factors, including FIGO stage, CA125 and HE4 value, presence of multidisciplinary surgeries, presence and volume of ascites, lymph-node metastasis, Ki-67 index and platinum-resistant, as well as genetic characteristics like BRCA mutation, HRD status, and TP53 mutation in EOC. Patients with high CD47 expression showed worse prognosis than the low-expression group. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CA125, CD47, and BRCA mutation were independent factors for EOC prognosis. Patients were then categorized into high-risk and low-risk subgroups based on the risk score of the aforementioned independent factors, and the prognosis of the high-risk group was worse than those of the low-risk group. The nomogram showed adequate discrimination with a concordance index of 0.777 (95% CI, 0.732-0.822). The calibration curve showed good consistency. CONCLUSION: CD47 correlated with various malignant biology and genetic characteristics of EOC and may play pivotal and multifaceted roles in the tumor microenvironment of EOC Finally, we constructed a reliable prediction model centered on CD47 and integrated CA125 and BRCA to better guide high-risk population management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Antígeno CD47/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 26(1): 23, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most aggressive form of breast cancer is triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), and does not have overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Treatment options for women with TNBC tumors are limited, unlike those with ER-positive tumors that can be treated with hormone therapy, or those with HER2-positive tumors that can be treated with anti-HER2 therapy. Therefore, we have sought to identify novel targeted therapies for TNBC. In this study, we investigated the potential of a novel phosphatase, NUDT5, as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC. METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of NUDT5 in breast cancers were investigated using TCGA and METABRIC (Curtis) datasets. NUDT5 ablation was achieved through siRNA targeting and NUDT5 inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor TH5427. Xenograft TNBC animal models were employed to assess the effect of NUDT5 inhibition on in vivo tumor growth. Proliferation, death, and DNA replication assays were conducted to investigate the cellular biological effects of NUDT5 loss or inhibition. The accumulation of 8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG) and the induction of γH2AX after NUDT5 loss was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The impact of NUDT5 loss on replication fork was assessed by measuring DNA fiber length. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated the significant role of an overexpressed phosphatase, NUDT5, in regulating oxidative DNA damage in TNBCs. Our findings indicate that loss of NUDT5 results in suppressed growth of TNBC both in vitro and in vivo. This growth inhibition is not attributed to cell death, but rather to the suppression of proliferation. The loss or inhibition of NUDT5 led to an increase in the oxidative DNA lesion 8-oxoG, and triggered the DNA damage response in the nucleus. The interference with DNA replication ultimately inhibited proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: NUDT5 plays a crucial role in preventing oxidative DNA damage in TNBC cells. The loss or inhibition of NUDT5 significantly suppresses the growth of TNBCs. These biological and mechanistic studies provide the groundwork for future research and the potential development of NUDT5 inhibitors as a promising therapeutic approach for TNBC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Pirofosfatases/uso terapêutico
15.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 19, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is a type of carbohydrate intolerance that is diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Researches have shown that gestational diabetes is associated with many negative prenatal and birth outcomes. Because of the complications such as infant death, several diabetics' mothers plan to stop breastfeeding. Research findings indicate a decrease in breastfeeding in mothers with gestational diabetes/ or contradictory tissues regarding the factors affecting the breastfeeding behavior of mothers with gestational diabetes and a special program to promote breastfeeding for these mothers based on the social and cultural conditions of Iranian society. The present study aims to design an interventional program with a mixed qualitative study based on the theory of planned behavior (PBT) to prevent the decrease of breastfeeding in diabetic mothers. METHODS/DESIGN: A mixed methods exploratory design will be used to conduct this study in 3 phases. The first phase (qualitative): The purpose of the first phase is to understand the experience of breastfeeding mothers who had gestational diabetes, which will be done using the directed content analysis method. The purposive sampling will be used on pregnant mothers with gestational diabetes 30-34 weeks and mothers with infants (up to 6 months) with a history of gestational diabetes. The second phase include designing and implementing an educational program based on the PBT: Education will be conducted based on the needs assessment of the qualitative phase, the opinions of the focus group, and the literature review, then the breastfeeding behavior will be measured using the survey tool of "breastfeeding drop". The third phase: Interventional quantitative phase: The sample size will be carried out by a pilot study, then a designed program as an educational intervention for teaching breastfeeding behavior based on the PBT for 30-34 weeks pregnant mothers with gestational diabetes will be implemented during 3-4 sessions and breastfeeding behavior will be evaluated after delivery. DISCUSSION: This is the first mixed-method study in Iran that led to implement an interventional program based on the theory of planned behavior. Because of the complications such as infant death, several diabetics' mothers plan to stop breastfeeding. We hope that the result of this research will be a step in solving breastfeeding problems in mothers with gestational diabetes.


