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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546

RESUMO

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Estrigiformes , Reprodução , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMO

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899

RESUMO

Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.


Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 133987, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037686

RESUMO

αs1-Casein (αs1-CN) is a major cow milk allergen, while the tertiary structure of αs1-CN and conformational epitopes of αs1-CN have not been clarified. Here, a reasonable three-dimensional structure of αs1-CN was established using ab initio methods, and hot-spot residues and epitopes were investigated by combining molecular dynamics simulation, peptides synthesis, and ELISA. Obtained results demonstrated that the binding mechanism between αs1-CN and IgG was located on three main regions: a helical structure zone (E77-Q97), the flexible loop zone (Y154-T174), and a flexible C-terminal (N190-L198), mainly connecting via hydrogen bond and ionic bonds. The hydrolysates produced by papain with lowest antigenicity (12.43%), which could considerably destroy the essential epitopes of αs1-CN confirmed by epitope synthesis, and LC-MS/MS. The results reported herein would provide novel insights into the interface interactions between αs1-CN and IgG, and prove valuable for developing hypoallergenic infant-formula and peptide vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Alérgenos , Animais , Caseínas/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Epitopos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Leite/química
6.
Food Chem ; 398: 133868, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961171

RESUMO

Gametogenesis can significantly affect the biochemical composition of oysters, but little research on the difference between sexes. Therefore, we conducted the first in-depth study on the composition differences between males and females of three different Crassostrea sp.. The results showed that females had higher glycogen, lipid, Cu and Zn contents than males, while males had higher protein and taurine contents than females at maturity, which might be related to special meiosis pattern of eggs and less energy was required for female gametogenesis. In addition, both males and females had well-balanced essential amino acid compositions. The omega-3: omega-6 (n-3: n-6) ratio of males was significantly higher than that of females, indicating that the nutritional quality of males was higher. These results provide a reliable and refined theoretical and research basis for revealing the nutritional quality, extracting beneficial ingredients, and developing functional food of Crassostrea sp., and provide data support for the sex-regulated breeding of oysters.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Metais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e239237, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1399762

RESUMO

Aim: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported depressive symptoms in undergraduate and graduate dental students. Methods: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was applied, and only the depression domain was verified. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and COVID-19 pandemic-related fear variables. Academic performance was assessed based on academic records, ranging from 0 (worst possible grade) to 10 (best possible grade). Respondents included 408 regularly enrolled dental students. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the association between at least moderate depressive symptoms and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of at least moderate depression was 40.5% among undergraduate students and 26% among graduate students. The prevalence of fear and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was 96.1% among undergraduate students and 93.5% among graduate students. In the final multivariate analysis, being female (prevalence ratio [PR]:2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.36­2.96) was associated with a higher PR for depression. Conversely, no exposure to smoking (PR:0.54; 95%CI:0.36­0.82) and a final academic performance average ≥7.0 (PR:0.56; 95%CI:0.41­0.76) was associated with a lower PR for depression. Finally, among graduate students, a non-heterosexual orientation was associated with a higher PR for depression (PR:6.70; 95%CI:2.21­20.29). Conclusion: Higher rates of depression symptoms were observed in female undergraduates, students with lower academic performance and smoking exposure, and graduate dental students with a non-heterosexual orientation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudantes de Odontologia , Tabagismo , Saúde Mental , Depressão/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico
8.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0166, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394840

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical training for the elderly is extremely popular. However, there is a lack of analysis on sports injuries in the elderly. Objective: Study the analysis of movement in sports training techniques and preventing sports injuries in the elderly. Methods: Participating in a 15-minute running and warm-up activity before using the standard FMS test kit, they followed seven test movements, each repeated three times; they did so during six weeks of training based on the recommendations for the prevention of sports injuries presented in this paper. Results: Among the 14 elderly subjects with a total FMS score <14 points, most functional motor scores were 15-16 points, of which 19 points were high, and 9 points were low. In the intervention based on the perspective of sports injuries, the FMS measurement value of the elderly was much better than before, and the evaluation of the technical analysis of movement after the correction was significantly higher than before. Conclusion: The prevention of sports injuries proposed in this paper can effectively help the elderly to prevent sports injuries. This paper considers the FMS trial design as an example for analyzing movements in sports training of the elderly and formulating standards. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: O treinamento físico em idosos é extremamente popular, entretanto, carece de análise sobre as lesões esportivas em idosos. Objetivo: Estudar a análise do movimento nas técnicas de treinamento esportivo e a prevenção de lesões esportivas em idosos. Métodos: Participando de uma atividade de 15 minutos de corrida e aquecimento antes de utilizar o kit de teste padrão FMS, seguiram-se sete movimentos de teste, cada um deles repetidos 3 vezes; fizeram-no durante seis semanas de treinamento com base nas recomendações de prevenção de lesões esportivas apresentadas neste trabalho. Resultados: Entre os 14 sujeitos idosos com pontuação total de FMS <14 pontos, a maioria das pontuações motoras funcionais foram de 15-16 pontos, dos quais 19 pontos foram altos e 9 pontos foram baixos. Na intervenção baseada sob a ótica das lesões esportivas, o valor de medição FMS dos idosos foi muito melhor do que anteriormente, e a avaliação da análise técnica do movimento após a correção foi significativamente maior do que aquela antes da correção. Conclusão: A prevenção de lesões esportivas proposta neste trabalho pode efetivamente ajudar os idosos a prevenir as lesões esportivas. Este documento considera o projeto de ensaio do FMS como um exemplo para analisar os movimentos no treinamento esportivo das pessoas idosas e para formular padrões. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El entrenamiento físico en las personas mayores es muy popular, sin embargo, hay una falta de análisis sobre las lesiones deportivas en las personas mayores. Objetivo: Estudiar el análisis del movimiento en las técnicas de entrenamiento deportivo y la prevención de lesiones deportivas en las personas mayores. Métodos: Participando en una actividad de carrera y calentamiento de 15 minutos antes de utilizar el kit de prueba estándar de FMS, se siguieron siete movimientos de prueba, cada uno repetido 3 veces; lo hicieron durante seis semanas de entrenamiento basado en las recomendaciones para la prevención de lesiones deportivas presentadas en este trabajo. Resultados: Entre los 14 sujetos de edad avanzada con una puntuación total de FMS <14 puntos, la mayoría de las puntuaciones motoras funcionales eran de 15-16 puntos, de los cuales 19 puntos eran altos y 9 puntos eran bajos. En la intervención basada en la perspectiva de las lesiones deportivas, el valor de medición de la FMS de los ancianos fue mucho mejor que antes, y la evaluación del análisis técnico del movimiento después de la corrección fue significativamente mayor que antes de la corrección. Conclusión: La prevención de las lesiones deportivas propuesta en este artículo puede ayudar eficazmente a las personas mayores a prevenir las lesiones deportivas. Este documento considera el diseño de la prueba FMS como un ejemplo para analizar los movimientos en el entrenamiento deportivo de las personas mayores y para formular normas. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Movimento/fisiologia
9.
Physiol Rev ; 103(1): 7-30, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635320

RESUMO

In this paper, we provide an overview of the evolution of the definition of hyperglycemia during the past century and the alterations in glucose dynamics that cause fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. We discuss how extensive mechanistic, physiological research into the factors and pathways that regulate the appearance of glucose in the circulation and its uptake and metabolism by tissues and organs has contributed knowledge that has advanced our understanding of different types of hyperglycemia, namely prediabetes and diabetes and their subtypes (impaired fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, combined impaired fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus), their relationships with medical complications, and how to prevent and treat hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Hiperglicemia , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Açúcares
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115835, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252878

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Er-Xian decoction (EXD) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used to treat osteoporosis (OP). However, the anti-OP mechanism of EXD has not yet been fully elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to verify the anti-OP effect of EXD and to explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: The anti-OP targets and mechanisms of EXD were predicted by network pharmacological analysis. Then, an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model was established to validate the key anti-OP mechanism of EXD. Firstly, the therapeutic effect of EXD on OP was confirmed using micro-CT bone analysis, pathological observation, and ELISA detection. Secondly, serum metabolites related to key biological processes were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer and GC-MS. Finally, ELISA, qRT-PCR, and western blot were utilized to further explore the potential key anti-OP pathway of EXD. RESULTS: A total of 159 anti-OP targets of EXD were identified. Functional annotation revealed that OP treatment using EXD was associated with lipid metabolism, fatty acid (FA) metabolism, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Experimental studies confirmed that EXD ameliorated ovariectomy-induced bone loss and bone microstructure deterioration. EXD treatment also upregulated the level of serum estrogen and downregulated the level of OC, PⅠNP, CTX-1, TC, and LDL-C. Besides, principal component analysis (PCA) and heat map of serum FAs distinguished OVX rats from the SHAM and EXD groups. Serum concentrations of important n-3 FAs, including C20:3N3, C20:5N3, and C22:5N3, were significantly increased in the EXD group. The increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) index 1 and index 2 in the OVX group were reversed by EXD administration. Additionally, EXD reversed the decreased serum IGF1 level and tibia IGF1R, PI3K, and AKT expression in OVX rats. CONCLUSION: EXD ameliorated ovariectomy-induced bone loss by modulating lipid metabolism, FA metabolism, and IGF1/PI3K/AKT pathway.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Osteoporose , Humanos , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo
11.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103863, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055035

RESUMO

Measuring trust is an important element of effective human-robot collaborations (HRCs). It has largely relied on subjective responses and thus cannot be readily used for adapting robots in shared operations, particularly in shared-space manufacturing applications. Additionally, whether trust in such HRCs differ under altered operator cognitive states or with sex remains unknown. This study examined the impacts of operator cognitive fatigue, robot reliability, and operator sex on trust symptoms in collaborative robots through both objective measures (i.e., performance, heart rate variability) and subjective measures (i.e., surveys). Male and female participants were recruited to perform a metal surface polishing task in partnership with a collaborative robot (UR10), in which they underwent reliability conditions (reliable, unreliable) and cognitive fatigue conditions (fatigued, not fatigued). As compared to the reliable conditions, unreliable robot manipulations resulted in perceived trust, an increase in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, and operator-induced reduction in task efficiency and accuracy but not precision. Cognitive fatigue was shown to correlate with higher fatigue scores and reduced task efficiency, more severely impacting females. The results highlight key interplays between operator states of fatigue, sex, and robot reliability on both subjective and objective responses of trust. These findings provide a strong foundation for future investigations on better understanding the relationship between human factors and trust in HRC as well as aid in developing more diagnostic and deployable measures of trust.


Assuntos
Robótica , Confiança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Confiança/psicologia , Robótica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103869, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055036

RESUMO

Static biomechanical simulations are sometimes used to estimate in vivo kinetic demands because they can be solved efficiently, but this ignores any potential inertial effects. To date, comparisons between static and dynamic analyses of spinal demands have been limited to lumbar joint differences in young males performing sagittal lifts. Here we compare static and dynamic vertebral compressive and shear force estimates during axial, lateral, and sagittal lifting tasks across all thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in older men and women. Participant-specific thoracolumbar full-body musculoskeletal models estimated vertebral forces from recorded kinematics both with and without consideration of dynamic effects, at an identified frame of peak vertebral loading. Static analyses under-predicted dynamic compressive and resultant shear forces, by an average of about 16% for all three lifts across the thoracic and lumbar spine but were highly correlated with dynamic forces (average r2 > .95). The study outcomes have the potential to enable standard clinical and occupational estimates using static analyses.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares , Postura , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Suporte de Carga , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Região Lombossacral , Modelos Biológicos
13.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107464, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As daily engagement with social networking sites (SNS) increases globally, identifying and understanding the risk factors associated with problematic SNS use is of utmost importance. Researchers are interested in understanding internalizing symptoms as both a risk factor and a negative consequence of problematic SNS use. Prior research has proposed rumination alongside internalizing symptoms as a risk factor, though limited research has examined these associations across different cultures. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the indirect associations between internalizing symptoms (specifically depressive and social anxiety symptoms) and problematic SNS use via rumination among a cross-cultural sample. METHOD: Participants were 8,912 (70.8 % female; Mean age = 20.25, SD = 3.95) college students recruited across seven countries (U.S., Canada, Spain, England, Argentina, Uruguay, and South Africa) who completed measures of internalizing symptoms, rumination, weekly SNS use, and problematic SNS use. RESULTS: We found that higher internalizing symptoms were associated with more problematic SNS use via higher ruminative thinking. Specifically, problem-focused thoughts (a rumination subtype) uniquely accounted for 22.89% and 28.15% of the total effect of depressive and social anxiety symptoms on problematic SNS use, respectively. Other rumination subtypes (i.e., anticipatory thoughts and repetitive thinking) also demonstrated significant indirect effects, though weaker effects than for problem-focused thoughts. Findings were invariant across countries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for further exploring the role rumination plays in determining and comparing problematic SNS use cross-culturally in longitudinal and experimental work.


Assuntos
Rede Social , Estudantes , Adulto , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107462, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084413

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that females respond more favourably to baclofen treatment for alcohol use disorder. Females are generally more likely to drink to regulate stress reactivity and negative affect. This study thus aimed to evaluate the role of sex on the effect of baclofen on the relationship between daily alcohol consumption, stress and craving. METHODS: A network analysis of fluctuations using vectorized autoregressive modelling was used to explore the relationship between daily surveys of alcohol consumption, stress and craving from daily diary data over 84 days from a randomised controlled trial of baclofen (30 mg or 75 mg per day) versus placebo in 104 participants with alcohol dependence (1, 2). Symptom interrelations across patients and across time were examined including temporal networks (time lagged), contemporaneous and between-subjects networks, and were examined for placebo and baclofen stratified by sex. RESULTS: Overall, between persons, there was a significant relationship between stress and drinking in placebo treated individuals in females (r = -0.70, p < 0.001) but not males (r = 0.32, p = 0.054) that was not observed in baclofen treated individuals. No relationship was observed between stress and drinking in the baclofen group for either sex (p's < 0.45). DISCUSSION: There appears to be some sex-specific differences whereby baclofen abolishes an overall association between stress and drinking in females, but this is not observed in males. Network analyses may assist in elucidating the mechanism of action of alcohol pharmacotherapies such as baclofen and understanding which symptoms and mechanisms are key for effective interventions.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Baclofeno , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Baclofeno/farmacologia , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Fissura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107483, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") are commonly promoted as a less-harmful alternative to combustible cigarettes, yet many individuals concurrently use both products ("dual users"). Little is known about the extent to which dual users' perceptions of the addictive properties of these products differ, or to what extent there are differences in the factors that elicit craving for each product. METHODS: An online survey evaluated beliefs about the addictive properties of cigarettes vs e-cigarettes and the situational and affective precipitants of product craving, on a scale from 1 to 10, in a sample of Canadian adults that reported past-month use of combustible and e-cigarettes (N = 175; 79 female). RESULTS: Participants rated cigarettes as more addictive than e-cigarettes, and on average reported higher levels of dependence on combustible cigarettes. While the addictive properties of both combustible and e-cigarettes were largely attributed to nicotine, non-nicotine factors (e.g. flavouring, other non-nicotine ingredients) were believed to make a relatively stronger contribution to the addictive properties of e-cigarettes, particularly among women. Participants reported greater increases in craving for combustible cigarettes in response to negative affective states and situational factors, and these effects were strongest among participants that displayed greater dependence on combustible tobacco relative to e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Dual users perceived cigarettes to be more addictive than e-cigarettes and attributed the addictive properties of each product to different factors. Further, cravings for combustible cigarettes were more strongly linked to certain negative affective states and situational factors relative to e-cigarettes. Findings suggest that there may be limited substitutability between combustible and e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Canadá , Fissura , Feminino , Humanos , Nicotina
16.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114090, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057378

RESUMO

Despite the higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women, the majority of preclinical research has been conducted utilizing male subjects. We have found that male rats exposed to the predator scent 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT) show heterogenous long-term anxiety-like behavior and conditioned fear to the TMT environment. Stress-Resilient males exhibit increased mGlu5 mRNA expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we sought to determine whether the same behavioral and genetic responses would be observed in female rats exposed to TMT. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to TMT for ten minutes, while Controls were exposed to an unscented environment. Anxiety and anhedonia were assessed 7-14 days later with elevated plus maze (EPM), acoustic startle response, light-dark box, and sucrose preference test (SPT). TMT-exposed females spent less time in the EPM open arms, exhibited greater startle amplitude, and reduced sucrose intake compared to Controls. Median split analyses conducted on EPM and SPT data yielded stress-Susceptible and -Resilient phenotypes that displayed behavior in the light-dark box consistent with EPM and SPT behavior. Susceptible females displayed greater BLA mGlu5 mRNA expression than Resilient and Control rats and did not show conditioned fear, in contrast to previous results in males. Resilient females displayed greater mGlu5 mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. These data indicate that the predator scent stress model of PTSD produces distinct stress-Susceptible and Resilient phenotypes in female rats that are associated with changes in mGlu5 mRNA expression in several brain regions.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo
17.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114087, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of alcohol analgesia and tolerance can facilitate misuse and lead to the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Numerous alcohol-induced behaviors are genetically influenced; however, it is unknown if alcohol analgesia has a genetic contribution. Rodent studies have shown that alcohol responses differ vastly between two widely studied inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 J (B6) and DBA/2 J (D2). Here, we used B6 and D2 mice as an initial behavioral genetic analysis of acute alcohol-induced antinociception. METHODS: The antinociceptive effect of orally-administered alcohol was characterized using the hot plate test in B6 and D2 mice of both sexes. Using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, the involvement of the opioid system was assessed. Locomotor activity and blood alcohol concentrations were also measured. Ovariectomized mice were used to evaluate the influence of ovarian sex hormones on alcohol-induced antinociception. RESULTS: Alcohol induced an antinociceptive effect in B6 and D2 male mice in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, D2 male mice were more sensitive to the antinociceptive effect of alcohol than B6 male mice. However, locomotion is not impeded by the tested doses of alcohol in B6 mice. Female D2 and B6 mice failed to show significant antinociceptive effects in alcohol dose-response studies. In addition, alcohol-induced antinociception was still not evident in ovariectomized female mice. Male mice of both strains developed tolerance to this effect after repeated administration of alcohol. Strain differences were found in blood alcohol concentration. Finally, no difference was found in the blockade of alcohol antinociception by 2 mg/kg naloxone. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the antinociceptive effects of alcohol in the hot plate test are influenced by strain and sex. These findings support further genetic analysis of alcohol-induced antinociception to identify operative mechanisms and better assess the contribution of this phenotype to AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 61(1): 129-139, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336386

RESUMO

A pregnant patient with acute trauma is not commonly encountered by clinicians and radiologists. A multidisciplinary approach is key. Although radiography and ultrasound examination are frequently used modalities in the setting of maternal-fetal trauma, the fear of radiation should not preclude from carrying out a thorough diagnostic workup of the patient with a computed tomography scan. MRI mainly serves as a problem solving and follow-up modality. After stabilizing the mother, fetal well-being should be assessed with external fetal monitoring and a dedicated obstetric ultrasound examination. Radiologists should be familiar with the sonographic and computed tomography findings of catastrophic entities.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
19.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 61(1): 111-118, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336384

RESUMO

Establishing an emergency radiology division in a practice that has long-standing patterns of operational routines comes with both challenges and opportunities. In this article, considerations around scheduling and staffing, compensation, and equity and parity are provided with supporting literature references. Furthermore, a panel of experts having established, grown and managed emergency radiology divisions in North America and Europe share their experiences through a question and answer format.


Assuntos
Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Radiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Paridade , Europa (Continente)
20.
J Invest Surg ; 36(1): 1-10, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the recurrence rate and prognosis between minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach and open surgical approach of endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients with different prognostic risk groups. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases undergoing EC surgery between January 2011 and March 2018 was performed. The patients were grouped according to the management guidelines of EC patients jointly formulated by the ESGO/ESTRO/ESP 2020. Different surgical approaches were compared with regard to tumor characteristics, recurrence rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 665 patients met the inclusion criteria of which 196 patients underwent MIS (29.5%), and 469 patients underwent open surgery (70.5%). In the MIS group, there was a significant higher rate of recurrence (17.3% vs 6.6%, P = 0.000) compared to the open surgery group. The recurrence rate of MIS was 7.7% (P = 0.000) in the medium-high risk group and 8.2% (P = 0.014) in the high-risk group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the independent factors influencing recurrence included prognostic risk grouping, surgical approach and lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI) positivity (P < 0.05). K-M survival analysis revealed that in the intermediate and high-risk group of EC, MIS patients had a significantly lower DFS than those undergoing open surgery (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found in OS. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with EC at moderate and high prognostic risk, MIS is associated with poorer DFS compared to open surgery, but OS was similar across prognostic risk groups. The application of MIS in patients with moderate and high-risk EC needs further research and analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia
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