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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130618, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330028

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r2 = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.


Assuntos
Soja , Vapor , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130751, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384987

RESUMO

Wheat bran is a rich source of phenolic compounds, and the health benefits of phenolic compounds depend on its bioaccessibility. The release behavior and functional properties of phenolic compounds in different particle size wheat bran during in vitro digestion were investigated. Coarse wheat bran (CWB, 1110.39 µm) was milled by airflow impact mill to produce medium wheat bran (MWB, 235.68 µm), fine wheat bran (FWB, 83.73 µm) and superfine wheat bran (SWB, 19.16 µm). The reduction in particle size increased the release of phenolic compounds, mainly ferulic acid, after digestion. The free p-coumaric acid content in SWB was nearly five times higher than that in CWB, MWB and FWB due to the complete destruction of aleurone cell walls. Moreover, SWB showed higher bioaccessible phenolic compounds content (65.51%) than CWB. The improved phenolic bioaccessibility increased the antioxidant capacities and carbohydrate-digestive enzymes inhibitory activities of SWB and significantly reduced its starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Fenóis , Antioxidantes , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130883, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438179

RESUMO

The effects of acetylation, hydroxypropylation, cellulase hydrolysis and crosslinking on adsorption capacities and in vitro hypoglycemic activities of millet bran dietary fibre (MBDF) were studied. The results demonstrated that both acetylation and hydroxypropylation improved water swelling ability of MBDF, and adsorption capacities of cholesterol, cholate and copper ion on MBDF. Acetylation and hydroxypropylation also enhanced α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities, glucose-binding ability and glucose diffusion retardation index (GDRI) of MBDF. Acetylated MBDF showed the highest cholate (77.31 mg/g) and cholesterol (13.97 mg/g) adsorption capacities. The crosslinking improved adsorption of cholate, cholesterol, copper ion (25.64 mg/g) and nitrite ion (181.59 µg/g) on MBDF; but reduced α-amylase inhibition activity (p < 0.05). Moreover, cellulase hydrolyzed MBDF exhibited the highest GDRI (39.60%) and α-amylase inhibition activity (34.53%), but the lowest oil and cholate adsorption capacities. The results suggest that the modified MBDFs can be used as an ingredient of hypoglycemic foods.


Assuntos
Celulase , Milhetes , Acetilação , Adsorção , Celulase/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Hidrólise , Hipoglicemiantes , Milhetes/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMO

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Amido
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131663, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371357

RESUMO

In this study, an immobilization method for forming and keeping dominant petroleum degradation bacteria was successfully developed by immobilizing Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Sphingobacterium genus bacteria on wheat bran biochar pyrolyzed at 300, 500, and 700 °C. The removal efficiency indicated that the highest TPHs (total petroleum hydrocarbons) removal rate of BC500-4 B (biochar pyrolyzed at 500 °C with four kinds of petroleum bacteria) was 58.31%, which was higher than that of BC500 (36.91%) and 4 B (43.98%) used alone. The soil properties revealed that the application of biochar increased the content of organic matter, available phosphorus, and available potassium, but decreased pH and ammonium nitrogen content in soil. Bacterial community analysis suggested that the formation of dominant degrading community represented by Acinetobacter played key roles in TPHs removal. The removal rate of alkanes was similar to that of TPHs. Besides, biochar and immobilized material can also mediate greenhouse gas emission while removing petroleum, biochar used alone and immobilized all could improve CO2 emission, but decrease N2O emission and had no significant impact on CH4 emission. Furthermore, it was the first time to found the addition of Acinetobacter genus bacteria can accelerate the process of forming a dominant degrading community in wheat bran biochar consortium. This study focused on controlling greenhouse gas emission which provides a wider application of combining biochar and bacteria in petroleum soil remediation.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Álcalis , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Fibras na Dieta , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Hidrocarbonetos , Petróleo/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126092, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634465

RESUMO

In the downstream process, the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass can be improved by applying a biological pretreatment procedure using microorganisms to produce hydrolytic enzymes to modify the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose. In this study, various Bacillus strains (B. subtilis B.01162 and B.01212, B. coagulans B.01123 and B.01139, B. cereus B.00076 and B.01718, B. licheniformis B.01223 and B.01231) were evaluated for the degrading capacity of wheat bran in the submerged medium using enzymatic activities, reducing sugars and weight loss as indicators. The obtained results revealed that the B. subtilis B.01162, B. coagulans B.01123 and B. cereus B.00076 could be promising degraders for the wheat bran pretreatment. Besides, the application of their consortium (the combination of 2-3 Bacillus species) showed the positive effects on cellulose bioconversion compared with monocultures. Among them, the mixture of B. subtilis B.01162 and B. coagulans B.01123 increased significantly the cellulase, endo-glucanase, and xylanase enzyme activity resulting in accelerating the lignocellulose degradation. Our results served a very good base for the development of microbial consortium for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic raw materials.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Celulase , Biomassa , Fibras na Dieta , Hidrólise , Lignina
7.
Food Chem ; 371: 131065, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560336

