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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271640, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913975

RESUMO

Entamoeba are amoeboid extracellular parasites that represent an important group of organisms for which the regulatory networks must be examined to better understand how genes and functional processes are interrelated. In this work, we inferred the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in four Entamoeba species, E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. nuttalli, and E. invadens, and the GRN topological properties and the corresponding biological functions were evaluated. From these analyses, we determined that transcription factors (TFs) of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. nuttalli are associated mainly with the LIM family, while the TFs in E. invadens are associated with the RRM_1 family. In addition, we identified that EHI_044890 regulates 121 genes in E. histolytica, EDI_297980 regulates 284 genes in E. dispar, ENU1_120230 regulates 195 genes in E. nuttalli, and EIN_249270 regulates 257 genes in E. invadens. Finally, we identified that three types of processes, Macromolecule metabolic process, Cellular macromolecule metabolic process, and Cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, are the main biological processes for each network. The results described in this work can be used as a basis for the study of gene regulation in these organisms.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica , Entamoeba , Entamebíase , Parasitos , Animais , Entamoeba/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamebíase/genética , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia
2.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(7): 370-381, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834663

RESUMO

Blastocystis spp. are common intestinal parasites found in humans and many kinds of animals. Blastocystis spp. infection is associated with a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and chronic urticaria, among which asymptomatic infection is the most common. Among the 11 potentially zoonotic subtypes of Blastocystis spp., 9 subtypes have been reported in bird species. The purpose of this study was to detect the infection rate and gene subtype distribution of Blastocystis spp. in pet birds in Henan Province, Central China, to provide a foundation for preventing and controlling Blastocystis spp. in pet birds. Fecal DNA was extracted from 382 fresh fecal samples of pet birds collected from five areas in Henan Province, Central China. Twenty-three species of pet birds from four orders, from local pet trading markets, parks, and individuals, were sampled. All DNA samples were investigated by PCR, and positive samples were sequenced to analyze the gene subtypes based on the small ribosomal subunit (SSU rRNA) gene. Blastocystis spp. was detected in 0.8% of the samples. Further DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of two known zoonotic subtypes, ST1 (n = 2) and ST7 (n = 1). As far as we know, this is the first time that ST1 subtype has been reported in Chinese birds. It is found that pet birds may be the hosts of zoonotic Blastocystis spp. subtypes, and the role of birds in transmitting Blastocystis spp. to humans needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Animais , Aves , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 68(2): 275-286, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809577

RESUMO

The parasites that belong to the genus Blastocystis are the most common intestinal parasite detected in a wide range of hosts including humans. Although the pathogenicity of these parasites remains controversial, many studies confirmed their pathogenicity and some researchers strongly believe that the pathogenicity may be linked with specific subtypes of these parasites. The current study investigated the Blastocystis sp. subtypes recovered from individuals suffering from the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in comparison with those recovered from non-IBS subjects. Fresh stool samples were collected from each participant and processed during the same day of collection. Iodine wet mounts and trichrome stained smears prepared from fresh stool and sediment concentrates were microscopically examined for Blastocystis parasites. In addition, Jones's medium has been used in order to confirm the identification and also to get the genomic DNA from positive samples for PCR and sequencing. The culture was significantly more sensitive (P=0.0035) than the other identification methods, especially in IBS patients. Blastocystis was detected in 60.0% of patients with IBS and in 22.0% of non-IBS individuals and the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P=0.0001). Regarding the impact of age and gender on the prevalence of infection with Blastocystis, no significant differences were observed between IBS patients and non-IBS subjects except for the age group (10-30 years) where the non-IBS subjects were significantly more prone (P=0.0223) to the infection with this parasite than IBS patients. The abdominal pain and bloating were the leading symptoms. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Iraqi Blastocystis isolates identified three subtypes (ST1, ST2 and ST3). Among these three subtypes, ST3 was significantly more prevalent (OR=8.5; P=0.0058) among IBS patients (60%) than non-IBS subjects (25%). In contrast, the dominance of ST1 was significantly higher (OR=7.0; P=0.0062) in the non-IBS subjects (70%) than their IBS patients counterparts (15%). As far as we know, this study is the first to deal with the genetic characterization of Blastocystis subtypes in an Iraqi population with and without IBS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Criança , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 901766, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873143

