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1.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-6, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341802

RESUMO

Muitos são os problemas orgânicos ou psíquicos que surgem em indivíduos obesos. Diante desse mal-estar gerado pela obesidade, as angústias são relatadas com frequência por pacientes em discursos que giram em torno da alimentação e do corpo, carregados de frustrações que remetem a dietas fracassadas para dar conta da supervalorização de um corpo ideal na sociedade contemporânea. Nesse sentido, foi percebido nos relatos clínicos uma repetição, um ciclo vicioso que os pacientes têm dificuldade de interromper. Grande parte desses sujeitos relataram, nos atendimentos em grupo e individuais, que têm a comida como substituto de "algo", de um "vazio" que precisa ser preenchido, pois comem mesmo sem estarem com fome e com uma sensação de perda do controle sobre o ato. Por essa razão, após esse comportamento repetitivo, têm sentimentos de raiva, vergonha e culpa. Este artigo tem por objetivo investigar o mal-estar observado nas pessoas obesas atendidas individualmente na clínica particular e na instituição privada, bem como nos atendimentos realizados em grupo. Busca-se conhecimentos acerca da angústia em relação ao corpo obeso, com vistas a fomentar discussões embasadas pela orientação psicanalítica, utilizando durante os atendimentos a metodologia freudiana e a balintiana no atendimento de grupo.


Many are the organic or psychic problems that arise in obese individuals. Faced with this discomfort generated by obesity, anxieties are frequently reported by patients in discourses that revolve around diet and the body, loaded with frustrations that refer to failed diets to cope with the overvaluation of an ideal body in contemporary society. In this sense, it was perceived in clinical reports a repetition, a vicious cycle that patients have difficulty interrupting. Most of these subjects reported, in group and individual care, that they have food as a substitute for "something", a "void" that needs to be filled, because they eat even without being hungry and with a sense of loss of control over the act. For this reason, after this repetitive behavior, they have feelings of anger, shame and guilt. This article aims to investigate the discomfort observed in obese people treated individually in the private clinic and private institution, as well as in group care. Knowledge about anguish in relation to the obese body is sought, in order to foster discussions based on psychoanalytic orientation, using the Freudian and Balintian methodology during group care


Muchos son los problemas orgánicos o psíquicos que surgen en personas obesas. Frente a este malestar generado por la obesidad, los pacientes informan con frecuencia ansiedades en discursos que giran en torno a la dieta y el cuerpo, cargados de frustraciones que conducen a dietas fallidas para hacer frente a la sobrevaloración de un cuerpo ideal en la sociedad contemporánea. En este sentido, se percibió en los informes clínicos una repetición, un círculo vicioso que los pacientes tienen dificultades para interrumpir. La mayoría de estos sujetos informaron, en atención grupal e individual, que tienen comida como un sustituto de "algo", un "vacío" que necesita ser llenado, porque comen incluso sin tener hambre y con una sensación de pérdida de control sobre el acto Por esta razón, después de este comportamiento repetitivo, tienen sentimientos de ira, vergüenza y culpa. Este artículo tiene como objetivo investigar las molestias observadas en personas obesas tratadas individualmente en la clínica privada y la institución privada, así como en la atención grupal. Buscamos conocimiento sobre la angustia con respecto al cuerpo obeso, para fomentar discusiones basadas en la orientación psicoanalítica, utilizando durante la metodología freudiana y balintiana en la atención grupal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ansiedade , Bulimia , Fome , Dieta , Emoções , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Insatisfação Corporal , Obesidade
2.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fome , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Bahamas , Humanos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6691, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious health and socioeconomic impacts on people all over the world. It was expected that Africa would be the hardest hit; consequently, Nigeria and other African nations worked with non-government organisations to institute a framework for controlling the spread of the disease and the resultant economic woes. The measures, however, largely focused on urban centres, whereas the spread of the virus and the disease transcended imported urban cases to spread through the rural community. This study explored the experiences of traditional rulers, who are closest to rural people, in the fight against COVID-19. METHODS: A qualitative research design was adopted and data were collected from eight Nigerian traditional rulers through interviews. The collected data were coded inductively using NVivo v12 and were then analysed thematically. RESULTS: Findings showed that the traditional rulers adopted measures such as the use of town criers to raise awareness among rural people about COVID-19. Findings also revealed that the protection measures led to increased economic hardship for rural people in Nigeria. Doubt about the existence of the virus and widespread poverty were found to be the major hindrances in the fight against the pandemic. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that traditional rulers collaborate with the government to make free protective equipment available for poor rural people, and collaborate with youths and religious leaders to properly fight the 'infodemic' through continuous community education and awareness-raising.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , População Rural , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fome , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 21(6): 1196-1206, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652602

RESUMO

Human decisions can be reflexive or planned, being governed respectively by model-free and model-based learning systems. These two systems might differ in their responsiveness to our needs. Hunger drives us to specifically seek food rewards, but here we ask whether it might have more general effects on these two decision systems. On one hand, the model-based system is often considered flexible and context-sensitive, and might therefore be modulated by metabolic needs. On the other hand, the model-free system's primitive reinforcement mechanisms may have closer ties to biological drives. Here, we tested participants on a well-established two-stage sequential decision-making task that dissociates the contribution of model-based and model-free control. Hunger enhanced overall performance by increasing model-free control, without affecting model-based control. These results demonstrate a generalized effect of hunger on decision-making that enhances reliance on primitive reinforcement learning, which in some situations translates into adaptive benefits.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Fome , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa
7.
Soc Work Public Health ; 36(6): 732-748, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469264

RESUMO

Very low food security among children (VLFS-C), often referred to as child hunger, can profoundly hinder child development, family well-being, and community health. Food pantries are important community resources that routinely serve at-risk families. This study investigated the influence of various candidate risk factors for VLFS-C within a food pantry population to inform the development of the "Pantry Assessment Tool against Child Hunger (PATCH)." We collected standardized surveys among a representative sample of households with children accessing food pantry services in Oklahoma (n = 188). Weighted analyses revealed a large majority of households experienced child-level food insecurity (70.6%), with nearly half reporting low food security and nearly one-quarter reporting VLFS-C. We then used logistic regression to identify factors associated with VLFS-C, followed by chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) to assess if, and in what progression, significant risk factors predicted VLFS-C. In unadjusted models, annual household income <$15,000, non-urban residence, lack of health insurance, unstable housing, heavier food pantry reliance, fair or poor adult health, adult anxiety, and adult smoking to reduce hunger pangs were all positively associated with VLFS-C. Receipt of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and higher social support were protective against VLFS-C. However, in adjusted models, only receipt of WIC remained significant. CHAID analysis revealed that access to insurance best differentiated groups with and without VLFS-C. Informed by these analyses, the PATCH tool may be useful for the development of screening programs to identify and address potential root causes of VLFS-C in pantry settings.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fome , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1405271, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540991

RESUMO

Preoperative fasting causes significant perioperative discomfort in patients. Preoperative oral carbohydrate (POC) is an important element of the enhanced recovery after surgery protocol, but its effect on cirrhotic patients who tend to have abnormal gastric emptying remains unclarified. We investigated the influence of POC on gastric emptying and preprocedural well-being in cirrhotic patients. A prospective, randomized, controlled study of cirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices scheduled for elective therapeutic endoscopy under intravenous anesthesia was conducted. We enrolled 180 patients and divided them into three groups: those not supplemented with carbohydrates for 8 h before therapeutic endoscopy (control group) and those administered a carbohydrate beverage 2 h (2 h group) and 4 h (4 h group) before endoscopy. The residual gastric volume was quantified before anesthesia, gastric emptying was evaluated using gastric ultrasonography, and preprocedural well-being was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Preanesthesia gastric sonography scores were similar among the three groups. No patient had residual gastric volume > 1.5 ml/kg in the control and 4 h groups, but six patients (11%) had a residual gastric volume of >1.5 ml/kg in the 2 h group, hence were at a risk of regurgitation and aspiration. Moreover, VAS scores for six parameters (thirst, hunger, mouth dryness, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue) in the 2 h group and three parameters (thirst, hunger, and mouth dryness) in the 4 h group were significantly lower than those in the control group, suggesting a beneficial effect on cirrhotic patients' well-being. Preoperative gastric peristaltic and operation scores, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital expenses were not significantly different among the three groups. Our study indicated that avoiding preoperative fasting with oral carbohydrates administered 4 h before anesthesia can be achieved in cirrhotic patients. Further studies to assess whether POC can help improve postoperative outcomes in cirrhotic patients are needed.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Anestesia Geral , China , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Endoscopia/métodos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Humanos , Fome , Tempo de Internação , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: adequate protein intake is essential to humans and, since the global demand for protein-containing foods is increasing, identifying new high-quality protein sources is needed. In this study, we investigated the acute postprandial bioavailability of amino acids (AAs) from a krill protein hydrolysate compared to a soy and a whey protein isolate. METHODS: the study was a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial including ten healthy young males. On four non-consecutive days, volunteers consumed water or one of three protein-matched supplements: whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate or krill protein hydrolysate. Blood samples were collected prior to and until 180 min after consumption. Serum postprandial AA concentrations were determined using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Hunger and satiety were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS). RESULTS: whey and krill resulted in significantly higher AA concentrations compared to soy between 20-60 min and 20-40 min after consumption, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) analyses revealed that whey resulted in the highest postprandial serum concentrations of essential AAs (EAAs) and branched chain AAs (BCAAs), followed by krill and soy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: krill protein hydrolysate increases postprandial serum EAA and BCAA concentrations in a superior manner to soy protein isolate and thus might represent a promising future protein source in human nutrition.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Euphausiacea/química , Valor Nutritivo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Adulto , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Aminoácidos Essenciais/farmacocinética , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Digestão , Humanos , Fome , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Valores de Referência , Saciação , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nature ; 597(7875): 239-244, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408325

RESUMO

Social isolation and loneliness have potent effects on public health1-4. Research in social psychology suggests that compromised sleep quality is a key factor that links persistent loneliness to adverse health conditions5,6. Although experimental manipulations have been widely applied to studying the control of sleep and wakefulness in animal models, how normal sleep is perturbed by social isolation is unknown. Here we report that chronic, but not acute, social isolation reduces sleep in Drosophila. We use quantitative behavioural analysis and transcriptome profiling to differentiate between brain states associated with acute and chronic social isolation. Although the flies had uninterrupted access to food, chronic social isolation altered the expression of metabolic genes and induced a brain state that signals starvation. Chronically isolated animals exhibit sleep loss accompanied by overconsumption of food, which resonates with anecdotal findings of loneliness-associated hyperphagia in humans. Chronic social isolation reduces sleep and promotes feeding through neural activities in the peptidergic fan-shaped body columnar neurons of the fly. Artificial activation of these neurons causes misperception of acute social isolation as chronic social isolation and thereby results in sleep loss and increased feeding. These results present a mechanistic link between chronic social isolation, metabolism, and sleep, addressing a long-standing call for animal models focused on loneliness7.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Modelos Animais , Sono , Isolamento Social , Inanição/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Fome , Hiperfagia/genética , Solidão , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Inanição/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma
11.
Appetite ; 167: 105626, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389375

RESUMO

The early care and education (ECE) environment has the potential to affect both children and their families. Food insecurity in ECE and its management may be an important influence. Objectives of this mixed methods study were to (1) elicit prominent themes relating to teacher experiences with food insecurity (in the classroom) through qualitative interviews; (2) translate interview themes into survey items and analyze survey data to explore generalizability of the qualitative findings; and (3) provide preliminary data on properties of a new tool to study the influence of food insecurity in the ECE setting. An exploratory sequential mixed methods design (QUAL → quant) was used. Twenty-eight interviews about teacher experiences with food insecurity were followed by 781 surveys to assess generalizability of interview findings. Qualitative themes highlighted that ECE teachers are concerned about children's food insecurity in their classroom; ECE teachers have developed their own set of strategies to manage their concern; and teachers often struggle with what to do. Quantitative results demonstrated many teachers had the same concerns and used the strategies described in the interviews. Further, in exploratory analyses, ECE teachers with Food Insecurity scored significantly higher on all scales (e.g., Food Insecurity Concerns, Struggle with Addressing Food Security) in both adjusted and unadjusted analyses. ECE teachers with Food Acquisition Stress had higher scores on Strategies to Address Food Insecurity with Families in adjusted analyses.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fome , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Appetite ; 167: 105627, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Snacking among preschool aged children is nearly universal and has been associated with overconsumed nutrients, particularly solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). This research examined caregivers' schemas, or cognitive frameworks, for offering snacks to preschool-aged children. METHODS: A qualitative design utilizing card sort methods was employed. Participants were 59 Black, Hispanic, and White caregivers of children aged 3-5 years with low-income backgrounds. Caregivers sorted 63 cards with images of commonly consumed foods/beverages by preschool-aged children in three separate card sorts to characterize snacking occasions, purposes, and contexts. The mean SoFAS content (kcal/100 g) of foods/beverages was evaluated by snacking occasions (snacks vs. not-snacks), purposes, and contexts. RESULTS: Just under two-thirds (38/63 food cards) of foods/beverages were classified as snacks with moderate to high agreement. Snacks were offered for non-nutritive (e.g., requests, rewards) and nutritive (e.g., hunger/thirst) purposes in routine (e.g., home, school) and social contexts (e.g., with grandparents). Snacks offered for non-nutritive purposes and in social contexts were higher in SoFAS than those offered for nutritive reasons and in routine contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers of young children offered various types of foods/beverages as snacks, with higher SoFAS snacks given for non-nutritive purposes and in social contexts. Understanding of caregivers' schemas for offering snacks to young children may inform targets for obesity prevention and anticipatory guidance to promote the development of healthful eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Lanches , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Fome , Pobreza
13.
Appetite ; 167: 105661, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437924

RESUMO

The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is designed to measure 'usual' eating behaviour, with no time period attached, thus may not be suitable for assessing the effectiveness of short-term experimental studies. The aim of this study was to validate i) the CEBQ adapted to measure 'past week' rather than 'usual' eating behaviour, and ii) a computerized questionnaire assessing desire to eat core and non-core foods, against an objective measure of eating behaviour and food intake (eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) experiment). Children (n = 103) aged 8-12 years completed the desire to eat questionnaire followed by the EAH experiment while primary caregivers completed the adapted CEBQ. Results from the CEBQ showed that children with greater 'satiety responsiveness' (1-point higher) consumed less energy (-342 kJ; 95% CI -574, -110) whereas those with greater 'enjoyment of food' scale consumed more energy (380 kJ; 95% CI 124, 636) during the ad-libitum phase of the EAH experiment. Higher scores for slowness in eating (-705 kJ; 95% CI -1157, -254), emotional undereating (-590 kJ; 95% CI -1074, -106) and food fussiness (-629 kJ; 95% CI -1103, -155) were associated with lower total energy intake. Children who expressed greater desire to eat non-core foods consumed more energy in total (275 kJ; 95% CI 87, 463). Overall, this adapted CEBQ appears valid for measuring several short-term eating behaviours in children. The desire to eat questionnaire may be useful for identifying short-term susceptibility to overeating, however further investigation into how ratings of desire relate to the intake of highly palatable, energy dense foods is warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Fome , Saciação , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444671

RESUMO

In animals it has been demonstrated that Saccharomyces boulardii and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) decrease low-grade inflammation and that S. boulardii can also decrease adiposity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 60-day S. boulardii and SOD supplementation on circulating markers of inflammation, body composition, hunger sensation, pro/antioxidant ratio, hormonal, lipid profile, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, in obese adults (BMI 30-35 kg/m2). Twenty-five obese adults were randomly assigned to intervention (8/4 women/men, 57 ± 8 years) or Placebo (9/4 women/men, 50 ± 9 years). Intervention group showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of body weight, BMI, fat mass, insulin, HOMA Index and uric acid. Patients in intervention and control groups showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of GLP-1. Intervention group showed an increase (p < 0.05) of Vitamin D as well. In conclusion, the 60-day S. boulardii-SOD supplementation in obese subjects determined a significant weight loss with consequent decrease on fat mass, with preservation of fat free mass. The decrease of HOMA index and uric acid, produced additional benefits in obesity management. The observed increase in vitamin D levels in treated group requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Obesidade/terapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Saccharomyces boulardii , Superóxido Dismutase/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Placebos , Vitamina D/sangue , Perda de Peso
17.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 22(10): 590-591, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404935

Assuntos
Fome , Humanos
18.
Appetite ; 167: 105620, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352352

