Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 96.407
Filtrar
Mais filtros








Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 72, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997305

RESUMO

Knowing the composition of animals present in aquatic ecosystems can tell us about the anthropic pressures on these environments. One of these pressures is the occurrence of fecal contamination. However, this contamination can originate from more than one animal species in areas where urban and agricultural activities overlap. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has become the standard barcoding tool to identify the presence of animal species in environment. Amplicon-sequencing metagenomics is a powerful approach to derive the animal profile in an environment. However, PCR primers targeting mtDNA of a broad range of animals are highly degenerate or generate short DNA fragments that could cause ambiguous affiliation. Here we report the development of a new set of primers targeting the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes of a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic animals, which include mammals, birds, and fishes. These primers successfully amplified mtDNA from environmental DNA (eDNA) extracted from surface waters. Sequencing the resulting amplicons revealed the presence of mammals and birds that may contribute in fecal contamination of surface water. In one of the river samples high in fecal indicator bacteria, human and bovine mtDNA accounted for 40.5% and 4.1% of the sequences, respectively, suggesting fecal contamination by these two animals. These findings indicate that our PCR primers coupled with amplicon-sequencing metagenomics contribute in profiling the animal diversity in the surface waters and its surrounding. This approach could be a valuable tool to identify simultaneously the potential contribution of various animals as sources of fecal contamination in surface waters.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Peixes/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos/genética , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 5, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985498

RESUMO

Purpose: The gut microbiome has been linked to disease pathogenesis through their interaction in metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. The goal of this study was to determine whether the gut and plasma microbiota could transfer microbes to the retina in type 1 diabetic mice with retinopathy. Methods: We analyzed the fecal, plasma, whole globe, and retina microbiome in Akita mice and compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) mice using 16S rRNA sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis. To eliminate the contribution of the ocular surface and plasma microbiome, mice were perfused with sterile saline solution, the whole globes were extracted, and the neural retina was removed under sterile conditions for retinal microbiome. Results: Our microbiome analysis revealed that Akita mice demonstrated a distinct pattern of microbes within each source: feces, plasma, whole globes, and retina. WT mice and Akita mice experienced transient bacteremia in the plasma and retina. Bacteria were identified in the retina of the Akita mice, specifically Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, and Bacillus. Significantly increased levels of peptidoglycan (0.036 ± 0.001 vs. 0.023 ± 0.002; P < 0.002) and TLR2 (3.47 ± 0.15 vs. 1.99 ± 0.07; P < 0.0001) were observed in the retina of Akita mice compared to WT. Increased IBA+ cells in the retina, reduced a- and b-waves on electroretinography, and increased acellular capillary formation demonstrated the presence of retinopathy in the Akita cohort compared to WT mice. Conclusions: Together, our findings suggest that transient bacteremia exists in the plasma and retina of both cohorts. The bacteria found in Akita mice are distinct from WT mice and may contribute to development of retinal inflammation and barrier dysfunction in retinopathy.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Retinopatia Diabética/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Retina/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrorretinografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Olho/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 3, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem, also among adults, and infected individuals not treated serve as a reservoir for continued transmission. Despite this fact, evidence on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in adults in Côte d'Ivoire is scanty. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Schistosoma infection and co-infection with other helminth species and Plasmodium among adults in the Taabo region in the south-central part of Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in April and May 2017 in the frame of the "Côte d'Ivoire Dual Burden of Disease Study" (CoDuBu). A total of 901 randomly selected individuals, aged 18-90 years, provided blood, stool and urine samples for the diagnosis of malaria and helminth infections. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique for detection of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth eggs, while urine samples were examined for eggs of Schistosoma haematobium and circulating cathodic antigen of S. mansoni. Risk factors and morbidity profiles were assessed using health examination and questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regressions were employed to identify risk factors and morbidity patterns associated with S. mansoni mono- and co-infections. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. mansoni and S. haematobium was 23.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Most S. mansoni were mono-infections (81.3%). Independent determinants of S. mansoni infection were young age, low socioeconomic status (mono- and co-infection) and poor hygiene practices (co-infection) (P < 0.05). S. mansoni infection was independently associated with higher pain and symptom scores (mono-infection), poor self-rated health and low healthcare use (co-infection) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that adults represent a substantial reservoir of S. mansoni. To sustain schistosomiasis control and improve people's wellbeing, it is important to expand preventive chemotherapy from school-aged children to adults, coupled with hygiene and health education.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Parasitos , Esquistossomose mansoni , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Schistosoma haematobium , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982782

