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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 99, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596824

RESUMO

Fermentation of dietary fiber by gut microbes produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), but fermentation outcomes are affected by dietary fiber source and microbiota composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two different fecal microbial compositions on in vitro fermentation of a standardized amount of oat, rye, and wheat breads. Two human fecal donors with different microbial community composition were recruited. Bread samples were digested enzymatically. An in vitro fermentation model was used to study SCFA production, dietary fiber degradation, pH, and changes in microbiota. Feces from donor I had high relative abundance of Bacteroides and Escherichia/Shigella, whereas feces from donor II were high in Prevotella and Subdoligranulum. Shifts in microbiota composition were observed during fermentation. SCFA levels were low in the samples with fecal microbiota from donor I after 8 h of fermentation, but after 24 h acetate and propionate levels were similar in the samples from the different donors. Butyrate levels were higher in the fermentation samples from donor II, especially with rye substrate, where high abundance of Subdoligranulum was observed. Dietary fiber degradation was also higher in the fermentation samples from donor II. In conclusion, fermentation capacity and substrate utilization differed between the two different microbiota compositions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Triticum , Humanos , Triticum/metabolismo , Pão , Secale/metabolismo , Avena/metabolismo , Fermentação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1444, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697451

RESUMO

The rate of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection is estimated to be around 20% in Indonesia. Health promotion and health education are cost-effective strategies to supplement STH prevention and control programs. Existing studies suggest that quantitative tools for knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) are important to monitor effective community-based STH interventions. However, evidence is limited regarding the applicability of such tools. This study aims to identify the socio-demographic predictors for STH-related knowledge and practices and validate the quantitative tools in population use. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among residents of 16 villages in Central Java, Indonesia. Adult and child respondents were interviewed to assess general knowledge and practices in relation to STH. Two mixed effects models identified the significant factors in predicting knowledge and practice scores. The model predicted knowledge and practice scores were compared with the observed scores to validate the quantitative measurements developed in this study. Participants' socio-demographic variables were significant in predicting an individual's STH-related knowledge level and their hand washing and hygiene practices, taking into account household-level variability. Model validation results confirmed that the quantitative measurement tools were suitable for assessing STH associated knowledge and behaviour. The questionnaire developed in this study can be used to support school- and community-based health education interventions to maximize the effect of STH prevention and control programs.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Solo , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prevalência , Fezes
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(3): 1531-1546, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622938

RESUMO

Levan is a microbial fructan widely explored in various fields owing to its excellent physical and biochemical properties. However, little is known about its digestion and fermentation characteristics in vitro. This study evaluated the potential prebiotic properties of levan obtained by enzymatic synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the primary structures of levan remained stable after saliva-gastrointestinal digestion. The microtopography, molecular weight, and functional group of levan were seriously damaged during fecal fermentation. Moreover, the total short-chain fatty acid levels increased significantly, especially for propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid. The 16S rDNA sequencing showed that levan mainly increased the abundance of Firmicutes; in genus levels, certain beneficial bacteria such as Megasphaera and Megamonas genera were remarkably promoted, and the proliferation of harmful genera was inhibited (such as Cedecea and Klebsiella). Overall, this study provided new insights into the potential probiotic mechanism of levan.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fermentação , Digestão , Fezes/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Frutanos , Ácido Butírico
4.
Environ Pollut ; 319: 120983, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596379

RESUMO

Plastics have been proposed as vectors of bacteria as they act as a substrate for biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the abundance of faecal and marine bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from biofilms adhered to marine plastics. Floating plastics and plastics from sediments were collected in coastal areas impacted by human faecal pollution in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Culture and/or molecular methods were used to quantify faecal indicators (E. coli, Enterococci and crAssphage), and the ARGs sulI, tetW and blaTEM and the 16S rRNA were detected by qPCR assays. Pseudomonas and Vibrio species and heterotrophic marine bacteria were also analysed via culture-based methods. Results showed that, plastic particles covered by bacterial biofilms, primarily consisted of marine bacteria including Vibrio spp. Some floating plastics had a low concentration of viable E. coli and Enterococci (42% and 67% of the plastics respectively). Considering the median area of the plastics, we detected an average of 68 cfu E. coli per item, while a higher concentration of E. coli was detected on individual plastic items, when compared with 100 ml of the surrounding water. Using qPCR, we quantified higher values of faecal indicators which included inactive and dead microorganisms, detecting up to 2.6 × 102 gc mm-2. The ARGs were detected in 67-88% of the floating plastics and in 29-57% of the sediment plastics with a concentration of up to 6.7 × 102 gc mm-2. Furthermore, enrichment of these genes was observed in biofilms compared with the surrounding water. These results show that floating plastics act as a conduit for both the attachment and transport of faecal microorganisms. In contrast, low presence of faecal indicators was detected in plastic from seafloor sediments. Therefore, although in low concentrations, faecal bacteria, and potential pathogens, were identified in marine plastics, further suggesting plastics act as a reservoir of pathogens and ARGs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Fezes , Vibrio , Humanos , Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Plásticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Vibrio/genética , Água , Fezes/microbiologia
5.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101943, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610227