Gestational diabetes is a type of carbohydrate intolerance diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. The rate of gestational diabetes has increased along with the increase in the prevalence of diabetes risk factors. It is associated with multiple prenatal and birth outcomes. Despite the incomparable benefits of breastfeeding providing health to gestational diabetes mothers, the rate of breastfeeding is low. This is the first study in Iran using a mixed method approach in 3 phases to implement an educational interventional program with a qualitative study directed by theory of planned behavior (TPB) to prevent the decrease of breastfeeding in mothers with gestational diabetes. The purpose of first phase of study (qualitative) is to understand women's experience of gestational diabetes, which will be done using the directed content analysis method. The purposive sampling will be used for pregnant mothers with gestational diabetes at 30­34 weeks and mothers with infants (up to 6 months). The second phase is designing and implementing an educational program based on the PBT: Educational aims and content will be prepared based on the need achieved in the qualitative phase, the opinions of the focus group with experts? Mothers? Whom? And the literature review, then the breastfeeding behavior will be measured using the survey tool "breastfeeding drop". The third phase includes: Interventional quantitative phase an educational program will be implemented for training breastfeeding behavior based on the theory of PBT for 30­34 weeks pregnant mothers with gestational diabetes. This program will be administered as an educational intervention during 3­4 sessions and breastfeeding behavior will be evaluated after delivery.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Gravidez , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno , Irã (Geográfico) , Projetos Piloto , Mães , Morte do Lactente
16.
Acta Vet Scand ; 66(1): 4, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet and endogenous vitamin D synthesis are possible sources of vitamin D in wild rabbits. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been reported in rabbits after artificial UVB light exposure than in rabbits without this exposure, suggesting that endogenous vitamin D synthesis occurs in the former group. In Finnish pet rabbits, diet was reported as main source of vitamin D, while outdoor access was not. Finland's northern location only enables endogenous synthesis from mid-March to mid-October in people with light skin type. Living conditions during winter are challenging for Finnish wild rabbits. This study aimed to measure serum 25(OH)D concentrations and possible natural seasonal variation of vitamin D concentrations in Finnish wild rabbits. RESULTS: Post-mortem blood samples (n = 78) were collected between 2013 and 2021 from wild rabbits hunted for reduction of the wild rabbit population. Separated sera were stored at - 80 °C until 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Data regarding sex were available from 50 rabbits, 29 (58%) of which were females. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 3.3 (range 0.3-7.1) ng/ml. 25(OH)D concentration was statistically similar between season (autumn, winter, summer), month or year of sample collection, and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Wild rabbits living in Finland have very low serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This is far below the previously suggested threshold of vitamin D deficiency in rabbits (17 ng/mL) or the mean 25(OH)D concentration reported in Finnish pet rabbits (26.0 ng/mL). Seasonal variation was not observed in 25(OH)D concentrations between winter and summer months. Even though rabbits are crepuscular animals and may spend the mid-day in underground burrows, the very low observed 25(OH)D concentrations raise doubt about whether vitamin D synthesis occurs efficiently in the skin of rabbits and whether the diet of wild rabbits provides adequate amounts of vitamin D. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis, possible long-term consequences of low 25(OH)D concentrations, and the association of low vitamin D status with other health disorders warrant further investigations in rabbits.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Coelhos , Dieta , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Deficiência de Vitamina D/veterinária , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
17.
Genome Biol ; 25(1): 44, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is a tumor suppressor in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, a role sustained in some ER negative breast cancers. Key factors dictating AR genomic activity in a breast context are largely unknown. Herein, we employ an unbiased chromatin immunoprecipitation-based proteomic technique to identify endogenous AR interacting co-regulatory proteins in ER positive and negative models of breast cancer to gain new insight into mechanisms of AR signaling in this disease. RESULTS: The DNA-binding factor GATA3 is identified and validated as a novel AR interacting protein in breast cancer cells irrespective of ER status. AR activation by the natural ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increases nuclear AR-GATA3 interactions, resulting in AR-dependent enrichment of GATA3 chromatin binding at a sub-set of genomic loci. Silencing GATA3 reduces but does not prevent AR DNA binding and transactivation of genes associated with AR/GATA3 co-occupied loci, indicating a co-regulatory role for GATA3 in AR signaling. DHT-induced AR/GATA3 binding coincides with upregulation of luminal differentiation genes, including EHF and KDM4B, established master regulators of a breast epithelial cell lineage. These findings are validated in a patient-derived xenograft model of breast cancer. Interaction between AR and GATA3 is also associated with AR-mediated growth inhibition in ER positive and ER negative breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: AR and GATA3 interact to transcriptionally regulate luminal epithelial cell differentiation in breast cancer regardless of ER status. This interaction facilitates the tumor suppressor function of AR and mechanistically explains why AR expression is associated with less proliferative, more differentiated breast tumors and better overall survival in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Proteômica , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , DNA , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 26(1): 22, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317255