RESUMO

The term grazing is generally described as the repetitive and nonplanned consumption of small amounts of food, not in response to hunger/satiety sensations. The present study aims to identify and critically review studies examining the frequency of grazing in both clinical and community samples, as well as, to investigate its relationship with eating disorder psychopathology, Loss of Control eating (LOC), psychological impairment, and weight-related variables. This systematic review followed the PRISMA recommendations for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. A total of 138 articles were initially retrieved from the database search. In the end, 18 articles were considered for this systematic review. The results were separated in Grazing and Grazing-like behavior (picking and nibbling). Results of studies of grazing-like behaviors displays that, in these studies, the results are sometimes inconsistent and controversial. On the other hand, studies of Grazing behavior showed more consistent results. These results show that the use of different definitions across the literature makes it difficult to establish comparisons across studies. In this literature review, the studies selected used five different definitions of grazing and five different instruments to assess this eating behavior which reinforces the requirement for standardized definition and evaluation. More, the studies hereby revised suggested that LOC eating was considered in association with grazing, being significantly associated with higher levels of psychopathology and psychological impairment. In accordance, a growing body of research argues that LOC eating was a stronger predictor of eating disorder psychopathology than the amounts of food consumed. Furthermore, the results found by studies show an advance to literature with an accordance about LOC, supported by evidences in studies of this review.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Obesidade , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Fome , Psicopatologia
19.
Appetite ; 167: 105603, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to improve the understanding of inter- and intrapersonal processes implicated in emotional eating using a large community sample of parent-adolescent dyads. METHOD: Participants included 1823 parent and adolescent dyads who completed the National Cancer Institute's Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study. Parents and adolescents each completed measures assessing parents' feeding behaviors, and participants' own emotional functioning and eating behaviors. Actor-partner interdependence models examined dyadic associations among participants' reports of parents' regulatory feeding behaviors (allowing adolescents to eat for emotional comfort purposes, controlling adolescents' "junk" food/sugary drink intakes), emotion suppression, and emotional eating in the absence of hunger. RESULTS: Multiple within-person, cross-dyad member, and divergent parent versus adolescent dyadic effects were identified that differed based on the parental feeding behavior that parents and adolescents reported on. For example, adolescents' reports that their parents regulate their "junk" food/sugary drink intakes were associated with lower levels of their own emotion suppression and, in turn, lower levels of both their own and their parents' emotional eating, whereas parents' reports that they regulate their adolescents' "junk" food/sugary drink intakes were associated with higher levels of their own emotion suppression and emotional eating. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the complex interconnectivity among parental feeding behaviors, emotion dysregulation, and emotional eating within the parent-adolescent dyadic context, and support the use of preventive disordered eating interventions focused on enhancing healthy parent feeding behaviors and adaptive emotion regulation skills from a family-based perspective.


Assuntos
Fome , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Pais
20.
Appetite ; 167: 105610, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324909

RESUMO

The Reflective-Impulsive Dual Processes Model suggests that overeating occurs when the temptation to consume food overrides inhibitory control processes. However, how rewards interact with inhibitory control and their relation to children's weight status and food intake is not understood. Here, 7-to-11-year-old children (n = 66; 32 overweight/obese) completed two versions (baseline [i.e., non-reward incentivized/control] and reward incentivized [food, money, no reward]) of a Go/Nogo task. Intake of palatable foods in the absence of hunger (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger-EAH) was measured following a standardized meal. A drift diffusion model was used to characterize children's performance parameters on the Go/Nogo. On the baseline Go/Nogo, children with higher weight status responded more cautiously, but on reward trials for food/money children were more cautions and made more false alarms relative to the no reward condition. Energy intake during EAH positively correlated with FA errors for food and money vs. no reward, but sex moderated this effect such that FA positively associated with EAH in girls but not boys. Independent of sex, FA for money vs. no reward and food vs. money were both positively associated with energy consumed during EAH. These results suggest that the presence of food and money rewards impair inhibitory control processing, especially in children with higher weight status. Further, increased inhibitory control impairment in response to food rewards, specifically, may be a risk factor for disinhibited eating in girls. Though preliminary, results may be useful in the development of targeted treatments to help moderate excess consumption in children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Fome , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia , Refeições , Recompensa
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