RESUMO

Dogs are the most cosmopolitan pets of humans and as such a means of transmitting zoonotic parasites to their owners. This study was designed to investigate the diversity, prevalence, pattern of infection, intensity of infections, and the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Kwara Central, North Central, Nigeria. Three hundred and five clinically healthy dogs were sampled. Faecal samples were subjected to the direct smear, simple faecal centrifugation flotation, formol-ether concentration, and the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. Oocysts/eggs per gram of faeces were counted using the modified McMaster technique. Data were analysed using univariate logistic regression, multivariate logistic regression, and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A p -value of < 0.05 was considered significant for all analyses. One hundred and sixty-six dogs were positive for at least one species of gastrointestinal parasite, representing 54.43% (95% CI: 44.81 - 59.96) of the sampled population. The study identified Cystoisospora species (15.41%), Cryptosporidium species (25.25%), Ancylostoma species (25.25%), Toxocara canis (19.02%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.54%), Uncinaria stenocephala (6.89%), and Dipylidium caninum (2.30%) as the gastrointestinal parasites infecting dogs in the study area. Coinfection with more than one species of gastrointestinal parasites was a common finding in dogs. The intensity of Cystoisospora spp. among infected dogs ranged between 40 and 980 oocysts per gram of faeces, while that of helminth parasites was 40 - 1560 eggs per gram of faeces. Age, sex, breeds, body condition score, presence of ticks on dogs, the purpose of keeping dog(s), types of housing, types of feed consumed, vaccination status, and treatment with antiparasitics were predators associated with the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites infections. Due to the zoonotic nature of most of the encountered gastrointestinal parasites, there is need for regular antiparasitic treatment, proper dog management, and adequate personal hygiene to prevent zoonosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(3): 1510-1517, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622307

RESUMO

Intestinal barrier function declines with aging. We evaluated the effect of dietary fibers and indigestible oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function by altering the microbiota of the elderly. The feces were anaerobically cultured with indigestible dextrin, inulin, partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), lactulose, raffinose, or alginate, and the fermented supernatant was added to inflammation-induced Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12 co-cultured cells. Our data showed that inulin- and PHGG-derived supernatants exerted a protective effect on the intestinal barrier. The protective effect was significantly positively correlated with total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and butyric acid production in the supernatant and negatively correlated with the claudin-2 (CLDN2) gene expression in the cultured cells. Furthermore, we showed that the CLDN2 levels are regulated by butyric acid. Thus, inulin and PHGG can change the intestinal environment of the elderly and maintain the intestinal barrier by accelerating the production of SCFAs and modifying the expression levels of barrier function-related genes.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Inulina , Humanos , Idoso , Inulina/farmacologia , Inulina/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Fermentação , Fezes , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Galactanos/metabolismo , Mananas/metabolismo , Inflamação , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(6): 598-603, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of Blastocystis hominis infection among children with diarrhea under five years of age in Guangzhou City. METHODS: Children with diarrhea under 5 years of age admitted to Guangzhou Children's hospital, Guangzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center during the period between January 1 and December 31, 2020, were enrolled. Participants' demographics, living environments and health status were collected using questionnaire surveys. Stool samples were collected from participants and nucleic acid was extracted. B. hominis infection was identified using PCR assay and sequence alignment, and the factors affecting B. hominis infection among children with diarrhea under 5 years of age were identified using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 684 children with diarrhea under 5 years of age were enrolled, including 468 male children and 216 female children, with a mean age of (1.79 ± 1.12) years. The overall prevalence of B. hominis infection was 4.97% [34/684, 95% confidential interval (CI): (3.59%, 6.86%)] among participants, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of B. hominis infection between children with chronic [7.52% (20/266), 95% CI: (4.92%, 11.33%)] and acute diarrhea [3.35% (14/418), 95% CI: (2.01%, 5.54%)] (χ2 = 5.983, P = 0.014). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified keeping pet [odds ratio (OR) = 6.298, 95% CI: (2.711, 14.633)], drinking non-tap water [OR = 4.522, 95% CI: (1.769, 11.561)], lactose intolerance [OR = 4.221, 95% CI: (1.043, 17.087)], antibiotic use [OR = 0.125, 95% CI: (0.017, 0.944)] and chronic diarrhea [OR = 2.172, 95% CI: (1.018, 4.637)] as factors affecting B. hominis infection among children with diarrhea under 5 years of age in Guangzhou City. CONCLUSIONS: B. hominis infections is detected in children with diarrhea under five years of age in Guangzhou City. Improving home environments and pet-keeping hygiene is recommended to reduce the likelihood of B. hominis infection among children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis hominis , Gravidez , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Fezes , Cidades , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
8.
Water Res ; 230: 119383, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630853

RESUMO

Coliphage have been suggested as an alternative to fecal indicator bacteria for assessing recreational beach water quality, but it is unclear how frequently and at what types of beaches coliphage produces a different management outcome. Here we conducted side-by-side sampling of male-specific and somatic coliphage by the new EPA dead-end hollow fiber ultrafiltration (D-HFUF-SAL) method and Enterococcus at southern California beaches over two years. When samples were combined for all beach sites, somatic and male-specific coliphage both correlated with Enterococcus. When examined categorically, Enterococcus would have resulted in approximately two times the number of health advisories as somatic coliphage and four times that of male-specific coliphage,using recently proposed thresholds of 60 PFU/100 mL for somatic and 30 PFU/100 mL for male-specific coliphage. Overall, only 12% of total exceedances would have been for coliphage alone. Somatic coliphage exceedances that occurred in the absence of an Enterococcus exceedance were limited to a single site during south swell events, when this beach is known to be affected by nearby minimally treated sewage. Thus, somatic coliphage provided additional valuable health protection information, but may be more appropriate as a supplement to FIB measurements rather than as replacement because: (a) EPA-approved PCR methods for Enterococcus allow a more rapid response, (b) coliphage is more challenging owing to its greater sampling volume and laboratory time requirements, and (c) Enterococcus' long data history has yielded predictive management models that would need to be recreated for coliphage.


Assuntos
Enterococcus , Qualidade da Água , Masculino , Humanos , Praias , California , Colífagos , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 213, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604516

RESUMO

Sleep restriction alters gut microbiota composition and intestinal barrier function in rodents, but whether similar effects occur in humans is unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of severe, short-term sleep restriction on gut microbiota composition and intestinal permeability in healthy adults. Fecal microbiota composition, measured by 16S rRNA sequencing, and intestinal permeability were measured in 19 healthy men (mean ± SD; BMI 24.4 ± 2.3 kg/m2, 20 ± 2 years) undergoing three consecutive nights of adequate sleep (AS; 7-9 h sleep/night) and restricted sleep (SR; 2 h sleep/night) in random order with controlled diet and physical activity. α-diversity measured by amplicon sequencing variant (ASV) richness was 21% lower during SR compared to AS (P = 0.03), but α-diversity measured by Shannon and Simpson indexes did not differ between conditions. Relative abundance of a single ASV within the family Ruminococcaceae was the only differentially abundant taxon (q = 0.20). No between-condition differences in intestinal permeability or ß-diversity were observed. Findings indicated that severe, short-term sleep restriction reduced richness of the gut microbiota but otherwise minimally impacted community composition and did not affect intestinal permeability in healthy young men.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Intestinos , Sono , Fezes , Permeabilidade
10.
Genome Med ; 15(1): 1, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the brain and spinal cord resulting in physical and cognitive impairment in young adults. It is hypothesized that a disrupted bacterial and viral gut microbiota is a part of the pathogenesis mediating disease impact through an altered gut microbiota-brain axis. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis and to associate it with disease variables, as the etiology of the disease remains only partially known. METHODS: Here, in a case-control setting involving 148 Danish cases with multiple sclerosis and 148 matched healthy control subjects, we performed shotgun sequencing of fecal microbial DNA and associated bacterial and viral microbiota findings with plasma cytokines, blood cell gene expression profiles, and disease activity. RESULTS: We found 61 bacterial species that were differentially abundant when comparing all multiple sclerosis cases with healthy controls, among which 31 species were enriched in cases. A cluster of inflammation markers composed of blood leukocytes, CRP, and blood cell gene expression of IL17A and IL6 was positively associated with a cluster of multiple sclerosis-related species. Bacterial species that were more abundant in cases with disease-active treatment-naïve multiple sclerosis were positively linked to a group of plasma cytokines including IL-22, IL-17A, IFN-ß, IL-33, and TNF-α. The bacterial species richness of treatment-naïve multiple sclerosis cases was associated with number of relapses over a follow-up period of 2 years. However, in non-disease-active cases, we identified two bacterial species, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, whose absolute abundance was enriched. These bacteria are known to produce anti-inflammatory metabolites including butyrate and urolithin. In addition, cases with multiple sclerosis had a higher viral species diversity and a higher abundance of Caudovirales bacteriophages. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable aberrations are present in the gut microbiota of patients with multiple sclerosis that are directly associated with blood biomarkers of inflammation, and in treatment-naïve cases bacterial richness is positively associated with disease activity. Yet, the finding of two symbiotic bacterial species in non-disease-active cases that produce favorable immune-modulating compounds provides a rationale for testing these bacteria as adjunct therapeutics in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Inflamação , Fezes/microbiologia , Bactérias , Citocinas
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278675, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV may increase SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and COVID-19 severity generally, but data are limited about its impact on postpartum women and their infants. As such, we characterized SARS-CoV-2 infection among mother-infant pairs in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a nested study of 62 HIV-uninfected and 64 healthy women living with HIV, as well as their HIV-exposed uninfected (N = 61) and HIV-unexposed (N = 64) infants, participating in a prospective cohort. SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed on plasma collected between May 1, 2020-February 1, 2022 to determine the incidence, risk factors, and symptoms of infection. SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR and sequencing was also performed on available stool samples from seropositive participants. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was found in 66% of the 126 mothers and in 44% of the 125 infants. There was no significant association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and maternal HIV (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 0.810, 95% CI: 0.517-1.27) or infant HIV exposure (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.859-2.53). Maternal SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a two-fold increased risk of infant infection (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.08-4.94). Few participants (13% mothers, 33% infants) had symptoms; no participant experienced severe COVID-19 or death. Seroreversion occurred in about half of mothers and infants. SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained from stool were related to contemporaneously circulating variants. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that postpartum Kenyan women and their infants were at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and that antibody responses waned over an average of 8-10 months. However, most cases were asymptomatic and healthy women living with HIV did not have a substantially increased risk of infection or severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Quênia/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fezes/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends a market-ready, urine-based point-of-care diagnostic test for circulating cathodic antigens (CCA) to determine the prevalence of S. mansoni. This study evaluated the performance of the URINE CCA (SCHISTO) ECO TESTE® (POC-ECO), which is currently available in Brazil. METHODS: Residents from eight sites with different prevalence estimates provided one urine sample for POC-ECO and one stool sample for Kato-Katz (KK) and Helmintex® (HTX) testing as an egg-detecting reference for infection status. RESULTS: None of the study sites had significantly higher POC-ECO accuracy than KK. CONCLUSIONS: POC-ECO is not currently recommended in Brazilian schistosomiasis elimination programs.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose mansoni , Animais , Humanos , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Schistosoma mansoni , Brasil/epidemiologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Antígenos de Helmintos/urina , Prevalência , Fezes
13.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680277

RESUMO

The One Health framework recognizes that human, animal, and environmental health are linked and highly interdependent. Fecal contamination of water, soil, foodstuff, and air may impact many aspects of One Health, and culture, PCR-based, and sequencing methods are utilized in the detection of fecal contamination to determine source, load, and risk to inform targeted mitigation strategies. Viruses, particularly, have been considered as fecal contamination indicators given the narrow host range many exhibit and their association with other biological contaminants. Culture- and molecular-based methods are considered the gold-standards for virus detection and for determining specific sources of fecal contamination via viral indicators. However, viral metagenomics is also being considered as a tool for tracking sources of fecal contamination. In the present review, studies tracking potential sources of fecal contamination in freshwaters, marine waters, foodstuff, soil, and air using viral metagenomics are discussed to highlight the potential of viral metagenomics for optimizing fecal source tracking. Limitations of the use of viral metagenomics to track fecal contamination sources, including sample processing, nucleic acid recovery, sequencing depth, and bioinformatics are also discussed. Finally, the present review discusses the potential of viral metagenomics as part of the toolbox of methods in a One Health approach.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Poluição da Água , Animais , Humanos , Poluição da Água/análise , Metagenômica , Água Doce , Solo , Fezes
14.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 48, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681671

RESUMO

There is evidence linking hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) to gut microbiota dysbiosis, and this relationship was corroborated in a large HFMD patient population in our previous study. Here, we present a bacterial 16S rRNA gene dataset from faecal samples of 713 individuals (254 HFMD patients, 459 healthy controls) aged 2 to 7 years residing in Heyuan and Jiangmen counties, Guangdong Province, southern China. Microbiome analysis indicated a significant increase in genus Prevotella, Cetobacterium, and Megamonas was observed in patients with HFMD, whereas a large increase in genus Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Faecalibacterium were seen in the control group. We also share the bioinformatic analytical pipeline for this analysis, from data preprocessing to data filtering and amplicon sequence variant (ASV) table generation. We expect that the dataset will be reprocessed, evaluated and fully analysed with various analysis methods to further elucidate the role of the gut microbiota in HFMD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Fezes/microbiologia , Genes de RNAr , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/genética , Boca , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 29, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces all-cause and CRC-related mortality. New research demonstrates that the faecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb) may indicate the presence of other serious diseases not related to CRC. We investigated the association between f-Hb, measured by a faecal immunochemical test (FIT), and both all-cause mortality and cause of death in a population-wide cohort of screening participants. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2018, 1,262,165 participants submitted a FIT for the Danish CRC screening programme. We followed these participants, using the Danish CRC Screening Database and several other national registers on health and population, until December 31, 2018. We stratified participants by f-Hb and compared them using a Cox proportional hazards regression on all-cause mortality and cause of death reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). We adjusted for several covariates, including comorbidity, socioeconomic factors, demography and prescription medication. RESULTS: We observed 21,847 deaths in the study period. Our multivariate analyses indicated an association relationship between increasing f-Hb and the risk of dying in the study period. This risk increased steadily from aHR 1.38 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.44) in those with a f-Hb of 7.1-11.9 µg Hb/g faeces to 2.20 (95% CI: 2.10, 2.30) in those with a f-Hb ≥60.0 µg Hb/g faeces, when compared to those with a f-Hb ≤7.0 µg Hb/g faeces. The pattern remained when excluding CRC from the analysis. Similar patterns were observed between incrementally increasing f-Hb and the risk of dying from respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancers other than CRC. Furthermore, we observed an increased risk of dying from CRC with increasing f-Hb. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that f-Hb may indicate an elevated risk of having chronic conditions if causes for the bleeding have not been identified. The mechanisms still need to be established, but f-Hb may be a potential biomarker for several non-CRC diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Causas de Morte , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Fezes/química , Hemoglobinas/análise , Sangue Oculto , Colonoscopia , Programas de Rastreamento
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 16, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common bacterial infections and is widespread globally. It causes a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, though a great proportion of infections are asymptomatic. A total of 143 fresh stool samples were collected from apparently healthy farm and pet animals (43 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 50 sheep, 50 dogs, and 50 cats), in addition to 768 human stool samples. The samples were examined using stool antigen and rapid antibody tests, and further confirmation of glmM "human antigen-positive samples and animal milk samples" was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The prevalence rates of H. pylori infection in animals were 22.2% and 16% in antibody and stool antigen tests, respectively. The detection rates were 28%, 24%, 12%, 10%, and 4.7% in cats, dogs, buffaloes, sheep, and cattle, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in human stool samples was 74.8%, and a statistically significant association was observed between prevalence and several factors, such as sex, age, and locality. PCR was performed to detect the glmM gene of H. pylori, and this gene was found in 21 of 27 human antigen-positive samples and 5 of 13 animal milk samples. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori was detected in both human and animal samples. Furthermore, glmM was found in milk and human samples. Our findings suggest that pet and farm animals could transmit H. pylori infection to humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Doenças dos Ovinos , Humanos , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Cães , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Búfalos/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672969

RESUMO

The gut microbiome plays a vital role in host ecological adaptation, especially dietary adaptations. Primates have evolved a variety of dietary and gut physiological structures that are useful to explore the role of the gut microbiome in host dietary adaptations. Here, we characterize gut microbiome transcriptional activity in ten fecal samples from primates with three different diets and compare the results to their previously reported metagenomic profile. Bacteria related to cellulose degradation, like Bacteroidaceae and Alcaligenaceae, were enriched and actively expressed in the gut microbiome of folivorous primates, and functional analysis revealed that the glycan biosynthesis and metabolic pathways were significantly active. In omnivorous primates, Helicobacteraceae, which promote lipid metabolism, were significantly enriched in expression, and activity and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism as well as lipid metabolism pathways were significantly active. In frugivorous primates, the abundance and activity of Elusimicrobiaceae, Neisseriaceae, and Succinivibrionaceae, which are associated with digestion of pectin and fructose, were significantly elevated, and the functional pathways involved in the endocrine system were significantly enriched. In conclusion, the gut microbiome contributes to host dietary adaptation by helping hosts digest the inaccessible nutrients in their specific diets.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Primatas/genética , Dieta , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20222204, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651047

RESUMO

Helminth transmission and morbidity are dependent on the number of mature parasites within a host; however, observing adult worms is impossible for many natural infections. An outstanding challenge is therefore relating routine diagnostics, such as faecal egg counts, to the underlying worm burden. This relationship is complicated by density-dependent fecundity (egg output per worm reduces due to crowding at high burdens) and the skewed distribution of parasites (majority of helminths aggregated in a small fraction of hosts). We address these questions for the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, which infects approximately 10 million people across Southeast Asia, by analysing five epidemiological surveys (n = 641) where adult flukes were recovered. Using a mechanistic model, we show that parasite fecundity varies between populations, with surveys from Thailand and Laos demonstrating distinct patterns of egg output and density-dependence. As the probability of observing faecal eggs increases with the number of mature parasites within a host, we quantify diagnostic sensitivity as a function of the worm burden and find that greater than 50% of cases are misdiagnosed as false negative in communities close to elimination. Finally, we demonstrate that the relationship between observed prevalence from routine diagnostics and true prevalence is nonlinear and strongly influenced by parasite aggregation.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Fertilidade , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Fezes/parasitologia
19.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677649

RESUMO

Even though some methods for the detection of colorectal cancer have been used clinically, most of the techniques used do not consider the in situ detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) biomarkers, which would favor in vivo real-time monitoring of the carcinogenesis process and consequent studies of the disease. In order to give a scientific and computational framework ideal for the evaluation of diagnosis techniques based on the early detection of biomarker molecules modeled as spherical particles from the computational point of view, a computational representation of the rectum, stool and biomarker particles was developed. As consequence of the transport of stool, there was a displacement of CRC biomarker particles that entered the system as a result of the cellular apoptosis processes in polyps with a length lower than 1 cm, reaching a maximum velocity of 3.47×10-3 m/s. The biomarkers studied showed trajectories distant to regions of the polyp of origin in 1 min of simulation. The research results show that the biomarker particles for CRC respond to the variations in the movements of the stool with trajectories and speeds that depend on the location of the injury, which will allow locating the regions with the highest possibilities of catching particles through in situ measurement instruments in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Reto , Fezes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer
20.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678236

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are important metabolites of the gut microbiota. The aim is to analyze the influence of perinatal factors, which can affect the gut microbiota, on the concentrations of fecal SCFAs over the first two years of life. Gas chromatography was used to analyze SCFA in a total of 456 fecal samples from 86 children. Total SCFA concentrations increased until 12 months and stabilized after that. Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy was associated with an increase in acetic acid, propionic acid and total SCFA in meconium and a decrease in the same SCFAs at 6 months. Butyric acid was increased after Caesarean delivery until 1 month. In formula-fed children, propionic acid (at 1 month) and butyric acid and total SCFA (at 12 months) were increased. Acetic and linear butyric acids and total SCFAs were also increased at 12 months in children born vaginally that were also formula-fed. Higher butyric acid was observed in children of mothers with normal pre-pregnancy weight and adequate weight gain during pregnancy. Butyric acid was also elevated in 6-month-old infants with a higher body weight (≥85th percentile). Acetic acid concentrations were significantly higher in 2-year-old females vs. males. We conclude that perinatal factors are linked to changes in fecal SCFAs and further long-term epidemiological studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Propionatos , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Propionatos/análise , Ácido Butírico/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química
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