RESUMO

With more than 1400 chiropteran species identified to date, bats comprise one-fifth of all mammalian species worldwide. Many studies have associated viral zoonoses with 45 different species of bats in the EU, which cluster within 5 families of bats. For example, the Serotine bats are infected by European Bat 1 Lyssavirus throughout Europe while Myotis bats are shown infected by coronavirus, herpesvirus and paramyxovirus. Correct host species identification is important to increase our knowledge of the ecology and evolutionary pattern of bat viruses in the EU. Bat species identification is commonly determined using morphological keys. Morphological determination of bat species from bat carcasses can be limited in some cases, due to the state of decomposition or nearly indistinguishable morphological features in juvenile bats and can lead to misidentifications. The overall objective of our study was to identify insectivorous bat species using molecular biology tools with the amplification of the partial cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. Two types of samples were tested in this study, bat wing punches and bat faeces. A total of 163 bat wing punches representing 22 species, and 31 faecal pellets representing 7 species were included in the study. From the 163 bat wing punches tested, a total of 159 were genetically identified from amplification of the partial cyt b gene. All 31 faecal pellets were genetically identified based on the cyt b gene. A comparison between morphological and genetic determination showed 21 misidentifications from the 163 wing punches, representing ~12.5% of misidentifications of morphological determination compared with the genetic method, across 11 species. In addition, genetic determination allowed the identification of 24 out of 25 morphologically non-determined bat samples. Our findings demonstrate the importance of a genetic approach as an efficient and reliable method to identify bat species precisely.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fezes/química , França , Raiva/veterinária , Asas de Animais/química , Zoonoses
5.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(1): 79-88, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983742

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A 5-year retrospective analysis of ascarid infections (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) in dogs from southern Italy was performed to update the epidemiological scenario of these parasites and to identify the risk factors which may favour these infections in animals in this study area. A total of 8,149 dogs, referred to our labs for copromicroscopic analysis using the FLOTAC technique, was considered. A sub-sample of 500 faecal samples were analysed also with the Mini-FLOTAC technique. Of the overall dog samples analysed, 9,2 % (95 % CI = 8,6-9,8) resulted positive for T. canis while 0,5 % (95 % CI = 0,4-0,7) resulted positive for T. leonina. Co-infections with T. canis and T. leonina were found in 0,1 % of dogs (95 % CI = 0,0-0,1). The results obtained by the FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC examinations showed a nearly perfect k agreement (k = 0,99, P < 0,001) between these two techniques. Chi-square test showed positivity to T. canis and T. leonina significantly (P < 0,001) associated with dogs housed outdoor (i.e., that lived in garden or in kennel). Moreover, the positivity for T. canis was significantly associated (P < 0,001) also with age (i.e., puppies), as shown by the logistic regression. The decreasing overall prevalence both for T. canis and T. leonina during the years of monitoring, showed that, as suggested by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites, the regular diagnosis could contribute to an efficient control of these parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Toxascaríase/veterinária , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Toxascaríase/epidemiologia , Toxascaris , Toxocara canis
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 47, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982255

RESUMO

Using microbial culturomics, we were able to isolate strain Marseille-P3078 from a stool sample of a healthy 50-year-old Saudi Arabian woman. To this end, we used taxonogenomics that combines phenotypic, biochemical and genomic analyses, to describe this bacterium. Cells from strain Marseille-P3078 are anaerobic and Gram-negative rods that are motile and unable to sporulate. Its genome size is 3,377,914-bp-long with a 66.33 mol% G + C content. Based on its phenotypic and genomic features, including a 94.6% 16S rRNA similarity with Paraeggerthella hongkongensis strain JCM 14552, its closest phylogenetic neighbor withstanding in nomenclature, we propose that strain Marseille-P3078T (= CSUR P3078 = DSM 104007) is the representative strain of a new genus for which we propose the name Arabiibacter massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov.