RESUMO

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are considered an important source of parasitic zoonoses. A study in 2010 revealed high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a public park in Guiyang, southwestern China, which called for the control of disease in animals and long-term epidemiological tracking of Cryptosporidium spp. After the initiation of a series of public health interventions, we collected 2,402 fecal samples from monkeys and 123 water samples from lakes in the park on six occasions during 2013-2019. They were analyzed and genotyped for Cryptosporidium spp. using PCR and sequence analyses of the small subunit rRNA gene. The C. hominis and C. parvum identified were further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Compared with the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in fecal samples (10.9% or 45/411) and water samples (47.8% or 11/23) in 2010, only 18 (0.7%) fecal samples and 3 (2.4%) water samples collected in the present study were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., including C. hominis (n = 9) and C. parvum (n = 12). The former belonged to the NHP-adapted IfA17G2R3 subtype, while the latter mostly belonged to rodent-adapted IIpA9. Therefore, the detection rate and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. during this study period were much lower than those before the public health interventions, and there was a switch from common occurrence of anthroponotic C. hominis subtypes to sporadic occurrence of NHP-adapted C. hominis and rodent-adapted C. parvum subtypes.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Macaca mulatta , Saúde Pública , Água
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 949773, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899055

RESUMO

The zoonotic protozoa parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis infect a wide range of hosts, including humans. Pigs are reservoir hosts for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis, which can transmit cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis to humans and other animals. The current study sought to investigate the infection rates and species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in pigs in Hubei of China. The nested PCR and sequence analyses of the small ribosomal subunit RNA (SSU rRNA) gene for Cryptosporidium spp. and the ß-giardin (bg) gene for G. duodenalis was utilized to screen for the infection of those parasites in a total of 826 fresh fecal samples. Both Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis infection rates were 0.97% (8/826). Of the genotyped positive isolates, 6/8 (75%) were C. scrofarum and 2/8 (25%) were C. suis, while two zoonotic species G. duodenalis assemblage E and assemblage A were also detected in 7/8 (87.5%) isolates and 1/8 (12.5%) isolates, respectively. The findings suggest that both of those parasites in pig in intensive farms of Hubei province, China, pose a potential public health risk.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Humanos , Prevalência , Suínos
6.
Parasite ; 29: 33, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801842

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic parasite that causes economic losses to animal husbandry and threatens public health. In the present study, a total of 1466 fresh fecal samples were collected from sheep (n = 797), goats (n = 561) and beef cattle (n = 108) in Southwest Inner Mongolia, China. Giardia duodenalis was initially screened via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ß-giardin (bg) gene, and bg-positive samples were subjected to PCR amplification targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. A total of 4.0% of samples (58/1466) were positive for G. duodenalis, with a prevalence of 3.4% in sheep, 3.7% in goats and 5.2% in beef cattle. Three G. duodenalis assemblages (A, B, and E) were identified, with E as the prevalent assemblage. Four and one novel assemblage E sequences were obtained for the gdh and tpi loci, respectively and four assemblage E multilocus genotypes (MLG) were obtained. This study demonstrates high genetic variations in G. duodenalis assemblage E, and provides baseline data for preventing and controlling G. duodenalis infection in livestock in Inner Mongolia.


Title: Caractérisation moléculaire de Giardia duodenalis basée sur le génotypage multilocus chez les ovins, les caprins et les bovins dans le sud-ouest de la Mongolie intérieure, en Chine. Abstract: Giardia duodenalis est un parasite zoonotique important, qui cause des pertes économiques à l'élevage et menace la santé publique. Dans la présente étude, un total de 1466 échantillons fécaux frais ont été prélevés sur des moutons (n = 797), des chèvres (n = 561) et des bovins de boucherie (n = 108) dans le sud-ouest de la Mongolie intérieure, en Chine. Giardia duodenalis a été initialement criblé via une réaction en chaîne par polymérase imbriquée ciblant le gène de la ß-giardine (bg), et les échantillons bg-positifs ont été soumis à une amplification par PCR ciblant les gènes de la glutamate déshydrogénase (gdh) et de la triose phosphate isomérase (tpi). Au total, 4,0 % (58/1466) des échantillons étaient positifs pour G. duodenalis, avec une prévalence de 3,4 % chez les ovins, 3,7 % chez les caprins et 5,2 % chez les bovins. Trois assemblages de G. duodenalis (A, B et E) ont été identifiés, E étant l'assemblage prédominant. Respectivement quatre et une nouvelle séquences de l'assemblage E ont été obtenues dans les loci gdh et tpi, et quatre génotypes multilocus (MLG) de l'assemblage E ont été mis en évidence. Cette étude montre des variations génétiques élevées dans l'assemblage E de G. duodenalis et fournit des données de base pour prévenir et contrôler l'infection à G. duodenalis chez le bétail en Mongolie intérieure.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Cabras/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
7.
J Helminthol ; 96: e53, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894348

RESUMO

Eurytrematosis is a disease caused by flukes of the genus Eurytrema. These parasites infect the pancreatic ducts of a wide variety of species, including cattle, sheep and humans. Diagnosing eurytrematosis through the analysis of faecal samples can be difficult because most of the available techniques are considered of low sensitivity. In this context, a modification of the Dennis, Stone and Swanson technique (Belem Sedimentation Technique, BST) was previously developed to increase the probability of detecting infected animals; nevertheless, the values of eggs per gram obtained using the modified technique are generally low. We proposed a modification of the this technique (MBST), to increase the sensitivity and detection rate of infected animals. The objective of this work was to describe MBST and compare it with BST. Faecal samples of 212 clinically healthy animals (174 from cattle and 38 from sheep) from 20 farms were taken by the intra-rectal route and stored at 4°C. The samples were processed using BST and MBST. Positive samples amounted to 55 (25.9%) using BST and 121 (57.1%) using MBST. In the simples from cattle, 52 (29.8%) and 107 (61.4%) were positive in BST and MBST, respectively. In sheep, three (7.8%) and 14 (36.8%) positive samples were obtained in BST and MBST, respectively.The results obtained using the two methods were significantly different, indicating a lack of agreement between their findings. The results suggest that MBST is a more sensitive method to detect Eurytrema spp. eggs in faeces than BST.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dicrocoeliidae , Fasciolíase , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269859, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. is recognized as an opportunistic zoonotic parasite that infects humans as well as wild and domestic animals. This enteric protozoan is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and animals and often result in death due to severe dehydration. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence, identification of various risk factors and evaluation of sensitivity of the two diagnostic techniques for rapid and correct detection of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic sheep in Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 360 fecal samples were collected and processed for detection of Cryptosporidium infection after proper preservation. These samples were properly stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid staining and then examined under simple microscope at 100x magnification for confirmation of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The same samples were again processed through simple PCR for confirmation of the Cryptosporidium spp. RESULTS: The age wise prevalence was detected through simple microscopy and PCR. We found highest prevalence at the age of ≤1 year followed by 1-2 years of age while the lowest prevalence was recorded at the age of ≥ 2-3 years of sheep and found significant difference between different ages (P<0.05). The sex wise prevalence showed the highest prevalence in male (♂) animals detected compared to female (♀). The overall prevalence was detected 27.08% and 18.80% through PCR and simple microscopy, respectively, and significant difference between two diagnostic techniques were observed (P<0.05). Considering the seasonality, the highest prevalence was recorded through simple microscopy in autumn, summer, and spring, while the lowest in winter. These results were confirmed through PCR. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that molecular detection is the most efficient, specific and sensitive technique for detection of Cryptosporidium infection than simple microscopy. Moreover sheep is the major potential source of infection to other wild and domestic animals including humans.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12178, 2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842437

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are commonly detected intestinal protozoa species in humans and animals, contributing to global gastroenteritis spread. The present study examined the prevalence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in Himalayan marmots and Alashan ground squirrels in China's Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTPA) for the first time. Four hundred ninety-eight intestinal content samples were collected from five counties of QTPA of Gansu province, China. All samples were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis by PCR amplification. The resultant data were statistically analyzed by chi-square, Fisher's test and Bonferroni correction using SPSS software 25. 0. Cryptosporidium positive samples were further subtyped through analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequence. A total of 11 and 8 samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis, respectively. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were 2.5% (10/399) and 1.5% (6/399) in Himalayan marmots, 1.0% (1/99) and 2.0% (2/99) in Alashan ground squirrels, respectively. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of C. rubeyi (n = 2), ground squirrel genotype II (n = 7), chipmunk genotype V (n = 1) and horse genotype (n = 1). The horse genotype was further subtyped as novel subtype VIbA10. G. duodenalis zoonotic assemblages A (n = 1), B (n = 6), E (n = 1) were identified in the present study. This is the first study to identify Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in Himalayan marmots and Alashan ground squirrels, suggesting the potential zoonotic transmission of the two pathogens in QTPA.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Cavalos , Humanos , Roedores
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e006422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830149

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to find out the diversity of Eimeria species in cattle herds in the semiarid region of Brazil. Forty cattle fecal samples were collected from 20 farms in the Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and examined by centrifugation-floatation technique in sucrose solution. From each positive animal, 20 oocysts were photographed and measured. Infection by Eimeria spp. was detected in 17.12% (137/800) of the samples analyzed. All the farms had at least one animal that was positive for Eimeria spp. (100%; 20/20). In total, 2740 coccidia were photographed and measured. The species detected were: Eimeria bovis (35.1%); Eimeria canadensis (17.48%); Eimeria auburnensis (14.7%); Eimeria ellipsoidalis (9.7%); Eimeria zuernii (7.22%); Eimeria brasiliensis (4.56%); Eimeria bukidnonensis (3.97%); Eimeria illinoisensis (2.91%); Eimeria wyomingensis (1.42%); Eimeria alabamensis (1.27%); Eimeria cylindrica (0.76%); Eimeria pellita (0.54%); Eimeria ildefonsoi (0.21%); and Eimeria subspherica (0.07%). It was concluded that cattle in the semiarid region of Brazil were parasitized by 14 species of Eimeria. It is thinked that the sanitary management employed, as well as the system used for raising these animals, is the crucial point that leads to high rates of infection in this region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e00412022, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are routinely used for Cryptosporidium diagnosis, without differentiating the parasite species. METHODS: Children's feces were analyzed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (mZN) and ELISA for Cryptosporidium diagnosis and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for species identification. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium frequency was 2.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 85.7% and 99.7%, respectively, with excellent concordance with mZN (kappa=0.854). Parasite species were characterized as Cryptosporidium hominis (78.3%), Cryptosporidium felis (17.4%), and Cryptosporidium parvum (4.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Coproantigen ELISA is as efficient as mZN for Cryptosporidium diagnosis. Cryptosporidium genotyping suggests anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission to children.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(7): e0010622, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The results of the latest national survey on important human parasitic diseases in 2015-2016 showed Guangdong Province is still a moderately endemic area, with the weighted prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) higher than the national average. High-resolution age- and gender-specific spatial-temporal risk maps can support the prevention and control of STHs, but not yet available in Guangdong. METHODOLOGY: Georeferenced age- and gender-specific disease data of STH infections in Guangdong Province was derived from three national surveys on important human parasitic diseases, conducted in 1988-1992, 2002-2003, and 2015-2016, respectively. Potential influencing factors (e.g., environmental and socioeconomic factors) were collected from open-access databases. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to analyze the above data, based on which, high-resolution maps depicting the STH infection risk were produced in the three survey years in Guangdong Province. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There were 120, 31, 71 survey locations in the first, second, and third national survey in Guangdong, respectively. The overall population-weighted prevalence of STH infections decreased significantly over time, from 68.66% (95% Bayesian credible interval, BCI: 64.51-73.06%) in 1988-1992 to 0.97% (95% BCI: 0.69-1.49%) in 2015-2016. In 2015-2016, only low to moderate infection risk were found across Guangdong, with hookworm becoming the dominant species. Areas with relatively higher risk (>5%) were mostly distributed in the western region. Females had higher infection risk of STHs than males. The infection risk of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were higher in children, while middle-aged and elderly people had higher infection risk of hookworm. Precipitation, elevation, land cover, and human influence index (HII) were significantly related with STH infection risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We produced the high-resolution, age- and gender-specific risk maps of STH infections in the three national survey periods across nearly 30 years in Guangdong Province, which can provide important information assisting the control and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Infecções por Uncinaria , Doenças Parasitárias , Idoso , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 188, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is one of the most prevalent parasites infecting both birds and mammals. To examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and evaluate the public health significance of domestic chickens in Guangdong Province, southern China, we analyzed 1001 fecal samples from 43 intensive broiler chicken farms across six distinct geographical regions. METHODS: Individual DNA samples were subjected to nested PCR-based amplification and sequencing of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene (gp60) was performed to characterize the subtypes of C. meleagridis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 13.2% (95% CI 11.1-15.3) (24 of 43 farms), with C. meleagridis (7.8%), C. baileyi (4.8%) and mixed infections (0.6%). Using the gp60 gene, three subtype families, IIIb, IIIe and IIIg, were identified, including six subtypes: one novel (IIIgA25G3R1a) and five previously reported (IIIbA23G1R1c, IIIbA24G1R1, IIIbA21G1R1a, IIIeA17G2R1 and IIIeA26G2R1). Within these subtypes, five known subtypes were genetically identical to those identified in humans. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of C. meleagridis in chickens from Guangdong. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in domestic chickens and the common C. meleagridis subtypes identified in both humans and chickens is of public health significance. Our study indicates that broiler chickens represent a potential zoonotic risk for the transmission of Cryptosporidium in this region.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Mamíferos
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 528, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deworming programs aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality from geohelminth infections are common in many countries where these infections are endemic, but data demonstrating increasing levels of resistance to albendazole and mebendazole are causes for concern. Studies to evaluate the clinical efficacy of deworming programs are critical to maintain high infection control goals. METHODS: We propose to assess the clinical efficacy of Peruvian national guidelines for deworming programs in a prospective observational study conducted in the Amazon River basin area near Iquitos, Peru. Major outcomes to be evaluated include (1) albendazole resistance of intestinal helminths (trichuriasis, ascariasis, hookworm), and (2) frequency of reinfection with intestinal helminths 4 months after treatment with albendazole. Children ages 2-11 years from the Belén District of Iquitos will be identified based on a community census. Following parental informed consent, demographic data, weight, and height will be recorded and a stool specimen for parasitological exam by direct observation and Kato-Katz concentration method, and helminthic egg counts will be collected prior to administration of albendazole, following Peruvian national guidelines. Follow-up stool specimens examined in the same manner will be collected at 20 days, 90 days, and 100 days following initial administration of albendazole, and based on parasites found repeat treatment will be administered in accordance with national guidelines. Real-time multiplex qPCR will be performed on helminth positive samples collected prior to initial deworming and on helminth-positive specimens detected on day 15-20. A total sample size of 380 participants was calculated based on total population in the target group and prevalence estimates of helminth infections and clinical resistance based on recent data. DISCUSSION: Data from observational clinical efficacy studies are important to guide geohelminth infection control programs. Trial registration https://www.researchregistry.com/ . Identification number: researchregistry7736; Registered retrospectively March 13, 2022; https://www.researchregistry.com/browse-the-registry#home/registrationdetails/622e024cf06132001e3327bf/.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Peru/epidemiologia , Reinfecção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Solo/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703610

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are neglected diseases caused by helminths and protozoa, with the relationships between parasite, host and environment having the potential to produce high morbidity and incapacity to work and mortality in vulnerable areas. This study assessed the prevalence of IPIs concerning socio-environmental conditions and analyzed the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to these diseases among men living in the slums of Rio de Janeiro city, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an agglomeration of urban slums between 2018 and 2019, with men aged between 20 and 59 years. A socioeconomic status questionnaire and an IPIs knowledge, attitudes and practices questionnaire (KAPQ) were applied. Coproparasitological diagnoses (n=454) were performed using four methods and samples of water for household consumption (n=392) were subjected to microbiological and physicochemical analysis. A total of 624 participants were enrolled. About 40% of the households had "water unsuitable for consumption". Only one Major Area, MA 3 was not statistically significant for IPIs (AOR=0.75; 95% CI: 0.30-1.88; p=0.55). The overall prevalence of IPIs was 23.8%. Endolimax nana (n=65, 14.3%) and hookworm (n=8, 1.7%) were the most frequently identified parasites. The analysis of the frequency of responses to the KAPQ has shown that men reported to seeking medical care if they were suspicious of IPIs, and around 35% would self-medicate. The results have shown the need to adopt integrated health education practices targeting male residents in urban slums to qualify the care with water for human consumption and promote self-care about IPIs. The household can be considered strategic for Primary Health Care activities for men.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Água , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9957, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705621

RESUMO

Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the soil-transmitted nematode by Strongyloides stercoralis, that affects approximately 600 million people worldwide. In immunosuppressed individuals disseminated strongyloidiasis can rapidly lead to fatal outcomes. There is no gold standard for diagnosing strongyloidiasis, and infections are frequently misdiagnosed. A better understanding of the molecular biology of this parasite can be useful for example for the discovery of potential new biomarkers. Interestingly, recent evidence showed the presence of small RNAs in Strongyloididae, but no data was provided for S. stercoralis. In this study, we present the first identification of miRNAs of both L1 and iL3 larval stages of S. stercoralis. For our purpose, the aims were: (i) to analyse the miRNome of L1 and iL3 S. stercoralis and to identify potential miRNAs of this nematode, (ii) to obtain the mRNAs profiles in these two larval stages and (iii) to predict potential miRNA target sites in mRNA sequences. Total RNA was isolated from L1 and iL3 collected from the stool of 5 infected individuals. For the miRNAs analysis, we used miRDeep2 software and a pipeline of bio-informatic tools to construct a catalog of a total of 385 sequences. Among these, 53% were common to S. ratti, 19% to S. papillosus, 1% to Caenorhabditis elegans and 44% were novel. Using a differential analysis between the larval stages, we observed 6 suggestive modulated miRNAs (STR-MIR-34A-3P, STR-MIR-8397-3P, STR-MIR-34B-3P and STR-MIR-34C-3P expressed more in iL3, and STR-MIR-7880H-5P and STR-MIR-7880M-5P expressed more in L1). Along with this analysis, we obtained also the mRNAs profiles in the same samples of larvae. Multiple testing found 81 statistically significant mRNAs of the total 1553 obtained (FDR < 0.05; 32 genes expressed more in L1 than iL3; 49 genes expressed more in L3 than iL1). Finally, we found 33 predicted mRNA targets of the modulated miRNAs, providing relevant data for a further validation to better understand the role of these small molecules in the larval stages and their valuein clinical diagnostics.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidíase , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Strongyloides stercoralis/genética , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/genética , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010499, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709246

RESUMO

Fasciola hepatica is a neglected parasitic infection with significant human health and livestock industry impact. The Andean Altiplano harbors an estimated 50% of the Fasciola's world infection burden. There is scarce data regarding the spatial associations between different Fasciola hosts. In this project, we aimed to determine the geospatial relationships between Fasciola eggs passed in feces of different livestock species and the risk of infection among each household as a unit. We used data from a cross-sectional study evaluating children and livestock feces for Fasciola infection around households in three districts of Anta province, in the Cusco region of Peru. Each sample was geographically tagged and evaluated for fascioliasis using microscopy methods. A total of 2070 households were included, the median age was 9.1 years (6.7-11.8), 49.5% were female, and 7.2% of the households had at least one infected child. A total of 2420 livestock feces samples were evaluated. The infection rate in livestock samples was 30.9%. The highest infection rate was found in sheep with 40.8%, followed by cattle (33.8%), and swine (26.4%). The median distance between a household with an infected child to a positive animal sample was 44.6 meters (IQR 14.7-112.8) and the distance between a household with no infected children to a positive animal sample was 62.2 meters (IQR 18.3-158.6) (p = 0.025). The multivariable logistic regression adjusted by presence of poor sanitation, unsafe water consumption, altitude, and presence of multiple infected children per household demonstrated an association between household infection and any cattle feces at a 50 meters radius (Uninfected: OR 1.42 (95%CI 1.07-1.89), p = 0.017. Infected: OR 1.89 (95%CI 1.31-2.73), p = 0.001), positive cattle feces at a 100 meters radius (OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.08-1.69), p = 0.008), and negative cattle feces at a 200 meters radius (OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.01-1.15), p = 0.022). We identified potential hot and cold spots for fascioliasis in the Anta province. An association between environmental contamination with feces from different livestock species and infected children in rural households was found in our study. Local health authorities may apply this strategy to estimate the risk of infection in human populations and apply targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciola , Fasciolíase , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Suínos
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 213, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eimeria coccidiosis is a significant intestinal parasitic disease, which can lead to weight loss, disease and even death of many animals. At present, there is no information about the prevalence of Eimeria among the world's endangered species of Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify an unknown Eimeria genus in the Père David's deer in Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve, China. RESULTS: A new Eimeria species is described from Père David's deer. Sporulated oocysts (n = 54) are pyriform, with a rough, yellowish brown, 2-layered oocyst wall (2.5 µm thick). A numerous small granules are dispersed randomly on the wall. Oocysts measured 41.2 (39.2-42.8) µm × 29.5 (27.9-30.5) µm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.4. Oocyst residuum, a polar granule and a polar cap are absent. The micropyle (3.5 µm wide) is present. Sporocysts are spindle shaped, 18.2 (16.5-20.0) µm × 10.5 (9.8-11.9) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.7 (1.5-1.9). A thin convex Stieda body is present and the sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 2.0 µm in diameter dispersed randomly. Each sporocyst contained 2 comma-shaped sporozoites in head-to-tail arrangement. A nucleus is located immediately anterior to the posterior, strong refractive and subspherical refractile body (~ 8 µm). Molecular analysis was conducted at the 18S, ITS-1 and COI loci. CONCLUSION: Based on the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite, which is named Eimeria davidianusi after its host, the Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus).


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Cervos , Eimeria , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010500, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the World Health Organization's (WHO) publication of the 2021-2030 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) roadmap, the current gap in global diagnostics became painfully apparent. Improving existing diagnostic standards with state-of-the-art technology and artificial intelligence has the potential to close this gap. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prototyped an artificial intelligence-based digital pathology (AI-DP) device to explore automated scanning and detection of helminth eggs in stool prepared with the Kato-Katz (KK) technique, the current diagnostic standard for diagnosing soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms) and Schistosoma mansoni (SCH) infections. First, we embedded a prototype whole slide imaging scanner into field studies in Cambodia, Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. With the scanner, over 300 KK stool thick smears were scanned, resulting in total of 7,780 field-of-view (FOV) images containing 16,990 annotated helminth eggs (Ascaris: 8,600; Trichuris: 4,083; hookworms: 3,623; SCH: 684). Around 90% of the annotated eggs were used to train a deep learning-based object detection model. From an unseen test set of 752 FOV images containing 1,671 manually verified STH and SCH eggs (the remaining 10% of annotated eggs), our trained object detection model extracted and classified helminth eggs from co-infected FOV images in KK stool thick smears, achieving a weighted average precision (± standard deviation) of 94.9% ± 0.8% and a weighted average recall of 96.1% ± 2.1% across all four helminth egg species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a proof-of-concept for an AI-DP device for automated scanning and detection of helminth eggs in KK stool thick smears. We identified obstacles that need to be addressed before the diagnostic performance can be evaluated against the target product profiles for both STH and SCH. Given that these obstacles are primarily associated with the required hardware and scanning methodology, opposed to the feasibility of AI-based results, we are hopeful that this research can support the 2030 NTDs road map and eventually other poverty-related diseases for which microscopy is the diagnostic standard.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Ancylostomatoidea , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Ascaris lumbricoides , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Schistosoma mansoni , Solo/parasitologia , Trichuris
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010491, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports show altered gut bacterial profiles are associated with helminth infected individuals. Our recently published molecular survey of clinical helminthiases in Thailand border regions demonstrated a more comprehensive picture of infection prevalence when Kato Katz microscopy and copro-qPCR diagnostics were combined. We revealed that Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were the most predominant helminth infections in these regions. In the current study, we have profiled the faecal and saliva microbiota of a subset of these helminth infected participants, in order to determine if microbial changes are associated with parasite infection. METHODS: A subset of 66 faecal samples from Adisakwattana et al., (2020) were characterised for bacterial diversity using 16S rRNA gene profiling. Of these samples a subset of 24 participant matched saliva samples were also profiled for microbiota diversity. Sequence data were compiled, OTUs assigned, and diversity and abundance analysed using the statistical software Calypso. RESULTS: The data reported here indicate that helminth infections impact on both the host gut and oral microbiota. The profiles of faecal and saliva samples, irrespective of the infection status, were considerably different from each other, with more alpha diversity associated with saliva (p-value≤ 0.0015). Helminth infection influenced the faecal microbiota with respect to specific taxa, but not overall microbial alpha diversity. Conversely, helminth infection was associated with increased saliva microbiota alpha diversity (Chao 1 diversity indices) at both the genus (p-value = 0.042) and phylum (p-value = 0.026) taxa levels, compared to uninfected individuals. Elevated individual taxa in infected individuals saliva were noted at the genus and family levels. Since Opisthorchis viverrini infections as a prominent health concern to Thailand, this pathogen was examined separately to other helminths infections present. Individuals with an O. viverrini mono-infection displayed both increases and decreases in genera present in their faecal microbiota, while increases in three families and one order were also observed in these samples. DISCUSSION: In this study, helminth infections appear to alter the abundance of specific faecal bacterial taxa, but do not impact on overall bacterial alpha or beta diversity. In addition, the faecal microbiota of O. viverrini only infected individuals differed from that of other helminth single and dual infections. Saliva microbiota analyses of individuals harbouring active helminth infections presented increased levels of both bacterial alpha diversity and abundance of individual taxa. Our data demonstrate that microbial change is associated with helminthiases in endemic regions of Thailand, and that this is reflected in both faecal and saliva microbiota. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an altered saliva microbiota in helminth infected individuals. This work may provide new avenues for improved diagnostics; and an enhanced understanding of both helminth infection pathology and the interplay between helminths, bacteria and their host.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva
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