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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e262459, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384069

RESUMO

Evaluate the effect of ascorbic acid application and coexistence of Mycorrhiza fungus and Azospirillium on basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under drought stress. This experiment was performed as a split factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the crop year 2017-2018 in Shahriar, Iran. In this experiment, irrigation was the main factor in three levels, including drought stress based on 40-70-100 mm from the evaporation pan of class A. Biofertilizer including growth-promoting bacteria (Azospirillium) and mycorrhiza fungus in four levels, including a(Non-consumption) B (Seeds of growth-promoting bacteria (Azospirillium)) C (Consumption of mycorrhiza fungus as seeds) D (Concomitant use of growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillium with mycorrhiza fungi as seeds) and ascorbic acid in two levels of foliar application, including A (Absence Application of ascorbic acid) and B (Application of ascorbic acid (two days after irrigation treatment)) was considered as a factorial factor. The results showed that the highest biological yield was obtained in drought stress of 40 mm and application of biological fertilizers in the form of mycorrhiza application with an average of 3307.1 kg/ha, which was about 70% more than 100 mm evaporation stress and no application of biological fertilizer. The use of ascorbic acid under drought stress conditions improved by 10%, the essential oil using ascorbic acid evaporated under drought stress conditions of 100 mm. As a general conclusion, the use of ascorbic acid and Mycorrhiza + Azospirillium biological fertilizer improved the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of basil under drought stress.


Avaliar o efeito da aplicação de ácido ascórbico e coexistência do fungo Mycorrhiza e Azospirillium em manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) sob estresse hídrico. Este experimento foi realizado como um fatorial dividido em um delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições no ano-safra de 2017-2018 em Shahriar, Irã. Neste experimento, a irrigação foi o fator principal em três níveis, incluindo o estresse hídrico baseado em 40-70-100 mm do tanque de evaporação da classe A. Biofertilizante incluindo bactérias promotoras de crescimento (Azospirillium) e fungo Mycorrhiza em quatro níveis, incluindo um (Não consumo), B (Sementes de bactérias promotoras de crescimento (Azospirillium)), C (Consumo de fungos micorrízicos como sementes), D (Uso concomitante de bactérias promotoras de crescimento Azospirillium com fungos micorrízicos como sementes) e ácido ascórbico em dois níveis de foliar aplicação, incluindo A (Ausência de aplicação de ácido ascórbico) e B (Aplicação de ácido ascórbico (dois dias após o tratamento de irrigação)) foi considerado como fator fatorial. Os resultados mostraram que o maior rendimento biológico foi obtido no estresse hídrico de 40 mm e aplicação de fertilizantes biológicos na forma de aplicação de micorrizas com média de 3.307,1 kg/ha, que foi cerca de 70% superior ao estresse evaporativo de 100 mm e sem aplicação de fertilizante biológico. O uso de ácido ascórbico em condições de estresse hídrico melhorou em 10%, o óleo essencial usando ácido ascórbico evaporou em condições de estresse hídrico de 100 mm. Como conclusão geral, o uso de ácido ascórbico e fertilizante biológico Mycorrhiza + Azospirillium melhorou as características quantitativas e qualitativas do manjericão sob estresse hídrico.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Ocimum basilicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desidratação , Fertilizantes
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261752, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374658

RESUMO

Among edible mushrooms, Pleurotus eryngii is unique due to its flavor, admirable medicinal and nutritional profiling. Pakistan is an agricultural country diverse in various crops. However, the residues of the horticultural and agronomic crops are wasted without utilization in the food chain. Hence, a study was performed to assess the performance of relatively low-cost, easily available crops residues i.e. cotton, rice, wheat, mustard and water chestnut for yield and nutrition enhancement of Pleurotus eryngii strains P9 (China) and P10 (PSU-USA). The results revealed that morphological attributes i.e. mycelium run, fruit development, yield and biological efficiency were significantly higher by using cotton waste as compared to other substrates. Regarding biochemical attributes i.e. total soluble solids (12.67 °Brix), phenolics (259.6 mg/100g), moisture (92.3%) and ascorbic acid contents (2.9 mg/100ml) were also significantly higher by using cotton waste. Whereas, acidity (0.30%), reducing sugar (7.67%), non-reducing (4.33%) and total sugars contents (12%) were found highest by using mustard straw. Nutrient analysis of substrates showed that nutrient levels were increased after harvesting of crop as compared to before harvesting levels. Overall results revealed that cotton waste and mustard straw are promising substrates for Pleurotus eryngii better growth and have potential in yield and nutrition enhancement. Moreover, P10 strain performed better as compared to P9.