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One major risk factor for breast cancer is high mammographic density. It has been estimated that dense breast tissue contributes to ~ 30% of all breast cancer. Prevention targeting dense breast tissue has the potential to improve breast cancer mortality and morbidity. Anti-estrogens, which may be associated with severe side-effects, can be used for prevention of breast cancer in women with high risk of the disease per se. However, no preventive therapy targeting dense breasts is currently available. Inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Although the biological mechanisms involved in the increased risk of cancer in dense breasts is not yet fully understood, high mammographic density has been associated with increased inflammation. We investigated whether low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) affects local breast tissue inflammation and/or structural and dynamic changes in dense breasts. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with mammographic dense breasts on their regular mammography screen were identified. A total of 53 women were randomized to receive ASA 160 mg/day or no treatment for 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed before and after 6 months for a sophisticated and continuous measure breast density by calculating lean tissue fraction (LTF). Additionally, dynamic quantifications including tissue perfusion were performed. Microdialysis for sampling of proteins in vivo from breasts and abdominal subcutaneous fat, as a measure of systemic effects, before and after 6 months were performed. A panel of 92 inflammatory proteins were quantified in the microdialysates using proximity extension assay. RESULTS: After correction for false discovery rate, 20 of the 92 inflammatory proteins were significantly decreased in breast tissue after ASA treatment, whereas no systemic effects were detected. In the no-treatment group, protein levels were unaffected. Breast density, measured by LTF on MRI, were unaffected in both groups. ASA significantly decreased the perfusion rate. The perfusion rate correlated positively with local breast tissue concentration of VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: ASA may shape the local breast tissue microenvironment into an anti-tumorigenic state. Trials investigating the effects of low-dose ASA and risk of primary breast cancer among postmenopausal women with maintained high mammographic density are warranted. Trial registration EudraCT: 2017-000317-22.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mamografia/métodos , Densidade da Mama , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Hereditas ; 161(1): 8, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of rare genetic disorders characterized by a reduced or complete lack of melanin in the skin, hair, and eyes. Patients present with colorless retina, pale pink iris, and pupil, and fear of light. The skin, eyebrows, hair, and other body hair are white or yellowish-white. These conditions are caused by mutations in specific genes necessary for the production of melanin. OCA is divided into eight clinical types (OCA1-8), each with different clinical phenotypes and potential genetic factors. This study aimed to identify the genetic causes of non-syndromic OCA in a Chinese Han family. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive clinical examination of family members, screened for mutation loci using whole exome sequencing (WES) technology, and predicted mutations using In silico tools. RESULTS: The patient's clinical manifestations were white skin, yellow hair, a few freckles on the cheeks and bridge of the nose, decreased vision, blue iris, poorly defined optic disk borders, pigmentation of the fundus being insufficient, and significant vascular exposure. The WES test results indicate that the patient has compound heterozygous mutations in the OCA2 gene (c.1258G > A (p.G420R), c.1441G > A (p.A481T), and c.2267-2 A > C), respectively, originating from her parents. Among them, c.1258G > A (p.G420R) is a de novo mutation with pathogenic. Our analysis suggests that compound heterozygous mutations in the OCA2 gene are the primary cause of the disease in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: The widespread application of next-generation sequencing technologies such as WES in clinical practice can effectively replace conventional detection methods and assist in the diagnosis of clinical diseases more quickly and accurately. The newly discovered c.1258G > A (p.G420R) mutation can update and expand the gene mutation spectrum of OCA2-type albinism.


Assuntos
Albinismo Oculocutâneo , Melaninas , Humanos , Feminino , Melaninas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/diagnóstico , Albinismo Oculocutâneo/genética , China
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(5): e50, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maladaptation to vascular, metabolic, and physiological changes during pregnancy can lead to fetal growth disorders. Moreover, adverse outcomes during pregnancy can further increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in mothers. Delivering a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) baby may indicate a pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, whereas delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) baby may indicate a pre-existing vascular dysfunction. This study aims to assess the risk of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in women with normal body mass index (BMI) scores who did not experience gestational DM or hypertensive disorders during pregnancy based on the offspring's birthweight. METHODS: This retrospective nationwide study included women with normal BMI scores who delivered a singleton baby after 37 weeks. Women with a history of DM or HTN before pregnancy and those with gestational DM or hypertensive disorders, were excluded from the study. We compared the risk of future maternal outcomes (HTN and DM) according to the offspring's birthweight. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the future risk of HTN or DM. RESULTS: A total of 64,037 women were included in the analysis. Of these, women who delivered very LGA babies (birthweight > 97th percentile) were at a higher risk of developing DM than those who delivered appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) babies (adjusted HR = 1.358 [1.068-1.727]), and women who delivered very SGA babies (birthweight < 3rd percentile) were at a higher risk of developing HTN than those who delivered AGA babies (adjusted HR = 1.431 [1.181-1.734]), even after adjusting for age, parity, gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, maternal BMI score, and a history of smoking. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a novel support for the use of the offspring's birthweight as a predictor of future maternal diseases such as HTN and DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA