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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 30, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of hybrid incompatibilities is characterized by pervasive cases of gene interactions. Sex chromosomes play a major role in speciation and X-linked hybrid male sterility (HMS) genes have been identified. Interestingly, some of these genes code for proteins with DNA binding domains, suggesting a capability to act as trans-regulatory elements and disturb the expression of a large number of gene targets. To understand how interactions between trans- and cis-regulatory elements contribute to speciation, we aimed to map putative X-linked trans-regulatory elements and to identify gene targets with disrupted gene expression in sterile hybrids between the subspecies Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura and D. p. bogotana. RESULTS: We find six putative trans-regulatory proteins within previously mapped X chromosome HMS loci with sequence changes that differentiate the two subspecies. Among them, the previously characterized HMS gene Overdrive (Ovd) had the largest number of amino acid changes between subspecies, with some substitutions localized within the protein's DNA binding domain. Using an introgression approach, we detected transcriptional responses associated with a sterility/fertility Ovd allele swap. We found a network of 52 targets of Ovd and identified cis-regulatory effects among target genes with disrupted expression in sterile hybrids. However, a combined analysis of polymorphism and divergence in non-coding sequences immediately upstream of target genes found no evidence of changes in candidate regulatory proximal cis-elements. Finally, peptidases were over-represented among target genes. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence of divergence between subspecies within the DNA binding domain of the HMS protein Ovd and identify trans effects on the expression of 52 gene targets. Our results identify a network of trans-cis interactions with possible effects on HMS. This network provides molecular evidence of gene × gene incompatibilities as contributors to hybrid dysfunction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Infertilidade Masculina , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Fertilidade , Hibridização Genética , Masculino , Cromossomos Sexuais , Cromossomo X/genética
3.
Plant Sci ; 314: 111065, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895534

RESUMO

Sucrose-proton symporters play important roles in carbohydrate transport during plant growth and development. Their physiological functions have only been partly characterized and their regulation mechanism is largely unclear. Here we report that the knockout of a sucrose transporter gene, OsSUT1, by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene editing resulted in a slightly dwarf size and complete infertility of the gene's homozygous mutants. Observation of caryopsis development revealed that the endosperm of OsSUT1 mutants failed to cellularize and did not show any sign of seed-filling. Consistently, OsSUT1 was identified to express strongly in developing caryopsis of wild-type rice, particularly in the nucellar epidermis and aleurone which are critical for the uptake of nutrients into the endosperm. These results indicate that OsSUT1 is indispensable during the rice reproductive stage particularly for caryopsis development. Interestingly, OsSUT1 possesses at least 6 alternative splicing transcripts, including the 4 transcripts deposited previously and the other two identified by us. The differences among these transcripts primarily lie in their coding region of the 3' end and 3' UTR region. Real-time PCR showed that 4 of the 6 transcripts had different expressional patterns during rice vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Given the versatility of the gene, addressing its alternative splicing mechanism may expand our understanding of SUT's function substantially.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Fertilidade/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1866(1): 130023, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626748

RESUMO

Humanin, a mitochondria-derived peptide, has been found to exert variously protective function in many tissues, especially in the nervous tissues. However, relatively limited studies have focused on the role of humanin in the regulation of reproduction. Current observations indicate that humanin plays an important role in regulating the response of the cell to oxidative stress and apoptosis in ovaries and testes via the modulation of several signaling pathways, especially when the body is in an abnormal state. Even so, the detailed mechanism of humanin function needs to be explored urgently. In this passage, we demonstrate how humanin exerts its protective role in female and male reproduction and raise several questions that need further investigations. Given humanin's new frontier for the design of novel therapeutic approaches for male infertility, male contraception, female infertility, and glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome, it is worthy of further study on its protective effects and clinical applications in reproductive function.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Líquido Folicular/citologia , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo/metabolismo
5.
Theriogenology ; 177: 29-33, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656834

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of supplementing Lake extender with cysteamine (CYS) on rooster semen quality in cold storage and it's fertility performance. Semen samples were diluted with Lake extender supplemented with different concentrations of CYS (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mM) and were cooled and stored at 5 °C for a period of 46 h. Motility, membrane functionality, viability, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondria membrane potential were evaluated at 0, 23 and 46 h of storage. Fertility was assessed at 23 h of storage. Although at the beginning time (0 h), parameters were not affected, 1 mM of CYS improved (P ≤ 0.05) total motility, progressive motility and mitochondria membrane potential during 23 and 46 h storage. Moreover, 1 and 2 mM CYS improved (P ≤ 0.05) membrane functionality and viability compared to other groups. Lipid peroxidation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in samples diluted with 1 and 2 mM CYS compared to the others. Artificial insemination with 23-hrs cooled-stored semen produced the higher (P ≤ 0.05) fertility rate in groups received 1 and 2 mM CYS compared to the control group. In conclusion, addition of 1 and 2 mM CYS to the extender could be helpful to protect rooster semen against structural and functional damages of cooling storage process.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Sêmen , Animais , Galinhas , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Cisteamina/farmacologia , Fertilidade , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
6.
Theriogenology ; 177: 195-205, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757242

RESUMO

We hypothesised that heifers and cows with positive genetic merit for fertility would have a follicular microenvironment that resulted in better quality oocytes. To test this, we compared cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COC) and follicular fluid from preovulatory follicles of 36 Holstein-Friesian nulliparous heifers and 50 primiparous lactating cows with either positive (POS, +5%) or negative (NEG, -5%) fertility breeding values (FertBV). Established gene markers of oocyte quality were measured in individual cumulus cell masses and oocytes, and concentrations of amino acids, steroids, and metabolites were quantified in corresponding follicular fluid and plasma. The timing of visually detectable oestrus in NEG FertBV heifers was inconsistent with their stage of COC maturation. Retrospective analyses of oestrous activity data indicated that NEG FertBV heifers were sampled earlier. Their recovered COC were morphologically less mature and exhibited differential expression of genes that are associated with follicular maturation (lower levels of BMPR2) and protein processing (higher levels of HSP90B1). Despite consistent sampling times being achieved in the lactating cows, lower concentrations of serine, proline, methionine, isoleucine, and non-esterified fatty acids were present in follicular fluid from POS FertBV cows. This was associated with higher expression of gene biomarkers of good oocyte quality (VCAN, PDE8A) in COC recovered from POS FertBV cows. This study supports our hypothesis that the follicular microenvironment in lactating dairy cows with high genetic merit leads to COC with higher metabolic rates and oocytes of superior quality. Moreover, an additional stressor such as lactation is required for this difference to be pronounced.


Assuntos
Lactação , Folículo Ovariano , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Líquido Folicular , Oócitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343920

RESUMO

Soil bacterial community (SBC) and fertility are pivotal for the evaluation of phytoremediation performance. Although affected by earthworms (E) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), little is known about the impacts of the E-AMF interaction on the variation of SBC and fertility in cadmium (Cd)-spiked soil. We elucidated these impacts in rhizosphere soil of Solanum nigrum L. Loss of nutrient availability, and SBC diversity was observed in Cd-polluted soil. AMF increased available phosphorous (AP), whereas E increased available potassium (AK). In soils with 60 and 120 mg/kg Cd, the contents of AK, AP, and soil organic matter (SOM) increased by 7.0-19.7%, 23.7-25.5%, and 11.5-17.4%, respectively; and the residual Cd after remediation decreased by 7.9-8.5% in soils treated with EAM compared to untreated soil. EAM-treated soil had higher alpha diversity estimators compared to uninoculated soil. The predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 72.5-84.0%. Redundancy analysis showed that total carbon (TC), SOM, pH, and C/N ratio were key factors determining SBC at the phylum level, explaining 26.9, 24.1, 15.1, and 14.8% of the total variance, respectively. These results suggested that EAM affected SBC composition by altering SOM, TC, and C/N ratio. The E-AMF cooperation ameliorates soil nutrients, SBC diversity, and composition, facilitating phytoextraction processes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Fertilidade , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(1): 166295, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718118

RESUMO

Several organs, such as the heart, breasts, intestine, testes, and ovaries, have been reported to be target tissues of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To date, no studies have demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 infection in the female reproductive system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on ovarian function by comparing follicular fluid (FF) from control and recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and by evaluating the influence of these FF on human endothelial and non-luteinized granulosa cell cultures. Our results showed that most FFs (91.3%) from screened post COVID-19 patients were positive for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, patients with higher levels of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 had lower numbers of retrieved oocytes. While VEGF and IL-1ß were significantly lower in post COVID-19 FF, IL-10 did not differ from that in control FF. Moreover, in COV434 cells stimulated with FF from post COVID-19 patients, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), estrogen-receptor ß (Erß), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were significantly decreased, whereas estrogen-receptor α (ERα) and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD) did not change. In endothelial cells stimulated with post COVID-19 FF, we observed a decrease in cell migration without changes in protein expression of certain angiogenic factors. Both cell types showed a significantly higher γH2AX expression when exposed to post COVID-19 FF. In conclusion, our results describe for the first time that the SARS-CoV-2 infection adversely affects the follicular microenvironment, thus dysregulating ovarian function.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Ovário/metabolismo , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fertilidade , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 321-328, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes express different degrees of preference towards hosts depending on behavioral, ecological, and physiological factors. These preferences have implications for mosquito-borne disease risk. This study investigated the effect of human blood groups on the behavior and fecundity of the female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from March 2018 to August 2019. In laboratory tests, mosquitoes were fed artificial membrane feeders on A, AB, B, and O blood groups. The level of attraction to different blood groups was tested under controlled conditions with a wind tunnel bioassay. RESULTS: The responses of Ae. aegypti to the blood groups treatments in the five-choice tunnel chambers showed a significant preference (Kruskal-Wallis (2 = 85.772, df = 4, P < 0.0001) for favor blood group B. Also, the response of Ae. aegypti to olfactory cues (filth) derived from a pool of volunteers cutting across the blood groups showed a similar preference for pattern towards the blood group B. The percentage rate of digestibility in Ae. aegypti was highest in those fed on blood group O, while individuals fed on the AB blood group had the lowest digestion rate. Thus, the rate of digestibility highly varied significantly (P < 0.0001) between blood groups. Overall, Ae. aegypti fed on blood group B had the highest average feeding rate, number of females with eggs, and fecundity level, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) on preferred. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel insight into the ABO host choice of Ae. aegypti and reinforces the need for personal protection against dengue virus transmission in light of the increased risk of exposure for individuals with B blood type. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aedes , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260499, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905539

RESUMO

The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari is the most serious pest of coffee worldwide. Management of the CBB is extremely difficult because its entire life cycle occurs inside the fruit, where it is well protected. Knowing which life stages contribute most to population growth, would shed light on the population dynamics of this pest and help to improve CBB management programs. Two staged-classified matrices were constructed for CBB populations reared in the lab on artificial diets and CBB populations from artificial infestations in the field. Matrices were used to determine demographic parameters, to conduct elasticity analyses, and to perform prospective perturbation analysis. Higher values of the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) and population growth rate (λ): were observed for CBB populations growing in the lab than in the field (rm: 0.058, λ: 1.74 lab; rm: 0.053, λ: 1.32 field). Sensitivity values for both CBB populations were highest for the transitions from larva to pupa (G2: 0.316 lab, 0.352 field), transition from pupa to juvenile (G3: 0.345 lab, 0.515 field) and survival of adult females (P5: 0.324 lab, 0.389 field); these three vital rates can be important targets for CBB management. Prospective perturbation analyses indicated that an effective management for the CBB should consider multiple developmental stages; perturbations of >90% for each transition are necessary to reduce λ to <1. However, when the three vital rates with highest sensitivity are impacted at the same time, the percentage of perturbation is reduced to 25% for each transition; with these reductions in survival of larvae, pupae and adult females the value of λ was reduced from 1.32 to 0.96. Management programs for CBB should be focused on the use of biological and cultural measures that are known to affect these three important targets.


Assuntos
Coffea/parasitologia , Frutas/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Pupa/fisiologia , Gorgulhos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Porto Rico
11.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944047

RESUMO

Cystinosis is a rare inheritable lysosomal storage disorder characterized by cystine accumulation throughout the body, chronic kidney disease necessitating renal replacement therapy mostly during adolescence, and multiple extra-renal complications. The majority of male cystinosis patients are infertile due to azoospermia, in contrast to female patients who are fertile. Over recent decades, the fertility status of male patients has evolved from a primary hypogonadism in the era before the systematic treatment with cysteamine to azoospermia in the majority of cysteamine-treated infantile cystinosis patients. In this review, we provide a state-of-the-art overview on the available clinical, histopathological, animal, and in vitro data. We summarize current insights on both cystinosis males and females, and their clinical implications including the potential effect of cysteamine on fertility. In addition, we identify the remaining challenges and areas for future research.


Assuntos
Cistinose/patologia , Fertilidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cisteamina/metabolismo , Cistinose/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
12.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(6): 1099-1106, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is a rare degenerative eye disease caused by mutations in the CYP4V2 gene, and Cyp4v3 is the murine ortholog to CYP4V2. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and to explore the potential treatment we have established a Cyp4v3 knock-out mouse model. METHODS: Cyp4v3-/- mice were generated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 in embryonic stem cells of C57BL/6J mice. Ocular morphologic characteristics were evaluated via fundus imaging, histologic analysis of rods and cones via immunofluorescence, and phalloidin stain to observe retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in whole-mounts, electroretinogram (ERG) was also conducted to examine the retinal function. RESULTS: The characteristic features of BCD recurred in the Cyp4v3-/- mice, including retinal crystalline deposits, atrophy and degeneration of RPE cells, and ERG amplitude decline of dark and light adapted a- and b- wave; however, the immunofluorescence stain of rod and cone cells did not show obvious differences when compared with the wild type (WT) mice. In the early stage of the disease, no crystal-like deposits were found in the fundus, ERG detection of the retinal function did not find a significant decline, and the morphological structure and quantity of the neural retina and RPE did not change significantly. Crystalline deposits occurred and converged when the Cyp4v3-/- mice at the end of 6 months, and the deposits disappeared when the Cyp4v3-/- mice at the end of 12 months. The ERG amplitude started to decline when the Cyp4v3-/- mice at the end of 6 months and deteriorated at the end of 12 months. The RPE cells of the 12-month old Cyp4v3-/- mice showed irregular shape by phalloidin staining of F-actin. The Cyp4v3-/- mice behaved normally and were viable and fertile when maintained under specific pathogen-free (SPF) housing conditions. CONCLUSION: Just like BCD patients, the disease progress of Cyp4v3-/- mouse is correlated with the age, which provides a good model for pathogenesis and gene therapy study in the future. The atrophy and degeneration of RPE take the lead in progressing of the disease, but the mechanism is not clear yet.


Assuntos
Face , Animais , Fertilidade , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(12)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967902

RESUMO

The present study was part of a larger experiment that evaluated litter of origin effects on gilt production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of physical or fenceline boar exposure and exogenous gonadotropins on puberty induction and subsequent fertility in a commercial farm environment. The experiment was performed in three replicates. Prepubertal gilts were assigned by pen (13/pen) to receive 15 min of daily Fenceline (FBE, n = 153) or Physical (PBE, n = 154) Boar Exposure (BE) for 3 weeks starting at 184 d of age in a purpose-designed Boar Exposure Area (BEAR). At the start of week 3, prepubertal gilts were randomly assigned to receive PG600 or none (Control). From weeks 4 to 6, estrus was checked using only FBE. During weeks 1 to 3, measures of reproductive status were obtained weekly or until expression of estrus. Upon detection of first estrus, gilts were relocated into stalls and inseminated at second estrus. PBE reduced age (P = 0.001) and days to puberty (P = 0.002), increased the proportion of gilts in estrus (P = 0.04) in week 1 (38.3 vs. 27.5%), and tended (P = 0.08) to improve estrus in week 2 (37.6 vs. 26.1%) compared to FBE, respectively. In week 3, more prepubertal gilts receiving PBE-PG600 exhibited estrus (P = 0.04; 81.8%) compared to PBE-Control (40.3%), FBE-PG600 (56.4%), and FBE-Control (47.8%). Overall, expression of estrus through week 6 tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for PBE than FBE (91.5 vs. 85.0%). PBE increased (P ≤ 0.05) or tended to increase (P > 0.05 and ≤0.10) service and farrowing rates in parities 1 through 4, but within parity, there were no effects (P > 0.10) on pig production or wean to service interval. Analyses also indicated that weeks from start of boar exposure to puberty, litter of origin traits, and follicle measures at puberty were related to the subsequent fertility. The results of this study confirm the advantages of using increased intensity of boar exposure, combined with PG600 treatment, for effective induction of pubertal estrus in a commercial setting.


Assuntos
Estro , Maturidade Sexual , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Gonadotropinas , Masculino , Gravidez , Sus scrofa , Suínos
14.
Physiol Res ; 70(S2): S145-S151, 2021 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913348

RESUMO

Recent molecular biology findings have shown that for the penetration of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus into host cells, a key role is played by protease serine 2, the activity of which is dependent on androgens. The important role of androgens is also evidenced by clinical observations that men in some age categories are infected by this novel coronavirus up to two times more frequently than women. In addition, men with androgenic alopecia tend to have more serious clinical courses, while men with androgen deprivation as a result of prostate cancer treatments tend to have milder courses. This is in line with the fact that preadolescent children are only rarely sickened with serious forms of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Even though these observations may be explained by other factors, many authors have hypothesized that lowered androgen levels and blocking their activity using anti-androgen medication may moderate the course of the viral infection in intermediately- to critically-affected cases. Clearly, it would be important for androgen deprivation to block not just gonadal androgens, but also adrenal androgens. On the other hand, low androgen levels are considered to be a risk factor for the course of SARS-CoV-2 infections, either because low androgen levels have a general effect on anabolic-catabolic equilibrium and energy metabolism, or because of the ability of testosterone to modify the immune system. It is not yet clear if infection with this novel coronavirus might induce hypogonadism, leading to undesirable side effects on male fertility.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Etários , Animais , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Physiol Res ; 70(S2): S161-S175, 2021 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913350

RESUMO

In December of 2019, several cases of unknown atypical respiratory diseases emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China. After preliminary research, it was stated that the disease is transmittable between humans and was named COVID-19. Over the course of next months, it spread all over the world by air and sea transport and caused a global pandemic which affects life of everyone now-a-days. A large number of countries, have since been forced to take precautions such as curfews, lockdowns, wearing facemasks etc. Even with vaccines being produced in mass numbers, lack of targeted therapy continues to be a major problem. According to studies so far it seems that elderly people are more vulnerable to severe symptoms while children tend to by asymptomatic or have milder form the disease. In our review, we focused on gathering data about the virus itself, its characteristics, paths of transmission, and its effect on hormone production and secretion. In such, there is insufficient information in the literature worldwide, especially the ones that focus on the effect of COVID-19 on individual organs systems within the human body. Hence, the present evidence-based study focused on the possible effects of COVID-19 on adrenal gland and gonads i.e. on the process of steroidogenesis and fertility.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Gônadas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Esteroides/biossíntese , Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiopatologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/virologia , Animais , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Gônadas/fisiopatologia , Gônadas/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos
16.
West Afr J Med ; Vol. 38(11): 1101-1107, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fertility is an important component of population change and has attracted the interest of scholars and policy makers. Nigeria's population growth rate has been driven by high fertility, which has fallen in the last few decades but not as rapidly as the fall of the crude death rate. Men and their kinsmen are the decision-makers on issues relating to reproductive health such as timing of the next birth, number of children and when to stop childbearing while their women cooperate. We determined the reproductive behaviors of men in Doka community in Kaduna State Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional descriptive community based study of 320 men was conducted. RESULTS: The mean age±SD of the male respondents was 40 (±14.2) years. The average age at first marriage among men was 23.32 (±4.62 years), the contraceptive use among men was 10(3.2%). Above a third 118 (37.9%) of men were in polygamous union. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean number of living children as the age of men increased (p=0.001). The mean number of children ever fathered was significantly associated with the educational status of men (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: we found a very low contraceptive use, high number of desired children as well as living children among the men. Government should enlighten married men on the importance of contraceptive use for birth control as well as the social and economic implications of having too many children.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , População Rural , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria
17.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 251, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women use various terms when discussing the management of their fertility and menstrual irregularities and may interpret the experience of ending a possible pregnancy in nuanced ways, especially when their pregnancy status is ambiguous. Our study aims to understand the terminology used to refer to abortion-like experiences (specifically menstrual regulation and pregnancy removal), and the specific scenarios that these practices encompass among women who reported doing something to bring back a late period or ending a pregnancy in Nigeria and Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: Our analysis draws upon surveys with women in Nigeria (n = 1114) and Cote d'Ivoire (n = 352). We also draw upon qualitative in-depth interviews with a subset of survey respondents in Anambra and Kaduna States in Nigeria, and Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire (n = 30 in both countries). We examine survey and interview questions that explored women's knowledge of terminology pertaining to ending a pregnancy or bringing back a late period. Survey data were analyzed descriptively and weighted, and interview data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: We find that the majority (71% in Nigeria and 70% in Côte d'Ivoire) of women perceive menstrual regulation to be a distinct concept from pregnancy removal, yet there is considerable variability in whether specific scenarios are interpreted as referring to menstrual regulation or pregnancy removal. Menstrual regulation is generally considered to be more ambiguous and not dependent on pregnancy confirmation in comparison to pregnancy removal, which is consistently interpreted as voluntary termination of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, menstrual regulation and pregnancy removal are seen as distinct experiences in both settings. These findings have relevance for researchers aiming to document abortion incidence and experiences, and practitioners seeking to address women's reproductive health needs.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , Gravidez
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 598, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) plays a key enzyme role in the inositol signal transduction system and has essential functions in plants in terms of growth, development, and stress responses. However, systematic studies on the wheat PIP5K gene family and its relation to male sterility have not been reported yet. RESULTS: Sixty-four TaPIP5K genes were identified. The TaPIP5K genes contained similar gene structures and conserved motifs on the same branches of the evolutionary tree, and their cis-regulatory elements were related to MeJA-responsiveness. Furthermore, 49 pairs of collinearity genes were identified and mainly subjected to purification selection during evolution. Synteny analyses showed that some PIP5K genes in wheat and the other four species shared a relatively conserved evolutionary process. The expression levels of many conservative TaPIP5K genes in HT-ms anthers were significantly lower than that in Normal anthers. In addition, HT-ms anthers have no dehiscence, and levels of OPDA and JA-ILE are significantly lower at the trinucleus stage. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the PIP5K gene family may be associated with male sterility induced by HT, and the reduction of JA-ILE levels and the abnormal levels of these genes expression may be one reason for the HT-ms anthers having no dehiscence, ultimately leading to the abortion of the anthers.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Fertilidade , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/fisiologia , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Família Multigênica , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/fisiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sintenia , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética
19.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(7): 616-620, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914228

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of different treatments of unilateral testicular torsion on the long-term fertility of the patient. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and fertility-related follow-up data on 92 cases of unilateral testicular torsion treated by orchiectomy (the OE group, n = 49) or orchiopexy (the OP group, n = 43) between January 2000 and December 2014. We compared the testis volume, semen parameters, reproductive hormone indexes, natural pregnancy rate (NPR) and time to pregnancy (TTP) between the two groups, and analyzed the influence of orchiectomy and orchiopexy on the fertility of the patients. RESULTS: Totally, 77 of the men met the inclusion criteria and included in this study, 40 in the OE and 37 in the OP group. Follow-up data exhibited no statistically significant difference between the two groups of patients in the age of marriage, mean frequency of intercourse or sexual function. The men in the OE group, compared with those in the OP group, showed a larger volume of the opposite testis (ï¼»17.62 ± 2.15ï¼½ vs ï¼»16.86 ± 2.05ï¼½ ml, P > 0.05), but lower semen volume (ï¼»4.09 ± 0.89ï¼½ vs ï¼»4.11 ± 0.76ï¼½ ml, P > 0.05), sperm concentration (ï¼»27.60 ± 7.58ï¼½ vs ï¼»27.74 ± 6.80ï¼½ ×106/ml, P > 0.05), sperm motility (ï¼»60.14 ± 14.50ï¼½% vs ï¼»60.29 ± 16.36ï¼½%, P > 0.05), and percentages of progressively motile sperm (PMS) (ï¼»38.37 ± 10.88ï¼½% vs ï¼»38.82 ± 9.73ï¼½%, P > 0.05) and morphologically abnormal sperm (MAS) (ï¼»29.80 ± 7.29ï¼½% vs ï¼»29.55 ± 7.03ï¼½%, P > 0.05), lower levels of FSH (ï¼»8.01 ± 2.31ï¼½ vs ï¼»8.12 ± 2.63ï¼½ IU/L, P > 0.05), LH (ï¼»15.05 ± 4.20ï¼½ vs ï¼»15.46 ± 4.76ï¼½ IU/L,P > 0.05) and T (ï¼»19.06 ± 3.60ï¼½ vs ï¼»19.46 ± 4.02ï¼½ nmol/L, P > 0.05), lower NPR (75.0% ï¼»30/40ï¼½ vs 83.8% ï¼»31/37ï¼½, P > 0.05) and longer TTP (ï¼»18.0 ± 5.7ï¼½ vs ï¼»14.6 ± 3.8ï¼½ mo, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with unilateral testicular torsion, orchiectomy achieved a lower semen quality and NPR and a longer TTP than orchiopexy, but induced no significant fertility decrease. Detorsion of the torsioned testis little affects the fertility of the patient.


Assuntos
Torção do Cordão Espermático , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Torção do Cordão Espermático/cirurgia
20.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 27(7): 645-648, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914234

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the trend of change in the sperm concentration of Chinese fertile males from 1984 to 2019. METHODS: We searched CNKI, CQVIP and Wanfang Database for literature relevant to human sperm concentration published from 1984 to 2019, and analyzed the trend of change in the sperm concentration of fertile men in China in the past 35 years. RESULTS: A total of 9 495 publications were identified, of which 73 with 11 606 subjects were included. Based on the results of fitting calculation, the perm concentration of the males declined significantly from 98.8486 ×106/ml in 1984 to 72.5531 ×106/ml in 2019, with a mean decrease of 0.7513 ×106/ml annually (P < 0.01), and the reduction was more significant in North than in South China (-1.2754 vs -0.4587 ×106/ml, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The sperm concentration of fertile Chinese men was decreasing in the past 35 years, which might be related to unhealthy living habits and environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , China , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides
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