Entre os cogumelos comestíveis, Pleurotus eryngii é único por causa de seu sabor e seu admirável perfil medicinal e nutricional. O Paquistão é um país agrícola com diversas culturas. No entanto, os resíduos das culturas hortícolas e agronômicas são desperdiçados sem aproveitamento na cadeia alimentar. Assim, um estudo foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho de resíduos de culturas com custos relativamente baixos e facilmente disponíveis, ou seja, algodão, arroz, trigo, mostarda e castanha-de-água, para o aumento da produtividade e nutrição de cepas de P. eryngii P9 (China) e P10 (PSU-EUA). Os resultados revelaram que os atributos morfológicos, ou seja, função do micélio, desenvolvimento de frutos, rendimento e eficiência biológica, foram significativamente maiores usando resíduos de algodão em comparação com outros substratos. Em relação aos atributos bioquímicos, ou seja, sólidos solúveis totais (12,67 °Brix), fenólicos (259,6 mg / 100 g), umidade (92,3%) e teores de ácido ascórbico (2,9 mg / 100 ml), também foram significativamente maiores usando resíduos de algodão. Já os teores de acidez (0,30%), açúcares redutores (7,67%), não redutores (4,33%) e açúcares totais (12%) foram os mais elevados na palha de mostarda. A análise de nutrientes dos substratos mostrou que os níveis de nutrientes aumentaram após a colheita da cultura em comparação com os níveis antes da colheita. Os resultados gerais revelaram que os resíduos de algodão e a palha de mostarda são substratos promissores para o melhor crescimento de P. eryngii e têm potencial na melhoria da produtividade e nutrição. Além disso, a cepa P10 apresentou melhor desempenho em comparação com a P9.


Assuntos
Resíduos , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Fertilizantes
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258476, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374652

RESUMO

Red pitaya (Hylocereus costaricensis) is a promising species, with high cultivation potential due to the organoleptic and functional qualities of its fruits. However, irrigation water salinity can affect the crop yield. Therefore, materials rich in organic substances can minimize the damage caused by excess salts in soil and/or water. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of organic matter sources as attenuators of salt stress on the production and biochemical responses of red pitaya seedlings. A completely randomized design in 4 × 5 factorial scheme, with five sources of organic matter (humus, sheep manure, biofertilizer, organic compost and sand + soil) and four salinities (0.6, 2.6, 4.6 and 6.6 dS m-1) with four replicates and two plants per plot was used. The shoot length, root length, cladode diameter, number of cladodes, number of sprotus, root volume, shoot dry mass, root dry mass and total dry mass, root and shoot dry mass ratio, chlorophyll a, b and total, amino acids and soluble sugars were evaluated at 120 days after the treatments began to be applied. Red pitaya is moderately tolerant to salinity (ECw from 4.0 to 6.0 dS m-1). Organic compost and sheep manure attenuate the harmful effects of salinity on red pitaya seedlings. Under salt stress conditions, red pitaya plants increase their levels of proline, amino acids and total sugars.


A pitaia vermelha (Hylocereus costaricensis) é uma promissora espécie, com elevado potencial de cultivo devido às qualidades organolépticas e funcionais de seus frutos. Entretanto, a salinidade da água de irrigação pode afetar o rendimento produtivo da cultura. Diante disso, materiais ricos em substâncias orgânicas podem minimizar os danos provocados pelo excesso de sais no solo e/ou na água. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de fontes de matéria orgânica como atenuante do estresse salino na produção e respostas bioquímicas de mudas de pitaia vermelha. O delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 5, com cinco fontes de matéria orgânica (húmus, esterco ovino, biofertilizante, composto orgânico e areia + solo) e quatro salinidade (0.6, 2.6, 4.6 e 6.6 dS m-1), com quatro repetições e duas plantas por vaso foi utilizado. O comprimento da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz, diâmetro do cladódio, número de cladódios, número de brotos, volume da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz e massa seca total, razão da massa seca da raiz e da parte aérea, clorofila a, b e total, aminoácidos e os açúcares solúveis foram avaliados aos 120 dias após o início da aplicação dos tratamentos. A pitaia vermelha é moderadamente tolerante a salinidade. O composto orgânico e estrume ovino atenuam os efeitos nocivos da salinidade nas mudas de pitaia vermelha. Sob condições de estresse salino, as plantas aumentam os níveis de aminoácidos e açúcares totais.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Estresse Salino
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255431, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364530

RESUMO

Organic fertilization is a cheaper and highly effective option for profitability and consequent improvement of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological structure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate different types of fertilization: organic (poultry shed litter), mineral, and leaf path on yield parameters of lettuce grown in various types of planting. The treatments consisted of using two planting systems (P1 - Line and P2 - quincunxes) and mineral and organic fertilizers (A1 - mineral fertilization; A2 - mineral fertilization + leaf fertilization; A3 - organic fertilization with poultry shed litter and A4 - fertilization organic + mineral). The experimental units consisted of 36 and 52 plants, respectively, for treatments P1 and P2, and all central plants of the experimental unit were evaluated. Heart height, fresh mass, and leaf number were observed. The mineral and mineral + leaf treatments did not differentiate, either in line or in quincunxes. The treatment that stood out about the analyzed variables was the organic fertilization and quincunxes planting system, reflecting a more significant number of lettuce plants and better use of the area.


A adubação orgânica é uma opção mais barata e de grande eficácia em relação à rentabilidade e consequente melhoria da estrutura física, química e biológica do solo. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes tipos de adubação: orgânica (cama de frango), mineral e via foliar sobre parâmetros de produtividade de alface cultivada em diferentes tipos de plantio. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de dois sistemas de plantio (P1 - Linha e P2 - Quincôncio) e adubações minerais e orgânicas (A1 - adubação mineral; A2 - adubação mineral + adubação foliar; A3 - adubação orgânica com cama de aviário e A4 - adubação orgânica + mineral). As unidades experimentais foram compostas por 36 e 52 plantas, respectivamente, para os tratamentos em linha e em quincôncio, sendo avaliadas todas as plantas centrais da unidade experimental. Foram observados a altura do coração, massa fresca e número de folhas. Os tratamentos mineral e mineral + foliar não diferenciaram entre si, tanto em linha quanto em quincôncio. O tratamento que se destacou em relação às variáveis analisadas foi aquele baseado na adubação orgânica e sistema de plantio em quincôncio, refletindo em maior número de pés de alface e melhor aproveitamento da área.


Assuntos
Cultivos Agrícolas , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilizantes
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159763, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309271

RESUMO

The Atalanti basin is an intensively cultivated area in central Greece, facing groundwater quality deterioration threats due to natural and anthropogenic-related contamination sources. A combination of statistical and hydrogeochemical techniques, and stable isotope compositions (δ2H-H2O and δ18Ο-Η2Ο, δ15Ν-ΝΟ3- and δ18Ο-ΝΟ3-, δ34S-SO42- and δ18O-SO42-) were applied to elucidate the origin of salinity and nitrate contamination, and shed light on the potential associations between geogenic Cr(VI) and NO3- sources and transformations. Nitrate and Cr(VI) concentrations reached up to 337 mg L-1 and 76.1 µg L-1, respectively, exceeding WHO threshold values in places. The cluster of samples with the high salinity was mostly influenced by irrigation return flow and marine aerosols, and less by seawater intrusion, as evidenced by the ionic ratios (e.g., Na+/Cl-) and the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water, and sulphur and oxygen in sulphates. The δ15Ν-ΝΟ3- and δ18O-NO3- values ranged from +2.0 ‰ to +14.5 ‰ and + 0.3 ‰ to +11.0 ‰, respectively. We found that the dominant sources of NO3- in groundwater were fertilizers in the central part of the area and sewage waste in the northern part around the residential area of Livanates. The occurrence of denitrification was evident in the northern part of the basin, where the DO levels were lowest (≤ 2.2 mg L-1), whereas nitrification of NH4+-fertilizers prevailed in the central part. Elevated Cr(VI) values (≥ 20 µg/l) were associated with the lowest deviation of the measured from the theoretical nitrification δ18Ο-NO3- values, whereas the lowest Cr(VI) values were observed in the denitrified water samples. Our isotope findings revealed the strong influence of redox conditions on the biogeochemical transformations of N species and the mobilization of Cr(VI) that will help improve the understanding of the fate of these contaminants from the unsaturated zone to the groundwater in areas of agricultural and urban land use.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Nitratos/análise , Fertilizantes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Oxigênio , Água
7.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116614, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419293

RESUMO

Fertile and uncontaminated soil with appropriate pH is crucial in terms of the agricultural sustainable development. Herein, a compound soil conditioner containing chitosan modified straw biochar (CBC), kitchen waste compost product-derived humic substance (HS), NPK compound fertiliser (NPK-CF) was prepared to simultaneously adjust acidic soil pH, improve fertility, and immobilize heavy metal. The results exhibited that the best Pb and NH4+ adsorption performance was obtained in CBC with chitosan:biochar of 1:5. Then, the acid soil pH was improved from 5.03 to 6.66 in the presence of CBC/HS (5:5) with 3% addition weight (the mass ratio of conditioner to soil). Meanwhile, compared with the control, the contents of organic matter, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus significantly increased by 52.4%, 92.6%, and 136.3%, respectively. Moreover, Pb was highly efficient immobilised by CBC, and the concentration of Pb in the soil was decreased by 55.2%. The optimal growth trend of ryegrass was obtained in the presence of 3% addition weight (the mass ratio of conditioner to soil) CBC/HS (CBC:HS = 5:5) combined with 60% of the recommended NPK-CF application weight, which was mainly contributed by the improvement of the soil microbial abundance and community structure diversity. The addition of CBC/HS could effectively reduce the addition of NPK-CF and contribute to simultaneous controlling nitrogen loss, releasing phosphorus, immobilising Pb, adjusting pH, improving soil quality and controlling nonpoint pollution.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Solo/química , Fertilizantes , Substâncias Húmicas , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/química , Fósforo , Nitrogênio
8.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116529, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419306

RESUMO

The efficient use of nitrogen fertilisers is a global priority to optimise the economic and environmental outcomes of farming. This paper is the first to consider pollution in the form of nitrous oxide emissions and excess nitrogen to analyse technical efficiency (TE) in farming. This is done by extending the two-stage double bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis to explicitly model nitrogen pollutants as undesirable outputs. We compared green TE (when undesirable pollutants are considered) and conventional TE (without pollutants) using a case study of 33 rice-producing provinces in the Philippines. Provinces in Mindanao, Luzon, and Visayas islands experienced improvements in green TE but stagnant conventional TE from 2006 to 2017. Although transplanting rice seedlings (rather than direct sowing of seeds) improved both green and conventional TE, seed quality was also identified as an important factor for green TE but not for conventional TE. Our analysis has implications for sustainable rice production and such analysis can be extended to other crops. To advance the effective green transformation of rice production, future research should analyse farm-level data to understand farmers' decisions regarding seed quality, crop establishment method and nitrogen fertiliser application to devise comprehensive farm integrated management plans.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Oryza , Nitrogênio , Filipinas , Fertilizantes , Meio Ambiente
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159181, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191720

RESUMO

The intensive use of chemical fertilizer, particularly nitrogen (N) has resulted in not only markedly increased crop yields but also detrimental effects on ecosystems. Plant microbiomes represent an eco-friendly alternative for plant nutrition and productivity, and the effect of N fertilization on plant and soil microbes has been well studied. However, if and how N fertilization modulates seed endophytic microbiomes and grain quality remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of different N fertilization rates on rice seed endophytic bacterial and fungal communities as well as on grain quality. Higher bacterial and fungal community diversity and richness, but lower grain protein and amino acid contents were found in seeds of rice treated moderate N fertilization than those treated insufficient or excessive N input. There were also more complex co-occurrence networks, and an enrichment of putative beneficial bacterial taxa in seeds under moderate N application, while there was an opposite trend under the excessive N treatment. In addition, the grain amylose and amylopectin contents were positively correlated with the relative abundance of bacterial and fungal dominant genera, while the grain amino acid contents were negatively correlated with the bacterial dominant genera but positively associated with fungal dominant genera. Together, we demonstrate that moderate N fertilization can enhance bacterial and fungal community colonization in seeds and improve grain eating and cooking qualities. This study extends our knowledge regarding the significant role of rational fertilization on seed-microbe interactions in sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Oryza/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Sementes/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Fertilização
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159370, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244494

RESUMO

New Particle Formation (NPF) is a major source of ultrafine particles that affect both air quality and climate. Despite emissions from agricultural activities having a strong potential to lead to NPF, little is known about NPF within agricultural environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of NPF events at an agricultural site, and any potential relationship between agricultural emissions and NPF events. A field campaign was conducted for 3 months at the FR-Gri-ICOS site (France), at an experimental farm 25 km west of Paris city centre. 16 NPF events have been identified from the analysis of particle number size distributions; 8 during the daytime, and 8 during the night-time. High solar radiation and ozone mixing ratios were observed during the days NPF occurred, suggesting photochemistry plays a key role in daytime NPF. These events were also associated with higher levels of VOCs such as isoprene, methanol, or toluene compared to non-event days. However, ammonia levels were lower during daytime NPF events, contributing to the hypothesis that daytime NPF events were not related to agricultural activities. On the other hand, temperature and ozone were lower during the nights when NPF events were observed, whereas relative humidity was higher. During these nights, higher concentrations of NO2 and ammonia were observed. As a result, agricultural activities, in particular the spreading of fertiliser on surrounding crops, are suspected to contribute to night-time NPF events. Finally, all the identified NPF events were also observed at SIRTA monitoring station 20 km from the FR-Gri ICOS site, showing that both night-time and daytime NPF events were regional processes. We hypothesise that night-time NPF may be related to fertiliser spreading over a regional scale, as opposed to the local activities at the farm. To our knowledge, this is the first time night-time NPF has been observed in the agricultural context.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Amônia/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Fertilizantes/análise , Ozônio/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159520, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265621

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze various sustainability strategies for phosphate and phosphorous fertilizer production systems from the perspective of their holistic impacts on water, energy, and CO2 emissions. The study was conducted using the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus Tool 2.0, adapted to include the phosphate industry (WEF-P tool). It assesses the scenarios based on priorities identified by the Moroccan phosphate industry, such as the environmental impact of transporting phosphate rock by train and phosphate slurry by pipeline and increased desalinated water use. Results show that each scenario's sustainability can be assessed in terms of phosphate production, processes, resource (water and energy) availability, and CO2 emissions in mining and manufacturing areas. The analytical methodology of the tool is based on an integrated supply chain and life cycle assessment, which includes the production flows linking mining phosphate and manufacturing phosphorous fertilizers and their water and energy supply systems. Field surveys were used to identify the supply chain and estimate the relationships between production and resource consumption in each process. The tool is a decision-support platform that produces sustainability indices for multiple scenarios of resource allocation (water and energy) and CO2 emissions, allowing stakeholders to compare potential outcomes and formulate decisions based on their understanding of the actual trade-offs involved.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Abastecimento de Água , Água , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Marrocos , Dióxido de Carbono , Fósforo , Fosfatos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116347, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244281

RESUMO

China's agriculture is characterized by small-scale farms whose overuse of chemical fertilizers is widespread. This makes it a key challenge for China to sustainably feed its growing population. In this study, we investigate the role of farm size in maize production and how it relates to farmers' fertilizer application strategies. We use cross-sectional survey data of 774 maize-producing farms in northern China, and develop a conceptual framework that links farm production, on-farm resources, the socio-economic characteristics of the households and farmers' knowledge and perceptions as a whole. We use linear and logistic regression models to show that despite the recent declines in fertilizer application rates, excessive fertilizer use persists in maize cultivation in northern China. Farm size has a negative effect on chemical fertilizer use and a positive effect on maize yield. In addition, farmers on large farms achieve significantly higher knowledge scores in terms of fertilizer use and maize cultivation. They are also more likely to attend agricultural training and adopt scientific fertilizer use techniques. Increased farm size, participation in training, better farming knowledge, and having a family member as a village cadre are associated with farmers' decisions to reduce the use of conventional fertilizers. The key to achieving more sustainable grain production in China is to increase farm size, while enhancing the effectiveness of agricultural extension and promoting scientific fertilization techniques. Social networks within and between villages should also be utilized for knowledge transfer. In addition, cooperation between research institutions and fertilizer companies should be further emphasized to improve the accessibility of regionally adjusted formulated fertilizers.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Fertilizantes/análise , Fazendas , Zea mays , Estudos Transversais , Agricultura/métodos , China , Grão Comestível
13.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116454, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252328

RESUMO

Optimized fertilization is an effective strategy for improving nitrogen (N) use efficiency and maintaining high crop yield, but its long-term impacts on soil organic carbon (C) and inorganic N dynamics remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to 1) explore the economic optimum N rate and evaluate the DSSAT CERES-Maize model using the measurements from three 3-year maize (Zea mays L.) field experiments, in Gongzhuling and Yushu County, Northeast China, and 2) assess the long-term impacts of farmers' N rate (N250), optimum N rate (N180) and organic-inorganic combined N rate (MN180) on maize yields, soil N and C changes from 1985 to 2020. Results showed that similar maize yields of 8000-11,000 kg ha-1 were achieved under the average economic optimum N rate of 170 kg N ha-1 relative to N250 in both counties. Good agreements were observed between the simulated and measured maize yield, above-ground biomass, N uptake and soil nitrate (NO3--N). Long-term simulation confirmed that N180 and MN180 can achieve the same yield as N250 in both counties. The lowest annual soil inorganic N balance, NO3--N leaching, and nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) emissions were achieved under MN180, followed by N180 in both sites. Higher NO3--N leaching was found in sandy clay loam soil than silt clay loam and clay loam soils. Average soil organic C (SOC, 0-0.2 m) increased from 1.3 to 2.4% in Gongzhuling and from 2.2 to 2.4% in Yushu under MN180 during the 35-year period, but it showed declining trends under N180 and N250. We concluded that the economic optimum N rate could be an option to replace current farmers' N rate for the continuous maize. Substitution of inorganic fertilizer by 20-30% manure under the optimum N rate showed advantage on maintaining high yield, reducing soil inorganic N losses as well as increasing SOC stock for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Solo , Zea mays , Carbono/análise , Argila , Fertilizantes/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Fertilização , China
14.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116419, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257226

RESUMO

Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) is a mature and consolidated waste management technology that can transform agro-industrial by-products into biogas and digestate. This study conducted a techno-economic assessment of bioenergy and agricultural fertilizer production from AcoD of sewage sludge, wine vinasse, and poultry manure. In this case study, three configurations were investigated: i) Scenario 1, AcoD in thermophilic temperature; ii) Scenario 2, AcoD in mesophilic temperature; and iii) Scenario 3, AcoD in a temperature phase (TPAD) system, where the digestate produced in the first reactor (thermophilic) feeds the second reactor (mesophilic). The process was designed to manage 24,022 m³ wine vinasse y-1, 24,022 m³ sewage sludge y-1, and 480 m³ poultry manure y-1. The major cost was the fixed capital investment for the single-stage (320,981 USD) and TPAD processes (379,698 USD). The TPAD process produced the highest electricity (1058.99 MWh y-1) and heat (4765.47 GJ y-1) with the lowest cost of manufacturing for electricity (84.99 USD MWh-1), heat (0.019 USD MJ-1), and fertilizer (30.91 USD t-1). Regarding the profitability indicators, the highest net present value (509,011 USD) and the lowest payback time (4.24 y) were achieved for Scenario 3. In conclusion, TPAD is a profitable and sustainable waste-to-energy management technology that can be applied in a circular economy framework to recover bioenergy and fertilizer, contributing to decreasing the carbon footprint of the agri-food sector.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Vinho , Animais , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Aves Domésticas , Temperatura , Fertilizantes , Biocombustíveis , Digestão , Metano
15.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116378, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270128

RESUMO

The present study has been designed to utilize industrial and agricultural solid waste for NPK (Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium) bio-organic fertilizer production and its optimized use. The collagenic material of wet blue leather (WBL) from leather industry was used as nitrogen source, after H3PO4 acid-mediated chromium removal. Chicken meat-bone meal (CMBM) and rice husk ash (RHA) are abundantly available locally, had used as P, K, and Ca sources. The presence of N, P, K, Ca in the produced bio-organic NPK fertilizer were 10.76, 11.03, 3.41, 13.64, respectively as per mixing ratio of ingredients. In this study it was effect on the chili plant (Capsicum annuum L.) growth and revealed 1.15 and 1.03 fold higher plant growth, 1.40 and 1.18 fold higher total chlorophyll content than untreated soil (control), and chemical fertilizer. The liberation of fertilizers components from their source, transport of fertilizer components in the soil, and absorption in plant roots have been studied using mathematical models indicating the optimum fertilizer use for better productivity and to reduce loss of extra fertilizer and eutrophication. The formulation showed excellent water retention capability (3.2 L/kg), which might increase soil water availability to the plants and eventually reduce water demand and labour cost. DNA intercalation study proved there is no harm to use this fertilizer.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Resíduos Industriais , Fertilizantes/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Solo/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Água/análise , Fósforo/análise
16.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116551, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283198

RESUMO

The rapid increase in urbanization and intensive coal mining activities have accelerated the deterioration of surface water quality. Environmental problems caused by the accumulation of nitrate and sulfate from natural, urban, and agricultural sources have attracted extensive attention. Information on nitrate and sulfate sources and their transformations is crucial for understanding the nitrogen and sulfur cycles in surface water. In this study, we monitored nitrate and sulfate in three representative rivers in mining cities in northern China. The main pollution sources and biogeochemical processes were identified by using stable isotopes (δD, δ18OH2O, δ15N, δ18ONO3, δ34S and δ18OSO4) and hydrochemistry. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources was quantitatively estimated based on a Bayesian mixed model. The results indicated a large variation in sulfate and nitrate sources between the different rivers. Nitrate in the Tuohe River mainly derived from manure/sewage (57.9%) and soil N (26.9%), while sulfate mainly derived from manure/sewage (41.7%) and evaporite dissolution (26.8%). For the Suihe River, nitrate was primarily sourced from chemical fertilizer (37.9%) and soil nitrogen (34.8%), while sulfate was mainly sourced from manure/sewage (33.1%) and chemical fertilizer (21.4%). For the Huihe River, nitrate mainly derived from mine drainage (56.6%) and manure/sewage (30.6%), while sulfate predominantly originated from mine drainage (58.3%) and evaporite dissolution (12.9%). Microbial nitrification was the major pathway for the migration and transformation of nitrate in the surface water. However, denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) did not play a significant role as aerobic conditions prevailed. In this study, we elucidated the sources and transformation mechanisms of nitrate and sulfate. Additionally, we provided a reference for formulating a comprehensive strategy for effective management and remediation of surface water contaminated with nitrate and sulfate in mining cities.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Nitratos/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Sulfatos , Esgotos , Esterco/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Rios , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , China
17.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116553, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283197

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different carbon-based additives including biochar, woody peat, and glucose on humic acid, fulvic acid, and phosphorus fractions in chicken manure composting and its potential for phosphorus mobilization in soil. The results showed that the addition of glucose effectively increased the total humic substance content (90.2 mg/g) of composts, and the fulvic acid content was significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.05). The addition of biochar could effectively improve the content of available phosphorus by 59.9% in composting. The addition of carbon-based materials to the composting was beneficial for the production of more stable inorganic phosphorus in the phosphorus fraction. The highest proportion of soluble inorganic phosphorus components of sodium hydroxide was found in group with woody peat addition (8.7%) and the highest proportion of soluble inorganic phosphorus components of hydrochloric acid was found in group with glucose addition (35.2%). The compost products with the addition of biochar (humic acid decreased by 17.9%) and woody peat (fulvic acid decreased by 72.6%) significantly increased soil humic acid mineralization. The compost products with the addition of biochar was suitable as active phosphate fertilizer, while the compost products with the addition of glucose was suitable as slow-release phosphate fertilizer.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo , Carbono/metabolismo , Fósforo , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Fosfatos , Glucose
18.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116548, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308786

RESUMO

With the exacerbating water eutrophication globally, it is important to recover nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sewage for recycle. In this study, coconut shell biochar and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were added into the designed fluidized bed reactor (FBR) to create struvite-biochar. N and P released from struvite-biochar and the recovery efficiency of N and P from concentrated sludge supernatant were analyzed. Results showed that the optimal operation condition for hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, Mg/P molar ration, and addition amount EDTA were 90 min, 9.5, 1.2, and 0.2 g/L, respectively. The recovery efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43--P, and purity struvite for FBR were 34.41%-38.05%, 64.95-68.40%, and 84.15%, respectively. The recovery efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43--P were respectively increased by 7.23% and 5.36% when FBR with addition of 0.33 g/L coconut shell biochar, but purity struvite from struvite-biochar decreased by 45.70%. Contents of As, Cd, Pb, and Cr in struvite and struvite-biochar were all lower than Chinese Standard Limits of Fertilizer. Compared to commercial chemical fertilizer, such as superphosphate and urea, struvite-biochar and struvite have slowly released N and P. The amounts of released P, NO3--N and NH4+-N from struvite-biochar were higher than struvite during the five leaching times. Compared with struvite, the total amounts of released P, NO3--N and NH4+-N from struvite-biochar increased by 4.9%, 3.5% and 8.3%, respectively. Therefore, it is valuable to add biochar into FBR to recovery N and P from concentrated sludge supernatant and make struvite-biochar as a slow-release fertilizer.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Esgotos , Estruvita/química , Esgotos/química , Ácido Edético , Fósforo/química , Nutrientes , Fosfatos
19.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137073, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332733

RESUMO

Runoff loss of nitrogen from paddy fields has received increasing attention in recent years. Duckweed is an aquatic plant frequently found in paddy fields. In this study, the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) in floodwater on aqueous nitrogen losses from paddy fields were systematically investigated. Results demonstrated that the growth of duckweed decreased total nitrogen concentrations in floodwater and nitrogen runoff loss from paddy fields by 16.7%-18.3% and 11.2%-13.6%, respectively. Moreover, compared with NO3-, NH4+ was preferentially removed by duckweed. 15N isotope tracer experiments revealed that the growth and decomposition of duckweed acted as a "buffer" against the nitrogen variation in floodwater after fertilization. During the growth of duckweed, leaves were found to be the principal organ to assimilate NH4+ and release NO3- by using non-invasive micro-test technology. Duckweed degradation increased the content of hydrophobic acids and marine humic-like substances in floodwater, which promoted the migration of nitrogen from floodwater to soil. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models further illustrated that pH and temperature variation in floodwater caused by duckweed played a greater role in aqueous nitrogen loss reduction than the nitrogen accumulation in duckweed. This study suggested that the growth of duckweed in paddy fields was an effective supplementary method for controlling aqueous nitrogen loss during agricultural production.


Assuntos
Araceae , Oryza , Nitrogênio/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Araceae/metabolismo , Água/química , Fertilização
20.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116605, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347187

RESUMO

Fertilization changes the soil organic carbon (SOC) composition, affecting the carbon cycle of paddy soil. Understanding the mechanisms of physical fraction and chemical composition of SOC responding to fertilization can help regulate the nutrient release and carbon sequestration. However, it is unclear whether these changes in SOC composition to fertilization are consistent and how these are regulated by biotic and abiotic properties. Therefore, a positioning experiment in a rice field was conducted with a total of nine treatments. Chemical fertilizers (0, 337.5, and 675 kg ha-1; C0, C50, and C100, respectively) and fungal residue (0, 10,000, and 20,000 kg ha-1; F0, F50, and F100, respectively) were applied to evaluated (i) changes in the physical fraction and chemical composition of SOC, (ii) changes in soil properties, microbial biomass and community, and (iii) establish relationships among soil properties, microbial community, microbial biomass, and SOC composition. Our results showed that the application of fungal residue exhibited more significant effects on SOC physical fractions than those with the chemical fertilizers. Furthermore, the chemical composition of SOC was more respond to the application of chemical fertilizers than fungal residue. The partial least squares path model indicated that soil properties mainly affected the mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC) by microbial biomass. In addition, bacterial diversity played an important role in improving the accumulation of MAOC. The SOC chemical composition was mediated by fungal community composition and bacterial diversity. In conclusion, fungal residue application affected SOC physical fraction by increasing soil properties, microbial biomass, and bacterial diversity. Chemical fertilizers application mainly mediated the chemical composition of SOC by altering fungal community composition and decreasing bacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Solo/química , Carbono/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Oryza/química , Minerais , Fertilização
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