Assuntos
RNA Ribossômico 16S , Anaerobiose , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(1): 89-104, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a worldwide occurring nematode infecting canids and primates (including humans), responsible for a largely underestimated zoonotic disease. We here present 18 cases including overall 20 dogs affected by S. stercoralis, diagnosed in Switzerland between 2010 and 2020. The Baermann examination was positive for S. stercoralis larvae in 10, suspicious in 4, negative in one and not performed in 2 dogs. In 3 dogs the infection was identified only at necropsy by histology or by direct faecal or mucosal smears from intestinal tissue. Confirmation of suspected, necropsied and Baermann-negative dogs relied on genetic analyses. Twelve dogs had a history of import from Eastern Europe (n=4), the Mediterranean basin (n=5) or Germany (n=3). They were 7 weeks to 9,5 months old, and also the dogs supposedly born in Switzerland were younger than one year (except two, aged 15 months and 14 years). Thirteen dogs were males and 6 females (1 unknown). The most represented breeds were Chihuahuas (n=5), French Bulldogs (n=4) and Pomeranians (n=3). The most frequent clinical sign and reason for presentation was diarrhoea, occurring in 11/20 animals. Further gastrointestinal symptoms were vomiting, anorexia/hyporexia, adipsia, dehydration, tense abdomen and tenesmus. Respiratory symptoms were the second most frequent, with coughing in 7/20 animals, followed by tachypnoea/dyspnoea in 5 and (reverse) sneezing in 3 dogs. Treatment with 50 mg/kg BW fenbendazole p.o. over 5 days was successful in 4 cases in which a follow-up examination was performed 3-6 weeks later; prolonged treatment over 21 days was also effective. Ivermectin off-label protocols described in the literature, e.g. 0,8 mg/kg BW s.c. or 0,5 mg/kg BW i.m. repeated after 2 weeks, were successful based on control examinations performed 3-10 weeks later. Strongyloides stercoralis infections are clinically relevant, potentially zoonotic and need to be included in differential diagnoses in case of canine gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, especially in young and imported dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidíase , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Estrongiloidíase/veterinária , Suíça/epidemiologia
8.
Parasitol Res ; 121(1): 1-10, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993634

RESUMO

Trichuriasis is one of the most common soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, affecting populations globally. The condition is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas with low levels of sanitation and poor living conditions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura infection in Asia at the country and region level. Multiple databases/academic search engines (Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for literature on T. trichiura prevalence in Asia published through January 2021. Pooled prevalence was determined using the meta-package in R (version 3.6.1). Out of 13,836 articles, 226 studies (5,439,500 individuals) from 26 countries met the inclusion criteria. Of the 226 studies, 151 were community-based studies that included individuals across the age spectrum, while 75 studies focused on school children (typically in the 5-16 years age range). The overall T. trichiura pooled prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 12.4-19.1%), with a pooled prevalence of 13.3% (95% CI: 10.0-17.1%) for the community studies and 20.9% (95% CI: 14.7-27.9%) for the studies only including school children. For studies including all age groups, individuals in the 1-15 years age group had the highest pooled prevalence at 23.4% (95% CI: 1.7-49.4%). There was a significant difference found in overall pooled prevalence by sex (p < 0.001) and community type (rural versus urban) (p < 0.001). Although prevalence appears to be decreasing, study findings suggest that T. trichiura infection continues to be a public health problem in Asia. Therefore, control programs focused on at-risk individuals in endemic areas are needed.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Helmintíase , Tricuríase , Adolescente , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ásia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Prevalência , Saneamento , Solo , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(1): e017421, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019027