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are a good source of flavanones. The present study aimed to assess the effect of food matrix elements [dietary fibres (DFs)] on the flavanone profile of grapefruit peel (GFP) and on the gut microbiota during in vitro digestion and simulated colonic fermentation. The contents of low-molecular-weight metabolites (dihydrocaffeic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid) were increased by pectin, konjac and chitosan in medium- and high-viscosity matrices. Compared with the GFP group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Clostridium leptum were significantly increased in medium-viscosity food matrices (konjac and chitosan) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the acetic and propionic acid contents were significantly elevated in the GFP + DF groups after 12 h of fermentation (p < 0.05). GFP flavanones were retained by DF, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potency composite (APC) index decreased during in vitro digestion. These findings indicate that medium-viscosity DFs (konjac and chitosan) could act as key food matrix elements for the retention of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi , Flavanonas , Microbiota , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fezes/química , Fermentação
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770068

RESUMO

The burden of pancreatic cancer varies greatly across countries, with the number of deaths, incident cases, and disability-adjusted life years more than doubling in recent years, and with high-income countries having the highest incidence and mortality rates. We conducted this systematic review with meta-analysis with the goal of summarizing the current evidence on dietary fiber intake and its role in reducing the risk of pancreatic cancer, given the importance of identifying risk factors. This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020. The structured literature search was conducted on PubMed/Medline and Scopus, combining free text words and medical subject headings. Our review contained 18 records at the end of the process. Our results show that dietary fiber intake reduces the risk of pancreatic cancer. When the analysis was differentiated according to the type of fiber considered, sub-grouped by gender (reduction of around 60% among women), and when case-control studies were conducted, the strength of the association increased. Clinicians and policymakers should improve interventions to raise the population's awareness regarding the consumption of high-fiber diets, both in practice and in terms of public health policy.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 105: 103722, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607692

RESUMO

Previous research indicates equine fecal inoculates produce comparable results to cecal fluid when used for in vitro procedures to analyze dry matter digestibility (DMD). Equine hindgut microbial communities represented in fecal samples have been shown to be affected by diet. The study's objective was to determine the effect of the donor diet on in vitro DMD when fecal donors were fed high starch, or high fiber diets. Six Quarter Horses were used in a crossover design to compare the effects of a grain versus forage diet on in vitro digestion of forages ranging from: CP 7.7 to 16.4 %DM, NDF 53 to 72 %DM. Feces from each horse were obtained on day 22 of each period and used to inoculate in vitro fermentation vessels in order to evaluate the effect of donor diet on the DMD, neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD), and acid detergent fiber digestibility (ADFD) of four forages. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS to evaluate digestibility differences in the diet by forage composition interaction. Fecal samples from horses on the grain diet promoted higher NDFD of forages with high NDF and low CP when CP and NDF were used as covariates (P = .04 and .03). There was a horse effect on DMD and NDFD (P ≤ .05). Findings suggest diet may influence the hindgut microbiome's ability to digest neutral detergent fiber and should be considered when selecting equine fecal samples for in vitro digestion procedures.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Fezes , Cavalos
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 500, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599144

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been speculated to modulate feeding behavior through multiple factors, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Evidence on this relationship in humans is however lacking. We aimed to explore if specific bacterial genera relate to eating behavior, diet, and SCFA in adults. Moreover, we tested whether eating-related microbiota relate to treatment success in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Anthropometrics, dietary fiber intake, eating behavior, 16S-rRNA-derived microbiota, and fecal and serum SCFA were correlated in young overweight adults (n = 27 (9 F), 21-36 years, BMI 25-31 kg/m2). Correlated genera were compared in RYGB (n = 23 (16 F), 41-70 years, BMI 25-62 kg/m2) and control patients (n = 17 (11 F), 26-69 years, BMI 25-48 kg/m2). In young adults, 7 bacteria genera, i.e., Alistipes, Blautia, Clostridiales cluster XVIII, Gemmiger, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus, correlated with healthier eating behavior, while 5 genera, i.e., Clostridiales cluster IV and XIVb, Collinsella, Fusicatenibacter, and Parabacteroides, correlated with unhealthier eating (all | r | > 0.4, FDR-corrected p < 0.05). Some of these genera including Parabacteroides related to fiber intake and SCFA, and to weight status and treatment response in overweight/obese patients. In this exploratory analysis, specific bacterial genera, particularly Parabacteroides, were associated with weight status and eating behavior in two small, independent and well-characterized cross-sectional samples. These preliminary findings suggest two groups of presumably beneficial and unfavorable genera that relate to eating behavior and weight status, and indicate that dietary fiber and SCFA metabolism may modify these relationships. Larger interventional studies are needed to distinguish correlation from causation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estudos Transversais , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 754-758, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622588

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of polystyrene (PS) and PS-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun materials on the adhesion ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis( P. gingivalis), a common periodontal pathogen. Methods: PS and PS-PVP electrospun materials were prepared with stainless steel needles in high-voltage electric field. The growth and adhesion of P. gingivalis on the surface of different materials were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The changes in the amount of P. gingivalis biofilm formed on the surface of different materials were measured according to viable colony forming units (CFU). The effect of surface charge of the different materials on the adhesion ability of P. gingivalis was determined through changing the charge properties on the surface of the electrospun materials. Results: SEM images showed that both PS and PS-PVP can be used to form electrospun fibers with a diameter of 0.2 µm. SEM images and CFU counts of the biofilm at 24 h and 48 h showed that there was a smaller amount of P. gingivalis biofilm on the surface of the two materials ( P<0.05). After treatment with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), the surface charge of the PS-PVP electrospun material changed from being negatively charged to being positively charged, and the amount of bacterial adhesion on the surface increased significantly in comparison to that of untreated PS and PS-PVP materials ( P<0.05). Conclusion: PS and PS-PVP electrospun materials can be used to reduce the adhesion ability of P. gingivalis on the surface of different materials, and this ability may be related to the surface charge properties of the materials.


Assuntos
Porphyromonas gingivalis , Povidona , Biofilmes , Fibras na Dieta , Poliestirenos , Povidona/farmacologia
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 506, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623524

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate diets containing monensin (MON) associated or not with virginiamycin (VM) or functional oil based on cashew nut shell and castor beans (FOcc) for beef cattle in feedlots on nutritional (intake and digestibility) and productive parameters. A total of 1410 non-castrated Nellore cattle were selected, with an average age of 18 months and with an initial mean body weight (BW) of 305 ± 41.52 kg. The diet showed a roughage to concentrate ratio of 23:77, with the supply of corn silage as a source of roughage. The following additive inclusions in the diet were evaluated: (1) MON: 27 mg MON/kg dry matter (DM); (2) MON + VM: 22 mg MON/kg DM + 19 mg VM/kg DM; and (3) MON + FOcc: 22 mg MON/kg DM + 500 mg FOcc/kg DM. Statistical analyses were obtained through a linear model using initial BW and days of feedlot as covariables and comparisons between treatments using mutually orthogonal linear contrasts with a 5% significance level. The association or not of MON with VM or FOcc does not affect any of the nutritional and productive parameters evaluated. Animals that receive diets with MON + VM have higher average daily gain and feed efficiency (FE) than those that receive MON + FOcc without showing differences in nutritional parameters. The supply of MON associated with VM or FOcc does not increase intake and productive performance and, consequently, efficiency of feedlot beef cattle. However, in the case of use associated with MON, the VM provides greater performance than FOcc without changing food intake.


Assuntos
Monensin , Virginiamicina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Monensin/farmacologia
13.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(3): 394-398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is an acute inflammatory process that affects individuals with diverticular disease. Given the sharp increase in the diagnostic rate of such a pathological process, there was also an increased interest in elucidating the possible causes related to the development of this clinical condition. Among the main factors investigated, diet excels, the object of study of this integrative literature review. METHODS: After searching the virtual health library and PubMed databases, five prospective cohort studies were selected that best answered the guiding question: "Is there a relationship between diet and the incidence of diverticulitis?". RESULTS: It was observed that the high intake of red meat and the low intake of dietary fiber were the most strongly associated dietary factors with the incidence of this inflammatory process. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is evident that choosing healthy eating habits can considerably reduce the incidence of diverticulitis and, consequently, potentially more serious complications directly related to it.


