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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258048, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374689

RESUMO

The mosaic landscape composition of forest fragments located on high slopes, shallow soils hinder ecological interactions and the survival of plant species. This study aimed to show, in an environment with these characteristics, the effect of the environmental gradient relating the soil, slope, and vegetation of a fragment of the Montane Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. The forest structure was sampled in 12 continuous rectangular plots, with 30 X 20m, totaling 0.72ha. Soil samples were taken by drilling every 20m along the hydrographic divisor and opening of three trenches used as soil sampling sites for in situ determination of soil color, horizon, and nutrients. Horizons were classified as O/A/Cr in the altered rock with a marked presence of gravels, and the soil was classified as Litholic Neosol. The area has a steep slope, from 18.05% to 36.99%. Linear regression analysis indicated an opposite pattern for species richness in relation to slope and a positive relationship between slope and the number of standing dead individuals. Species richness was also positively related to the distance from forest edges. The evaluation evidenced the strong influence of slope and human activities in forest remnant as common to several high-altitude remnants, and small conservation actions can guarantee their maintenance.


Efeito da Inclinação na Estrutura de uma Floresta do Domínio Mata Atlântica no Sul do Brasil. A composição da paisagem em mosaico de fragmentos florestais localizados em encostas altas, solos rasos dificultam as interações ecológicas e a sobrevivência de espécies vegetais. Este estudo teve como objetivo mostrar em um ambiente com essas características o efeito do gradiente ambiental relacionando o solo, a declividade e a vegetação de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana. A estrutura da floresta foi amostrada em 12 parcelas retangulares contínuas, com 30X20m, totalizando 0,72ha. As amostras de solo foram coletadas por perfuração a cada 20m ao longo do divisor hidrográfico e abertura de três trincheiras usadas como locais de amostragem de solo para determinação in situ da cor do solo, horizonte e nutrientes. Os horizontes foram classificados como O/A/Cr na rocha alterada com presença marcante de cascalhos, e o solo foi classificado como Neossolo Litólico. A área apresenta declive acentuado, de 18,05% a 36,99%. A análise de regressão linear destacou o padrão oposto de riqueza de espécies em relação à inclinação e uma relação positiva entre a inclinação e o número de indivíduos mortos em pé. A riqueza de espécies também foi positivamente relacionada à distância das bordas da floresta. A avaliação evidenciou que a forte influência do declive e das atividades antrópicas no remanescente florestal são fatores comuns a diversos remanescentes de altitude, e pequenas ações de conservação podem garantir sua manutenção.


Assuntos
Solo , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Altitude , Brasil
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256425, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364525

RESUMO

Using inventory data, this study evaluates the species composition, growing stock volume (GSV), and biomass carbon (BMC) of the five major timber species in the sub-tropical, and temperate/sub-alpine regions of Pakistan. It was found that the stem density varies between 50 and 221 trees ha -1, with a mean of 142 trees ha-1 (13.68 million trees for entire forest area). Among the species, Pinus wallichiana showed a high species composition (27.80%) followed by Picea smithiana (24.64%). The GSV was found in the range of 67.81 to 425.94 m3 ha-1, with a total GSV value of 20.68 million m3 for the entire region. Similarly, The BMC ranged from 27.04 to 169.86 Mg ha-1, with a mean BMC value of 86.80 Mg ha-1. The total amount of stored carbon was found at 8.69 million tons for a total of 95842 ha of commercially managed forest. Furthermore, the correlation analysis between the basal area (BA) and GSV and BMC showed that BA is the best predictor of GSV and BMC. The findings provide insights to the policy makers and forest managers regarding the sustainable commercial forest management as well as forest carbon management in the recent global carbon management for climate change mitigation.