RESUMO

The present study aimed to perform an epidemiological and morphological identification of Eimeria infection in sheep in Brazil. Fecal samples from sheep were collected from 20 farms in northern Paraná, Brazil. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to evaluate the risk factors. Fecal samples containing oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG) ≥1000 were subjected to the modified Willis-Mollay method to perform oocyst identification. Sporulated oocysts were observed microscopically for morphological identification. A total of 807 fecal samples were collected. Based on the morphological characteristics of the sporulated oocysts, 10 species of Eimeria were identified, with main species observed: Eimeira ovinoidalis (98.1%), Eimeria crandallis (87.6%), Eimeria parva (79.1%), and Eimeria bakuensis (60.8%). Only 2.6% (7/268) of the sheep were infected with a single species, 4.8% (13/268) contained two different species, and 92.5% (248/268) were infected with three or more species. The analysis of risk factors showed that an intensive rearing, no rotation of pasture, dirt, and slatted floors, and age up to 12 months were associated with infection. This study showed a high prevalence of Eimeria natural infection in sheep from northern Paraná, Brazil. Furthermore, based on the risk factors, good management and hygiene practices must be employed to avoid infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 112-116, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999689

RESUMO

Rotavirus is responsible for acute severe watery diarrhoea in young children. Early and rapid detection of Rotavirus infection can help to reduce inappropriate administration of antibiotics and has future positive impact on prevention of drug resistance. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the role of Rotaviral antigen detection by ICT from stool sample of acute diarrhoeal children below five years admitted in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet and was carried out in the Department of Microbiology in collaboration with the Department of Paediatrics during the period from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2018. Total 184 children of under five years of age with acute watery diarrhoea were enrolled in this study. Rotaviral antigen was detected by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and ICT (Immunochromatographic test) from stool samples. Out of 184 stool samples, Rotaviral antigen was found positive in 84 and 86 cases by ICT and ELISA methods, respectively. ICT showed sensitivity of 90.70% and specificity of 93.88% when compared with ELISA. The Rotavirus infection was found highest in male children (61.90%) and in age group of 7 to 12 months (51.89%). Considering the importance of Rotaviral diarrhoea, rapid detection of Rotavirus infection by ICT is essentially needed and might be practiced routinely as it is relatively reliable, easy to perform and cost-effective. It is particularly important in Bangladesh, where diarrhoea is still contributing a significant proportion of morbidity and mortality in under five children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Fezes , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Centros de Atenção Terciária
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 161-164, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999697

RESUMO

Helicobacter Pylori (H Pylori) that infects about 90% people of developing countries causes dyspepsia and upper gastrointestinal lesions. The aim of this study was to detect the trend of H Pylori active infection and to investigate the endoscopic findings of H Pylori infected dyspeptic patient of Bangladesh. In this prospective study, 360 dyspeptic patients (Male-251, Female-109) were recruited. Patients having alarm features, history of gastrectomy and malignancy were excluded from this study. Non-invasive fecal antigen test for H Pylori was done of all patients. All selected patients were sent for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Helicobacter Pylori fecal antigen was found positive in 134(37.2%) from 360 dyspeptic patients (age 14-80 years). Among 360 patients 303 (80.16%) had macroscopic endoscopic mucosal lesions. H Pylori infected 114 patients had endoscopic mucosal abnormality. H Pylori non-infected 189 patients also had mucosal lesion. Twenty patients (35.08%) had H Pylori infection among the 57 patients having endoscopic normal looking mucosa. This study revealed that active H Pylori infection rate is declining in Bangladesh. Risk of endoscopic mucosal lesion is more expected in H Pylori active infection.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dispepsia/epidemiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 301: 109640, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973595

RESUMO

Infection caused by gastrointestinal nematodes is an important issue for animal health and production. Controlling worm infections improves the sustainability of the sheep industry. Genetic selection of animals that are resistant to gastrointestinal nematodes is another strategy to render sheep production more sustainable by decreasing the use of anthelmintics. The aims of this study were (1) to explore the additive-genetic pattern of EBVs for Famacha© (FAM), packed-cell volume (PVC), and fecal egg counts (FEC) of Santa Ines sheep, (2) to propose a classification of animals that are resistant, resilient and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes based on their additive-genetic patterns, and (3) to identify the most suitable animals for selection based on their genetic pattern. A dataset of 2,241 records from 747 animals was used to predict the breeding values for indicator traits of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes with THRGIBBS1F90 and to carry out cluster analyses was used R software. Three clusters of animals were found in the population using hierarchical cluster analysis of the breeding values for FAM, PCV and FEC. Each cluster was characterized by different additive-genetic patterns identified by k-means non-hierarchical cluster analysis. Among a total of 747 animals, 196 were classified as resistant, 288 as resilient, and 263 as susceptible. Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for data screening that permits to evaluate only selection candidates based on their additive-genetic pattern for gastrointestinal nematode resistance. EBVs for FEC were decisive to divide the population into resilient, resistant and susceptible animals. It is also important to include the EBVs for PCV and FAM to adequately distinguish resistant from resilient animals. Finally, the resistant cluster consisted of the most desirable animals to be used as selection candidates in order to genetically improve resistance to infection with gastrointestinal nematodes. This cluster contained animals with the most appropriate additive-genetic pattern to achieve the breeding goal, with positive breeding values for PCV and negative breeding values for FAM and FEC.


Assuntos
Hemoncose , Haemonchus , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Fezes , Hemoncose/veterinária , Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 8, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of traditional medicinal plants in the management of diarrhea has long been practiced in Ethiopia. B. abyssinica fresen is one of the plants traditionally used to treat diarrhea whereas an in vivo study had not yet been conducted. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of crude extract and solvent fractions of the leaf of B. abyssinica in mice. METHODS: Cold maceration within 80% methanol was used to extract the leaf powder and extract of the leaf was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, and distilled water. The in vivo antidiarrheal activity of crude extracts and solvent fractions were tested in experimental models of castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and antimotility test. Five groups each with 6 mice were used under the three antidiarrheal models. Positive controls were treated with loperamide 3 mg/kg and atropine 5 mg/kg and 2% tween 80 was used in the treatment of negative controls. The extract and solvent fractions were administered at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. Time of onset of diarrhea, number and weight of total and wet feces, the percent reduction in the number of wet feces, weight and volume of intestinal contents, and percent inhibition of intestinal motility were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. RESULT: Defecation of castor oil-induced diarrheal or loose stools was inhibited (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of crude extract and aqueous fraction. The crude extract and the aqueous fraction at three doses (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001), the chloroform fraction at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001), and the n-hexane fraction at 400 mg/kg (p < 0.05) reduced intraluminal fluid accumulation compared with the negative control. Castor oil-induced intestinal motility was significantly suppressed with the three-doses of aqueous fraction (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001), 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of crude extract (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), 400 mg/kg of chloroform and n-hexane (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) compared with negative control. CONCLUSION: The crude extract, aqueous, and chloroform fractions of B. abyyssinica leaves have promising anti-diarrheal effects, supporting the plant's traditional use to treat diarrhea.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Magnoliopsida , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Óleo de Rícino , Clorofórmio , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Etiópia , Fezes , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Metanol , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Distribuição Aleatória , Solventes
15.
Gene ; 808: 145999, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627942

RESUMO

Gut microbiome influence the health and evolution of mammals and multiple factors modulate the structure and function of gut microbiome. However, the specific changes of the diets and phylogeny on the gut microbiome were unclear. Here, we compared the gut microbiome of 16 rare wild mammals. All data (>200G 16S rRNA gene sequences) were generated using a high-throughput sequencing platform. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most predominant phyla in all mammals. However, Proteobacteria was an additionally dominant phylum specifically detected in the microbiome of carnivores and omnivores. Moreover, the dominant phyla in canids were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the gut microbiome and mitochondrial genome of these mammals were similar. The impact of the host on the microbiome community composition was most evident when considering conspecific and congeneric relationships. Similarity clustering showed that the gut microbiome of herbivores was clustered together, and the other clade comprised both omnivores and carnivores. Collectively, these results revealed that phylogenetic relationships and diet have an important impact on the gut microbiome, and thus the gut microbiome community composition may reflect both the phylogenetic relationships and diets. This study provides valuable basic data to facilitate future efforts related to animal conservation and health.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mamíferos/genética , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 38(1): 26-29, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628417

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 patients can present gastrointestinal symptoms, being diarrhoea one of the most frequent, suggesting intestinal health can be impacted by COVID-19. Here, we will discuss whether there is a correlation between the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in faeces and diarrhoea, the relevance of gastrointestinal symptoms in disease diagnosis and transmission, and how COVID-19 can impact the gut microbial balance. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been reported in faeces or rectal swabs of COVID-19 patients with and without diarrhoea, suggesting faecal shedding can occur independently of gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the presence of the virus in the intestine can persist beyond its presence in the respiratory tract, with some reports suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 in the faeces can be infectious.COVID-19 can impact the gut microbiota causing an enhancement of biosynthesis pathways that favour the expansion of bacterial pathogens in the inflamed gut, and causing a decline in commensals involved in the human immune response. SUMMARY: Gastrointestinal symptoms may be the first indication of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 in faeces can potentiate routes of disease transmission, particularly as the high viral loads reported in patients with severe illness suggest virus replication in the intestine may be possible.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fezes , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150575, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634717

RESUMO

Increases in the frequency and magnitude of suboptimal temperatures as a result of climate change are subjecting insects to unprecedented stresses. This may negatively affect their fitness and the efficiency of their ecosystem service provision. Dung beetles are ecosystem service providers: through feeding on and burying dung, they facilitate nutrient recycling, secondary seed dispersal, parasite control, soil bioturbation and dung decomposition. As such, prediction of how dung beetles respond to multiple anthropogenic environmental changes is critical for the conservation of ecosystem services. Here, we quantified ecosystem services via dung utilisation and dung ball production in three telecoprid species: Allogymnopleurus indigaceous, Scarabaeus zambezianus and Khepher prodigiosus. We examined ecosystem service efficiency factorially under different beetle densities towards different dung masses and under three temperature treatments (21 °C, 28 °C and 35 °C). Khepher prodigiosus, exhibited greatest dung utilisation efficiency overall across dung masses, compared to both S. zambezianus and A. indigaceous. Dung removal was exhibited under all the tested temperatures by all tested species, and therefore the sub-optimal temperatures employed here did not fully inhibit ecosystem service delivery. However, emergent effects among temperatures, beetle species and beetle density further affected removal efficiency: S. zambezianus and A. indigaceous utilisation increased with both warming and beetle density, whereas K. prodigiosus performance was less temperature- and density-dependent. Beetles also tended to exhibit positive density-dependence as dung supply increased. The numbers of dung balls produced differed across species, and increased with temperature and densities, with S. zambezianus producing significantly most balls overall. Our study provides novel evidence for differential density-dependent ecosystem service delivery among species across stressful temperature regimes and emergent effects for dung mass utilisation. This information is essential for biodiversity-ecosystem-function and is critical for the conservation of functionally efficacious species, with implications for natural capital conservation policy in rapidly changing environments.