Assuntos
Diverticulite , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta , Diverticulite/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248931, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706026

RESUMO

Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Farinha , Antioxidantes/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Valor Nutritivo
15.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4865-4876, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642970

RESUMO

Olive pomace (OP) is the main by-product of olive oil extraction. After pit and skin removal, OP pulp has high concentrations of dietary fiber and phenolics with high antioxidant capacity. This study evaluated mice health benefits of drum-dried pitted OP pulp obtained after first and second oil extraction. Fresh OP was steam blanched, then pits and skins separated in a pulper/finisher, and pulp drum-dried and milled. OP was characterized by proximate analysis, total soluble phenolics (TSP), individual phenolics, and dietary fiber. Drum-dried pitted OP from first and second extraction was formulated at 10% and 20% in a high fat mice diet. Low fat (5%) and high fat (18%) control diets were also used for comparison. First extraction OP had higher TSP than OP from second extraction. Hydroxytyrosol was the main phenolic in OP. Mice weight gain was lower for the four OP diets compared to high and low-fat control diets. Fecal protein was high for all OP diets, indicating poor protein retention in mice, possibly by phenolics binding of protein and enzymes. Liver weight and adipose tissue were lower in mice consuming the four high fat OP diets compared to high fat control diet. Also, there was no effect on blood glucose by OP in diets. Mice gut microbiota analysis indicated that Actinobacteria decreased in the OP diets compared to the two control diets while Bacteroidetes increased, indicating a positive correlation with reduced body fat and weight. Drum-dried pitted OP is a novel agricultural by-product with its bioactive compounds having the potential to be incorporated in feeds and foods providing health benefits. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Drum-dried pitted olive pomace can be produced from first or second olive oil extraction byproducts to be used as a shelf-stable healthy food or feed supplement.


Assuntos
Olea , Animais , Antioxidantes , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Camundongos , Azeite de Oliva , Fenóis/análise
16.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684594

RESUMO

A high intake of dietary fibre has been associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases. This study aimed to review the current evidence on dietary fibre in relation to asthma, rhinitis and lung function impairment. Electronic databases were searched in June 2021 for studies on the association between dietary fibre and asthma, rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung function. Observational studies with cross-sectional, case-control or prospective designs were included. Studies on animals, case studies and intervention studies were excluded. The quality of the evidence from individual studies was evaluated using the RoB-NObs tool. The World Cancer Research Fund criteria were used to grade the strength of the evidence. Twenty studies were included in this systematic review, of which ten were cohort studies, eight cross-sectional and two case-control studies. Fibre intake during pregnancy or childhood was examined in three studies, while seventeen studies examined the intake during adulthood. There was probable evidence for an inverse association between dietary fibre and COPD and suggestive evidence for a positive association with lung function. However, the evidence regarding asthma and rhinitis was limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed on dietary fibre intake and asthma, rhinitis and lung function among adults and children.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Asma/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664661

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the enzyme activities of an enzymatic complex produced by Pleurotus ostreatus in different pH and the effects of adding increased application rates of this enzymatic complex on the fermentation profile, chemical composition, and in situ ruminal disappearance of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) at the onset of fermentation and 30 d after ensiling. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic complex was obtained through in vitro cultivation of P. ostreatus. In the first experiment, the activities of laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase, endo- and exo-glucanase, xylanase, and mannanase were determined at pH 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the second experiment, five application rates of enzymatic complex were tested in a randomized complete block design (0, 9, 18, 27, and 36 mg of lignocellulosic enzymes/kg of fresh whole-plant corn [WPC], corresponding to 0, 0.587, 1.156, 1.734, and 2.312 g of enzymatic complex/kg of fresh WPC, respectively). There were four replicates per treatment (vacuum-sealed bags) per opening time. Bags were opened 1, 2, 3, and 7 d after ensiling (onset of fermentation period) and 30 d after ensiling to evaluate the fermentation profile, chemical composition, and in situ dry matter and neutral fiber detergent disappearance of WPCS. Laccase had the greatest activity at pH 5 (P < 0.01), whereas manganese peroxidase and LiP had the greatest activity at pH 4 (P < 0.01; P < 0.01). There was no effect of the rate of application of enzymatic complex, at the onset of fermentation, on the fermentation profile (P > 0.21), and chemical composition (P > 0.36). The concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) over the ensiling time at the onset of fermentation, leading to a quadratic increase of lactic acid (P = 0.02) and a linear increase of acetic acid (P = 0.02) throughout fermentation. Consequently, pH quadratically decreased (P < 0.01). Lignin concentration linearly decreased (P = 0.04) with the enzymatic complex application rates at 30 d of storage; however, other nutrients and fermentation profiles did not change (P > 0.11) with the enzymatic complex application rates. Addition of lignocellulolytic enzymatic complex from P. ostreatus cultivation to WPC at ensiling decreased WPCS lignin concentration 30 d after ensiling; however, it was not sufficient to improve in situ disappearance of fiber and dry matter.


Assuntos
Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Carboidratos , Fibras na Dieta , Fermentação , Silagem/análise
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657148

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of dietary fiber solubility and lipid source on growth performance, visceral organ weights, gut histology, and gut microbiota composition of weaned pigs. A total of 280 nursery pigs [initial body weight (BW) = 6.84 kg] weaned at 21 d were housed in 40 pens (7 pigs/pen). The pigs were fed four diets (10 pens/diet) in a randomized complete block design in two phases: Phase 1 from 0 to 2 wk and Phase 2 from 2 to 5 wk. The diets were corn-soybean meal-based with either sugar beet pulp (SBP) or soybean hulls (SBH) as a fiber source and either soybean oil (SBO) or choice white grease (CWG) as a lipid source in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The BW and feed intake were determined by phase, whereas visceral organ weights, intestinal histology, and gut microbial composition were determined at the end of the trial. Dietary fiber solubility and lipid source did not interact (P > 0.05) on average daily feed intake and average daily gain across all phases. However, the gain to feed ratio (G:F) for CWG-containing diets was lower (P < 0.05) than that for SBO-containing diets for Phase 1. Also, G:F for SBP-containing diets was lower (P < 0.05) than that for SBH-containing diets for Phase 1 and for the entire study period. Pigs fed SBP-containing diets had greater (P < 0.05) stomach weight, and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) small and large intestine weights relative to BW than those fed SBH-containing diets. Duodenal villous height to crypt depth ratio for CWG-based diets tended to be greater (P = 0.09) than that for SBO-based diets. Fiber solubility and lipid source interacted (P < 0.05) on relative abundance of Bacteroides in the colon such that the relative abundance of the Bacteroides for CWG was greater (P < 0.05) than that for the SBO in SBP-based diet, but not in SBH-based diet. Relative abundance of Butyricicoccus in the colon for SBH-based diet was greater (P < 0.05) than that for SBP-based diet. In conclusion, inclusion of SBH instead of SBP in corn-soybean meal-based diets for weaned pigs can result in increased feed efficiency and relative abundance of Butyricicoccus in the colon, which is associated with improved gut health. Also, inclusion of SBO instead of CWG in the diets for weaned pigs can result in improved feed efficiency during Phase 1 feeding; however, the pigs may recover from the low feed efficiency induced by dietary inclusion of CWG instead of SBO after Phase 1 feeding.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Distribuição Aleatória , Solubilidade , Óleo de Soja , Suínos
19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684340

RESUMO

Dietary pattern (DP) and its relationship with disease biomarkers have received recognition in nutritional epidemiology investigations. However, DP relationships with adipokines (i.e., adiponectin and leptin) among breast cancer survivors remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed relationships between DP and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin concentration among breast cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study involved 128 breast cancer survivors who attended the oncology outpatient clinic at two main government hospitals in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The serum concentration of HMW adiponectin and leptin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. A reduced rank regression method was used to analyze DP. Relationships between DP with HMW adiponectin and leptin were examined using regression models. The findings show that with every 1-unit increase in the 'energy-dense, high-SFA, low-fiber' DP z-score, there was a reduction by 0.41 µg/mL in HMW adiponectin which was independent of age, BMI, education level, occupation status, cancer stage, and duration since diagnosis. A similar relationship with leptin concentration was not observed. In conclusion, the 'energy-dense, high-saturated fat and low-fiber' DP, which is characterized by high intake levels of sugar-sweetened drinks and fat-based spreads but low intake of fruits and vegetables, is an unhealthy dietary pattern and unfavorable for HMW adiponectin concentration, but not for leptin. These findings could serve as a basis in developing specific preventive strategies that are tailored to the growing population of breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Leptina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
20.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684388

RESUMO

Chronic constipation (CC) is one of the most common gastroenterological diagnoses in clinical practice. Treatment includes several steps, depending on the severity of symptoms. Lifestyle modifications and increased intake of fiber and water are suggested by most health professionals. Unfortunately, the recommendations in this regard are the most varied, often conflicting with each other and not always based on solid scientific arguments. This paper aims to clarify this topic by providing practical indications for the management of these patients in every day clinical practice. The literature available on this topic is scarce, and dietary studies have important methodological biases. However, fiber, mainly by binding water and acting as bulking agents and/or as prebiotics for the intestinal microbiota, and mineral water, especially if rich in magnesium and/or bicarbonate, are useful tools. An adequate, well-designed diet should be a cornerstone of any effective treatment for chronic constipation. High-quality studies on larger samples are mandatory to give scientific validity to the role of the food in CC therapy and to enable professionals to choose the best approach for their patients, combining nutritional and pharmacological agents.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Terapia Nutricional , Comportamento , Doença Crônica , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos
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