Usando dados de inventário, este estudo avaliou a composição de espécies, volume de estoque crescente (GSV) e carbono de biomassa (BMC) das cinco principais espécies madeireiras nas regiões subtropicais e temperadas/subalpinas do Paquistão. Constatou-se que a densidade do caule variou entre 50 e 221 árvores ha-1, com média de 142 árvores ha-1 (13,68 milhões de árvores para toda a área florestal). Entre as espécies, Pinus wallichiana apresentou alta composição de espécies (27,80%), seguida de Picea smithiana (24,64%). O GSV foi encontrado na faixa de 67,81 a 425,94 m3 ha-1, com um valor total de 20,68 milhões de m3 para toda a região. Da mesma forma, o BMC variou de 27,04 a 169,86 mg ha-1, com valor médio de 86,80 mg ha-1. A quantidade total de carbono armazenado foi de 8,69 milhões de toneladas para um total de 95.842 ha de floresta manejada comercialmente. Além disso, a análise de correlação entre área basal (BA), GSV e BMC mostrou que BA é o melhor preditor de GSV e BMC. As descobertas fornecem insights para os formuladores de políticas e gestores florestais sobre o manejo florestal comercial sustentável, bem como o manejo florestal de carbono no recente gerenciamento global de carbono para a mitigação das mudanças climáticas.


Assuntos
Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carbono , Florestas , Biomassa
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509

RESUMO

This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.


Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Gastroenteropatias , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256160, 2024. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360203

RESUMO

Riverine forests are unique and highly significant ecosystems that are globally important for diverse and threatened avian species. Apart from being a cradle of life, it also serves as a gene pool that harbors a variety of flora and fauna species (repeated below). Despite the fact, this fragile ecosystem harbored avian assemblages; it is now disappearing daily as a result of human activity. Determining habitat productivity using bird species is critical for conservation and better management in the future. Multiple surveys were conducted over a 15-month period, from January to March 2019, using the distance sampling point count method. A total of 250 point count stations were fixed systematically at 300 m intervals. In total, 9929 bird individuals were recorded, representing 57 species and 34 families. Out of 57 bird species, two were vulnerable, one was data deficient, one was nearly threatened, and the remaining 53 species were of least concern. The Eurasian Collard Dove - Streptopelia decaocto (14.641 ± 2.532/ha), White-eared Bulbul - Pycnonotus leucotis (13.398 ± 4.342/ha) and Common Babbler - Turdoides caudata (10.244 ± 2.345/ha) were the three first plenteous species having higher densities. However, the densities of three species, i.e., Lesser Whitethroat - Sylvia curruca, Gray Heron - Ardea cinerea and Pallas Fish Eagle - Haliaeetus leucoryphus, were not analyzed due to the small sample size. The findings of diversity indices revealed that riverine forest has harbored the diverse avian species that are uniformly dispersed across the forest. Moreover, recording the ten foraging guilds indicated that riverine forest is rich in food resources. In addition, the floristic structure importance value index results indicated that riverine forest is diverse and rich in flora, i.e. trees, shrubs, weeds and grass, making it an attractive and productive habitat for bird species.


As florestas ribeirinhas são ecossistemas únicos e altamente significativos que são globalmente importantes para diversas espécies de aves ameaçadas de extinção. Além de serem o berço da vida, também servem como um conjunto genético que abriga uma variedade de espécies da flora e da fauna. Apesar disso, esse frágil ecossistema abrigava um conjunto de aves, mas agora está desaparecendo diariamente como resultado da atividade humana. Determinar a produtividade do hábitat usando espécies de pássaros é fundamental para a conservação e melhor gestão no futuro. Vários levantamentos foram realizados ao longo de um período de 15 meses, de janeiro de 2018 a março de 2019, por meio do método de contagem de pontos de amostragem de distância. Foram fixadas sistematicamente 250 estações de contagem de pontos em intervalos de 300 m. No total, foram registrados 9.929 indivíduos de aves, representando 57 espécies e 34 famílias. Das 57 espécies de aves, duas eram vulneráveis, uma tinha dados insuficientes, uma estava quase ameaçada e as 53 espécies restantes eram as menos preocupantes. O: Pomba de colar euroasiática - Streptopelia decaocto (14.641 ± 2.532/ha), o Bulbul de orelha branca - Pycnonotus leucotis (13.398 ± 4.342/ha) e Tagarela comum - Turdoides caudata (10.244 ± 2.345/ha) foram as três primeiras espécies abundantes com maiores densidades. No entanto, as densidades de três espécies, Papa-amoras-cinzento (Sylvia curruca), Garça-real-europeia (Ardea cinerea) e Águia-pescadora de Pallas (Haliaeetus leucoryphus), não foram analisadas por causa do pequeno tamanho da amostra. Os resultados dos índices de diversidade revelaram que a floresta ribeirinha abrigou diversas espécies de aves que estão uniformemente dispersas pela floresta. Além disso, o registro das dez guildas de forrageamento indicou que a floresta ribeirinha é rica em recursos alimentares. Além disso, os resultados do índice de valor de importância da estrutura florística indicaram que a floresta ribeirinha é variada e rica em flora, ou seja, árvores, arbustos, ervas daninhas e grama, tornando-a um hábitat atraente e produtivo para espécies de aves.


Assuntos
Aves , Florestas , Ecossistema , Patrimônio Genético
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256565, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360220

RESUMO

Liupan Mountains are an important region in China in the context of forest cover and vegetation due to huge afforestation and plantation practices, which brought changes in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries are rarely been understood. The study aims to explore the distribution of soil nutrients at 1-m soil depth in the plantation forest region. The soil samples at five depth increments (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 cm) were collected and analyzed for different soil physio-chemical characteristics. The results showed a significant variation in soil bulk density (BD), soil porosity, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and electric conductivity (EC) values. More soil BD (1.41 g cm-3) and pH (6.97) were noticed in the deep soil layer (80-100 cm), while the highest values of porosity (60.6%), EC (0.09 mS cm-1), and CEC (32.9 c mol kg-1) were reflected in the uppermost soil layer (0-20 cm). Similarly, the highest contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP), total nitrogen (TN), and available potassium (AK) were calculated in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm). With increasing soil depth increment a decreasing trend in the SOC and other nutrient concentration were found, whereas the soil total potassium (TK) produced a negative correlation with soil layer depth. The entire results produced the distribution of SOCs and TNs (stocks) at various soil depths in forestland patterns were 0→20cm > 20→40cm > 40→60cm ≥ 60→80cm ≥ 80→100 cm. Furthermore, the stoichiometric ratios of C, N, and P, the C/P, and N/P ratios showed maximum values (66.49 and 5.46) in 0-20 cm and lowest values (23.78 and 1.91) in 80-100 cm soil layer depth. Though the C/N ratio was statistically similar across the whole soil profile (0-100 cm). These results highlighted that the soil depth increments might largely be attributed to fluctuations in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries. Further study is needed to draw more conclusions on nutrient dynamics, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometry in these forests.


As montanhas de Liupan são uma região importante na China no contexto de cobertura florestal e vegetação devido às enormes práticas de florestamento e plantação, que trouxeram mudanças nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, e estoques e estequiometrias do solo raramente são compreendidos. O estudo visa explorar a distribuição de nutrientes do solo a 1 m de profundidade do solo na região da floresta plantada. As amostras de solo em cinco incrementos de profundidade (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 e 80-100 cm) foram coletadas e analisadas para diferentes características físico-químicas do solo. Os resultados mostraram uma variação significativa nos valores de densidade do solo (BD), porosidade do solo, pH, capacidade de troca catiônica (CEC) e condutividade elétrica (CE). Mais DB do solo (1,41 g cm-3) e pH (6,97) do solo foram observados na camada profunda do solo (80-100 cm), enquanto os maiores valores de porosidade (60,6%), CE (0,09 mS cm-1) e CEC (32,9 c mol kg-1) foram refletidos na camada superior do solo (0-20 cm). Da mesma forma, os maiores teores de carbono orgânico do solo (SOC), fósforo total (TP), fósforo disponível (AP), nitrogênio total (TN) e potássio disponível (AK) foram calculados na camada superficial do solo (0-20 cm). Com o aumento do incremento da profundidade do solo, uma tendência decrescente no SOC e na concentração de outros nutrientes foi encontrada, enquanto o potássio total do solo (TK) produziu uma correlação negativa com a profundidade da camada do solo. Todos os resultados produziram a distribuição de SOCs e TNs (estoques) em várias profundidades de solo em padrões de floresta 0 → 20cm> 20 → 40cm> 40 → 60cm ≥ 60 → 80cm ≥ 80 → 100 cm. Além disso, as relações estequiométricas de C, N e P, as relações C / P e N / P, apresentaram valores máximos (66,49 e 5,46) em 0-20 cm, e valores mais baixos (23,78 e 1,91) em solo de 80-100 cm profundidade da camada. Embora a relação C / N fosse estatisticamente semelhante em todo o perfil do solo (0-100 cm). Esses resultados destacaram que os incrementos de profundidade do solo podem ser amplamente atribuídos a flutuações nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, estoques e estequiometrias do solo. Mais estudos são necessários para tirar conclusões adicionais sobre a dinâmica dos nutrientes, estoques de solo e estequiometria do solo nessas florestas.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Análise do Solo , Florestas , China
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMO

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Biodiversidade , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Florestas , Ecossistema
7.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116619, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343397

RESUMO

Integrative forest management approaches, aiming to combine the provision of multiple forest ecosystem services in the same forest area, are popular forest management concepts in Europe. Their understanding and application varies, however, across the continent. This paper looks at one dimension of integrative forest management approaches in particular - the integration of nature conservation measures into forest management; focusing on its understanding and application, as well as current and future social, technological, ecological, economic and political factors enabling or hampering this integration. Drawing on 42 qualitative in-depth interviews with national experts and forest practitioners, our study provides insights into the integration of nature conservation measures into forest management systems aimed at wood production and the provision of other forest ecosystem services under various conditions. Across the investigated countries, the main factors perceived to facilitate this integration are the personal motivations and knowledge of forest managers and their long-term economic thinking related to the resilience of the forest in the face of climate and societal change. In turn, the main factors perceived as hampering the integration are current wood-market demands, and a lack of (public) financial incentives. Public pressure is also perceived as an important influencing factor, which can both impede or support integration. Other ambiguous factors include societal knowledge and related knowledge gaps, relationships between local stakeholders, and the legal framework in which forest management operates. The study concludes with suggestions of how to enhance the uptake of the integration of nature conservation measures into forest management in Europe.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Madeira , Europa (Continente)
8.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106734, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384991

RESUMO

Tabanidae is one of the most diverse families of hematophagous dipterans. Tabanids, in general, are mechanical vectors of some pathogens. Given the vector importance and the lack of knowledge of the tabanid fauna in horses in Amazon Forest fragments of the state of Rondônia, this work aimed to determine the season that the different species of horse flies prefer to carryout hematophagy on horses and verify whether the horse fly community remains the same throughout the year. The sampling areas for tabanid captures were in the municipality of Monte Negro, Western Amazon, Brazil. Four new occurrences were recorded for the state of Rondônia: Stenotabanus albilinearis, Tabanus fuscofasciatus, T. macquarti and T. restrepoensis, which increases the number of species for the state to 109. The horse flies were most frequently collected on the hind leg (43.15%) and front leg (31.11%), followed by the belly (7.41%) and the ear (5.18%). In the other anatomical regions, the collection frequency was 13.15% of the remaining individuals.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Alimentar
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158608, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089028

RESUMO

Urban green space (UGS) is a complex and highly dynamic interface between people and nature. The existing methods of quantifying and evaluating UGS are mainly implemented on the surface features at a landscape scale, and most of them are insufficient to thoroughly reflect the spatial-temporal relationships, especially the internal characteristics changes at a small scale and the neighborhood spatial relationship of UGS. This paper thus proposes a method to evaluate the internal dynamics and neighborhood heterogeneity of different types of UGS in Leipzig using the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) index. We choose GLCM variance, contrast, and entropy to analyze five main types of UGS through a holistic description of their vegetation growth, spatial heterogeneity, and internal orderliness. The results show that different types of UGS have distinct characteristics due to the changes of surrounding buildings and the distance to the built-up area. Within a one-year period, seasonal changes in UGS far away from built-up areas are more obvious. As for the larger and dense urban forests, they have the lowest spatial heterogeneity and internal order. On the contrary, the garden areas present the highest heterogeneity. In this study, the GLCM index depicts the seasonal alternation of UGS on the temporal scale and shows the spatial form of each UGS, being in line with local urban planning contexts. The correlation analysis of indices also proves that each type of UGS has its distinct temporal and spatial characteristics. The GLCM is valid in assessing the internal characteristics and relationships of various UGS at the neighborhood scales, and using the methodology developed in our study, more studies and field experiments could be fulfilled to investigate the assessment accuracy of our GLCM index approach and to further enhance the scientific understanding on the internal features and ecological functions of UGS.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Humanos , Planejamento de Cidades , Florestas , Cidades
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158708, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099949

RESUMO

Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition in the bituminous sands region of northern Alberta, Canada is localized but expected to increase over time. Here we seek to determine the effects of above canopy N deposition on understorey vascular plants in a jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stand in a five-year experimental study. Aqueous N (ammonium nitrate) was applied four times annually (May through October) via helicopter above the canopy between 2011 and 2015 across a narrow but environmentally relevant N deposition gradient (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Changes in vascular plant species richness, diversity and total vascular cover were best explained by throughfall water flux, but the positive responses to precipitation decreased with increasing N application. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Maianthemum canadense showed positive cover increases in wet years; however, the positive cover expansion at ≥5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 treatments was suppressed relative to controls. Total cover expansion was muted in low precipitation years in treatments ≥10 kg N ha-1 yr-1. In contrast, Vaccinium vitis-idaea cover changes ≥10 kg N ha-1 yr-1 were consistently negative. There were no differences in soil net N mineralization rates, plant foliar N or NO3- leaching among treatments. We conjecture the extensive moss/lichen layer of the forest floor that accumulates most of incoming N in throughfall allows them to outcompete vascular plants for water during higher precipitation years, effectively reducing vascular cover expansion relative to controls. This work suggests the response of vascular plants in xeric jack pine ecosystems may interact with climate and these interactions should be considered in risk assessment studies.


Assuntos
Pinus , Nitrogênio/análise , Ecossistema , Alberta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Solo , Água , Árvores
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158809, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116643

RESUMO

Leachate from decaying root and leaf litter plays crucial roles in soil biogeochemical processes in forest ecosystems. Unlike for leaf litter, however, the chemical composition and microbial community of root litter leachate are poorly understood. We hypothesized that both leachate nitrogen (N) composition and microbial communities differ between plant organs and decomposition stages and that leachate composition affects microbial community composition. We conducted a 2.5-year laboratory incubation using root and leaf substrate from Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa. We monitored the N forms released and used metabarcoding to characterize the microbial communities. Leachate N accounted for 40 % and 30 % of net N losses from C. japonica and C. obtusa roots, respectively; the remainder was probably lost in gaseous forms. In contrast, leaves absorbed N during the incubation regardless of tree species. The predominant N form in root leachate was nitrate (NO3-); cumulative NO3- quantity was 22.6 and 25.5 times greater in root than in leaf leachate for C. japonica and C. obtusa, respectively. A nitrifying bacterium was selected as the indicator taxon in root substrates, whereas many families of N-fixing bacteria were selected in leaf substrates. At the end of the incubation period, bacterial taxonomic diversity was high in both organs from both tree species, ranging from 177 to 339 taxa and increasing with time. However, fungal diversity was low for both organs (72 to 155 taxa). Shifts in bacterial community structure were related to NO3- concentration and leachate pH, whereas shifts in fungal community structure were related to leachate pH. These results suggest that the contrasting N dynamics of root and leaf substrates are strongly affected by the characteristics of and the microbes recruited by their leachates. Understanding organ-specific litter N dynamics is indispensable for predicting N cycling for optimal management of forest ecosystems in a changing world.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Ecossistema , Árvores , Folhas de Planta/química , Florestas , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158605, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116650

RESUMO

Tree rings form the backbone of high-resolution palaeoclimatology and represent one of the most frequently used proxy to reconstruct climate variability of the Common Era. In the European Alps, reconstructions were often based on tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) series, with a focus on European larch. By contrast, only a very limited number of dendroclimatic studies exists for long-lived, multi-centennial Pinus cembra, despite the widespread occurrence of the species at treeline sites across the European Alps. This lack of reconstructions can be ascribed to the difficulties encountered in past studies in extracting a robust climate signal from TRW and MXD chronologies. In this study, we tested various wood anatomical parameters from P. cembra as proxies for the reconstruction of past air temperatures. To this end, we measured anatomical cell parameters and TRW of old-growth trees from the God da Tamangur forest stand, known for being the highest pure, and continuous P. cembra forest in Europe. We demonstrate that several wood anatomical parameters allow robust reconstruction of past temperature variability at annual to multidecadal timescales. Best results are obtained with maximum latewood radial cell wall thickness (CWTrad) measured at 40 µm radial band width. Over the 1920-2017 period, the CWTrad chronology explains 62 % and >80 % of interannual and decadal variability of air temperatures during a time window corresponding roughly with the growing season. These values exceed those found in past work on P. cembra and even exceed the values reported for MXD chronologies built with L. decidua and hitherto considered the gold standard for dendroclimatic reconstructions in the European Alps. The wood anatomical analysis of P. cembra records therefore unveils a dormant potential and opens new avenues for a species that has been considered unsuitable for climate reconstructions so far.


Assuntos
Larix , Pinus , Clima , Madeira/anatomia & histologia , Florestas
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158800, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116665

RESUMO

Fine root litter represents an important carbon input to soils, but the effect of global warming on fine root turnover (FRT) is hardly explored in forest ecosystems. Understanding tree fine roots' response to warming is crucial for predicting soil carbon dynamics and the functioning of forests as a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). We studied fine root production (FRP) with ingrowth cores and used radiocarbon signatures of first-order, second- to third-order, and bulk fine roots to estimate fine root turnover times after 8 and 14 years of soil warming (+4 °C) in a temperate forest. Fine root turnover times of the individual root fractions were estimated with a one-pool model. Soil warming strongly increased fine root production by up to 128 % within one year, but after two years, the production was less pronounced (+35 %). The first-year production was likely very high due to the rapid exploitation of the root-free ingrowth cores. The radiocarbon signatures of fine roots were overall variable among treatments and plots. Soil warming tended to decrease fine root turnover times of all the measured root fractions after 8 and 14 years of warming, and there was a tendency for trees to use older carbon reserves for fine root production in warmed plots. Furthermore, soil warming increased fine root turnover from 50 to 106 g C m-2 yr-1 (based on two different approaches). Our findings suggest that future climate warming may increase carbon input into soils by enhancing fine root turnover. If this increase may partly offset carbon losses by increased mineralization of soil organic matter in temperate forest soils is still unclear and should guide future research.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Florestas , Árvores , Aquecimento Global , Dióxido de Carbono , Raízes de Plantas , Biomassa
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158863, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126709

RESUMO

Shrimp farming is blooming worldwide, posing a severe threat to mangroves and its multiple goods and ecosystem services. Several studies reported the impacts of aquaculture on mangrove biotic communities, including microbiomes. However, little is known about how mangrove soil microbiomes would change in response to mangrove forest recolonization. Using genome-resolved metagenomics, we compared the soil microbiome of mangrove forests (both with and without the direct influence of shrimp farming effluents) with active shrimp farms and mangroves under a recolonization process. We found that the structure and composition of active shrimp farms microbial communities differ from the control mangrove forests, mangroves under the impact of the shrimp farming effluents, and mangroves under recolonization. Shrimp farming ponds microbiomes have lower microbial diversity and are dominated by halophilic microorganisms, presenting high abundance of multiple antibiotic resistance genes. On the other hand, control mangrove forests, impacted mangroves (exposed to the shrimp farming effluents), and recolonization ponds were more diverse, with a higher abundance of genes related to carbon mobilization. Our data also indicated that the microbiome is recovering in the mangrove recolonization ponds, performing vital metabolic functions and functionally resembling microbiomes found in those soils of neighboring control mangrove forests. Despite highlighting the damage caused by the habitat changes in mangrove soil microbiome community and functioning, our study sheds light on these systems incredible recovery capacity. Our study shows the importance of natural mangrove forest recovery, enhancing ecosystem services by the soil microbial communities even in a very early development stage of mangrove forest, thus encouraging mangrove conservation and restoration efforts worldwide.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiota , Animais , Lagoas , Florestas , Áreas Alagadas , Solo/química , Crustáceos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158940, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152856

RESUMO

The land use and land cover change (LUCC) associated with climate change and human activities is supposed to exert a significant effect on ecosystem functions in arid inland regions. However, the role of LUCC in shaping the spatio-temporal patterns of ecosystem services and ecological security remain unclear, especially under different future LUCC scenarios. Here, we evaluated dynamic changes of ecosystem services and ecological security pattern (ESP) in the Hexi Regions based on LUCC and other environment variables by integrating morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA), entropy weight method and circuit theory. Our result showed that the LUCC was generally stable from 1980 to 2050. Compare to 2020, the land conversion under natural growth (NG), ecological protection (EP) and urban development (UD) scenarios in 2050 has changed by 10.30 %, 10.10 %, and 10.31 %, respectively. The forest, medium-cover grassland and water increased in the EP scenario, and construction land and cropland greatly expanded in the other two scenarios. Ecosystem services grew larger in the EP scenario by 2050 in comparison with the NG and UD scenarios. The ESP in the Hexi Regions has obvious spatial differences during 1980-2050. The larger ecological sources and less resistance corridors were mainly distributed in the central and eastern of the Hexi Regions with high ecosystem services. Conversely, fragmented ecological sources and larger resistance corridors were mostly located in the western regions blocked by sandy land, bare land or mountains. Compared to 2020, the area of ecological sources and pinch points under the EP scenario in 2050 increased by 4.10 × 103 km2 and 0.31 × 103 km2, respectively. The number of ecological corridors reduced while the length and resistance increased apart from the EP scenario. Our results highlighted the importance of ecological protection in shaping the LUCC, which further enhances the integrity of ecosystem and ecological security.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Florestas , China , Mudança Climática
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 159044, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174695

RESUMO

Climate change worsening due to global warming and progressive abandonment in rural areas mean that wildfires are increasing in extent and severity terms, and are one of the major disturbances in the Mediterranean Basin. To mitigate these disturbances, preventive management tools need to be used. Fire employment is being implemented, known as prescribed burnings, as forestry actions to change vegetation lines both vertically and horizontally to eliminate forest fuel load continuity. This study aimed to know the ecological effects of late prescribed burning treatments under mixed trees. Prescribed burns were carried out in October 2019 in the municipality of Ayna, Albacete (SE Spain). To assess the short-term (12-month) fire impact on soil, we measured soil respiration with a CO2 flow chamber and analyzed soil physico-chemical properties. We also used minidisc infiltrometers to analyze soil repellency and soil hydraulic conductivity over a 1-year monitoring period. In addition, we evaluated the effects on tree strata by performing chemical nature analyses of fallen needles in Pinus pinaster after prescribed burning. According to our initial hypotheses, the results did not show significant changes in any parameter evaluated during the study period. However, some variables were affected in the first 3 months, needlefall and in microbiological activity, such as variations in soil physico-chemical properties, which can be due to long dry seasons combined with prescribed burning. This study attempts to observe and make known the effects that low-intensity prescribed burning has on soil and needlefall, which are relevant for updating forest management tools.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Pinus , Solo/química , Florestas , Agricultura Florestal , Árvores
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1867): 20210088, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373914

RESUMO

Forest restoration has been proposed as a scalable nature-based solution to achieve global environmental and socio-economic outcomes and is central to many policy initiatives, such as the Bonn Challenge. Restored forests contain appreciable biodiversity, improve habitat connectivity and sequester carbon. Incentive mechanisms (e.g. payments for ecosystem services and allocation of management rights) have been a focus of forest restoration efforts for decades. Yet, there is still little understanding of their role in promoting restoration success. We conducted a systematic literature review to investigate how incentive mechanisms are used to promote forest restoration, outcomes, and the biophysical and socio-economic factors that influence implementation and program success. We found that socio-economic factors, such as governance, monitoring systems and the experience and beliefs of participants, dominate whether or not an incentive mechanism is successful. We found that approximately half of the studies report both positive ecological and socio-economic outcomes. However, reported adverse outcomes were more commonly socio-economic than ecological. Our results reveal that achieving forest restoration at a sufficient scale to meet international commitments will require stronger assessment and management of socio-economic factors that enable or constrain the success of incentive mechanisms. This article is part of the theme issue 'Understanding forest landscape restoration: reinforcing scientific foundations for the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration'.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Motivação , Humanos , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
18.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1867): 20210070, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374130

RESUMO

Effective restoration planning tools are needed to mitigate global carbon and biodiversity crises. Published spatial assessments of restoration potential are often at large scales or coarse resolutions inappropriate for local action. Using a Tanzanian case study, we introduce a systematic approach to inform landscape restoration planning, estimating spatial variation in cost-effectiveness, based on restoration method, logistics, biomass modelling and uncertainty mapping. We found potential for biomass recovery across 77.7% of a 53 000 km2 region, but with some natural spatial discontinuity in moist forest biomass, that was previously assigned to human causes. Most areas with biomass deficit (80.5%) were restorable through passive or assisted natural regeneration. However, cumulative biomass gains from planting outweighed initially high implementation costs meaning that, where applicable, this method yielded greater long-term returns on investment. Accounting for ecological, funding and other uncertainty, the top 25% consistently cost-effective sites were within protected areas and/or moderately degraded moist forest and savanna. Agro-ecological mosaics had high biomass deficit but little cost-effective restoration potential. Socio-economic research will be needed to inform action towards environmental and human development goals in these areas. Our results highlight value in long-term landscape restoration investments and separate treatment of savannas and forests. Furthermore, they contradict previously asserted low restoration potential in East Africa, emphasizing the importance of our regional approach for identifying restoration opportunities across the tropics. This article is part of the theme issue 'Understanding forest landscape restoration: reinforcing scientific foundations for the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration'.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Humanos , Biodiversidade , Florestas , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
19.
Ambio ; 52(1): 1-14, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849312

RESUMO

The link between nature and human wellbeing is well established. However, few studies go beyond considering the visual and auditory underpinnings of this relationship, even though engaging with nature is a multisensory experience. While research linking smell to wellbeing exists, it focuses predominantly on smells as a source of nuisance/offence. Smells clearly have a prominent influence, but a significant knowledge gap remains in the nexus of nature, smell, and wellbeing. Here, we examine how smells experienced in woodlands contribute to wellbeing across four seasons. We show that smells are associated with multiple wellbeing domains, both positively and negatively. They are linked to memories, and specific ecological characteristics and processes over space/time. By making the link between the spatiotemporal variability in biodiversity and wellbeing explicit, we unearth a new line of enquiry. Overall, the multisensory experience must be considered by researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and planners looking to improve wellbeing through nature.


Assuntos
Florestas , Felicidade , Olfato , Humanos , Biodiversidade
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 158955, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155034

RESUMO

The deforestation of tropical forests raises environmental concerns worldwide. Removing the pristine forest impacts the soil, consequently affecting the environmental services it provides. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to determine how the conversion of the tropical rainforest to pasture affects soil fertility across an extended range of soil heterogeneity, including different soil types. We sampled 13 sites, among forests, recent pastures (≤7-year-old), and old pastures (≥10-year-old), on Acrisols, Ferralsols, Plinthosols, and Luvisols, across a ± 800 km geographical range in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Soils were classified taxonomically, and their superficial layer's chemical and physical properties (0-10 cm) were analyzed. Furthermore, we tested the sensibility of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria to detect changes in these soil properties based on their ecological habitat. An inter-regional gradient of soil fertility was observed, and the sampling sites were clustered mostly by soil type and associated land use than by spatial distance. The Sum of bases, Ca + Mg, base saturation, Al saturation, and pH were consistently affected by land use, increasing after conversion to pasture, at different degrees and with a more pronounced effect on oxidic soils. The Sum of bases was the only property that increased significantly among the study sites (Radj = 0.860, p < 0.001), being able to detect the effect of anthropic land use on a larger coverage of soil types. Finally, the Actinobacteria:Proteobacteria ratio was also sensitive to the impact of forest-to-pasture conversion, with a higher ratio observed in pasture systems, and it was positively correlated with soil pH (rho = 0.469, p < 0.001). Our results consistently show that the forest-to-pasture conversion leads to strong alterations in the soil environment, with varying intensities depending on soil type.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Solo , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas
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