Assuntos
Besouros , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fezes , Temperatura
18.
Acta Trop ; 225: 106221, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757042

RESUMO

We analyzed the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of cancer patients infected with intestinal parasites, with an aim to find out the relationship between the levels of different types of lymphocytes with the prognosis of patients. 201 cancer patients aged 18 and over were included. Stool samples of the patients were examined using native-lugol, trichrome, modified trichrome (Weber's Trichrome stain), and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium parvum were investigated at the genus and species levels using PCR. Lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in blood samples. One or more parasite species were detected in 115 (56.7%) patients. The most common parasite species were Microsporidia, Blastocystis and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The frequency of parasites was high in patients with low lymphocyte percentage, CD3+ T cell and CD3+ CD4+ T (Th) cell levels in blood samples studied by flow cytometry. Microsporidia infection was significantly higher in patients with low lymphocyte percentage and Th cell levels. Similarly, C. parvum infection was found to be significantly higher in patients with low T lymphocyte percentage and Th cell level. Finally, Blastocystis infection was significantly higher in patients with low lymphocyte percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio higher than 1. The decrease in lymphocyte percentage, CD3+ T cell and Th cell count, and low CD4/CD8 ratio in cancer patients increase the frequency of intestinal parasitic infections. Based on these results, lymphocyte subsets may help identify cancer patients at high risk of opportunistic parasites. We suggest that opportunistic parasitic infections affecting the clinical course of the disease should be considered by clinicians during the follow-up and treatment of patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Subpopulações de Linfócitos , Microsporidiose/imunologia , Adulto , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Cryptosporidium , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Microsporídios , Prevalência
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131030, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144808

RESUMO

In current times of global change, several sources of stress such as contaminants and high temperatures may act synergistically. The extent to which organisms persist in stressful conditions will depend on the fitness consequences of multiple simultaneously acting stressors and the genetic basis of compensatory genetic responses. Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug used in livestock that is excreted in dung of treated cattle, causing severe negative consequences on non-target fauna. We evaluated the effect of a combination of heat stress and exposure to ivermectin in the yellow dung fly, Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae). In a first experiment we investigated the effects of high rearing temperature on susceptibility to ivermectin, and in a second experiment we assayed flies from a latitudinal gradient to assess potential effects of local thermal adaptation on ivermectin sensitivity. The combination of heat and ivermectin synergistically reduced offspring survival, revealing severe effects of the two stressors when combined. However, latitudinal populations did not systematically vary in how ivermectin affected offspring survival, body size, development time, cold and heat tolerance. We also found very low narrow-sense heritability of ivermectin sensitivity, suggesting evolutionary constraints for responses to the combination of these stressors beyond immediate maternal or plastic effects. If the revealed patterns hold also for other invertebrates, the combination of increasing climate warming and ivermectin stress may thus have severe consequences for biodiversity. More generally, our study underlines the need for quantitative genetic analyses in understanding wildlife responses to interacting stressors that act synergistically and threat biodiversity.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ivermectina , Animais , Antiparasitários , Bovinos , Fezes , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ivermectina/toxicidade
20.
Microb Pathog ; 162: 105359, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906658

RESUMO

In the microevolutionary scale of Giardia lamblia, the gene migration indicates how G. lamblia assemblages have transmitted between adjacent counties. 33 positive fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, bloating, burping constipation and fatty diarrhea) at Tabriz and Ardabil cities, where located in the cold regions of northwest Iran. Following parasitological examinations, DNA samples were extracted, amplified and digested by single-step PCR-RFLP assay, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus to distinguish within and between assemblages A and B. PCR products were directly sequenced to reconfirm their heterogeneity traits and phylogenetic analysis. Of the 33 isolates, 81.9% (n: 27), 9% (n: 3) and 9% (n: 3) were successfully identified as assemblages A (genotype AII), B (genotype BIII) and the mixed of genotypes AII and B, respectively. Despite the presence of heterogeneous clinical backgrounds, a low genetic diversity of sub-assemblage AII was identified among symptomatic cases. A low value of pairwise fixation index showed that G. lamblia sub-assemblage AII is not genetically differentiated among northwest regions of Iran. The occurrence of haplotypes TAB-1/ARD-1 between two regional populations indicates that there is a dawn of G. lamblia gene flow due to transfer of alleles through host mobility and/or ecological alterations. To assess the hypothetical evolutionary scenario, further studies are essential for multilocus genotyping of G. lamblia in tropical regions of Iran and neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA