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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 7, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and assess preoperative characteristics that may predict outcomes in keratoconus 1 year after accelerated transepithelial corneal cross-linking (ATE-CXL). METHODS: This prospective study included 93 eyes of 84 consecutive keratoconus patients with 1-year follow-up after ATE-CXL. Preoperative characteristics included corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber volume, radius of curvature, posterior elevation, central corneal thickness (CCT), thinnest corneal thickness, steepest meridian keratometry, flattest meridian keratometry, and the maximum keratometry (Kmax). Data were obtained preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The patient eyes were grouped into 3 subgroups according to CCT and Kmax values to observe the changes of keratoconus progression. RESULTS: All patients were successfully operated without complications at any follow-up time point. Mean changes of Kmax from baseline at 6 and 12 months were - 0.60 ± 2.21 D (P = 0.011) and - 0.36 ± 1.58 D (P = 0.030), respectively. Eyes with a thinner CCT and higher Kmax values exhibited a tendency for topographic flattening of ≥1.0 D (P = 0.003; P = 0.003). In the subgroup comparison, the Kmax values decreased significantly at 6 and 12 months after ATE-CXL in the group with CCT ≤ 450 µm (P = 0.018 and P = 0.045); the Kmax values of the group with Kmax > 65.0 D decreased significantly at 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: ATE-CXL is a safe and effective treatment for keratoconus patients. Patients with thinner CCT and higher Kmax values are more likely to benefit from ATE-CXL.


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Fotoquimioterapia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual
3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1864(1): 183812, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743950

RESUMO

Lipid-porphyrin conjugates are considered nowadays as promising building blocks for the conception of drug delivery systems with multifunctional properties such as photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), phototriggerable release, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging. For this aim, we have recently synthesized a new lipid-porphyrin conjugate named PhLSM. This was obtained by coupling pheophorbide-a (Pheo-a), a photosensitizer derived from chlorophyll-a, to egg lyso-sphingomyelin. The pure PhLSMs were able to self-assemble into vesicle-like structures that were however not stable and formed aggregates with undefined structures due to the mismatch between the length of the alkyl chain in sn-1 position and the adjacent porphyrin. Herein, stable PhLSMs lipid bilayers were achieved by mixing PhLSMs with cholesterol which exhibits a complementary packing parameter. The interfacial behavior as well as the fine structures of their equimolar mixture was studied at the air/buffer interface by the mean of Langmuir balance and x-ray reflectomerty (XRR) respectively. Our XRR analysis unraveled the monolayer thickening and the increase in the lateral ordering of PhLSM molecules. Interestingly, we could prepare stable vesicles with this mixture that encapsulate hydrophilic fluorescent probe. The light-triggered release kinetics and the photothermal conversion were studied. Moreover, the obtained vesicles were photo-triggerable and allowed the release of an encapsulated cargo in an ON-OFF fashion.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Porfirinas/química , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila/síntese química , Clorofila/química , Colesterol/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Luz , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/efeitos da radiação , Lipídeos/síntese química , Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/efeitos da radiação , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , Fosfolipídeos/síntese química , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Fotoquimioterapia/tendências , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Fototérmica/tendências , Porfirinas/síntese química , Porfirinas/efeitos da radiação , Porfirinas/uso terapêutico
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 79-84, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937213

RESUMO

Purpose: To monitor the changes in the ABCD grading system during a one-year follow-up after a corneal cross-linking (CXL) procedure. Methods: This prospective study included 30 eyes of 25 patients with keratoconus, who received the CXL treatment. The patients with a history of ocular trauma or surgery and other corneal pathology were excluded from the study. The patients were examined at the baseline visit and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after the CXL. All the patients underwent a standard CXL procedure with visual acuity and Scheimpflug tomography testing at each visit. The corneal parameters and ABCD grading were monitored throughout the follow-up period. Results: There were no significant changes of parameter A and anterior radius curvature (ARC) in the ABCD grading system. Parameters B and D showed progression postoperatively, with an improvement of parameter D on the final visit. Parameter C showed a statistically significant increase at all three post-CXL visits, but a constant gradual decrease in the value over time. Conclusion: The ABCD grading system can be very useful in monitoring the progression of keratoconus (KC), but it can also help in monitoring the efficacy of corneal cross-linking. The anterior surface parameters in the ABCD grading system did not show progression in the post-CXL period, and parameters C and D showed improvement and stability a year after the procedure.


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Fotoquimioterapia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 609: 353-363, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902672

RESUMO

Most carrier-based nano drug delivery systems (nano-DDSs) are subjected to complex preparation or purification processes, metabolic instability and potential systemic toxicity. To overcome these issues, it is urgent to develop a multifunctional carrier-free nano-DDS that can be fabricated by a simple approach for enhanced anticancer efficacy. In this work, the carrier-free supramolecular nanoprodrug (CF SNPD) based on lactose (Lac) functionalized dimeric camptothecin (CPT) was developed, in which Lac and CPT were conjugated by the aromatized thioacetal (ATA, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive bond). The obtained Lac-ATA-CPT2 prodrug and the photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) formed CF SNPD (denoted as Ce6@Lac-ATA-CPT2 NPs) in water by supramolecular self-assembly. The design of dimeric CPT endowed Ce6@Lac-ATA-CPT2 NPs with ultrahigh drug-loading capacity (up to 94%) and excellent stability. The Lac-functionalized CF SNPD displayed active specific targetability to HepG2 cells resulting from the carbohydrate-protein interactions. Furthermore, the fluorescence signal of Ce6 facilitated the precise tracking and localization of Ce6@Lac-ATA-CPT2 NPs within the cell. Meanwhile, the ROS generated by Ce6 not only cleaved ATA linker to trigger on-demand CPT release, but also exhibited a killing effect on tumor cells, enabling synergistic therapy via CPT-mediated chemotherapy (CT) and Ce6-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT). Therefore, the multifunctional CF SNPD may be one of the promising therapeutic options for liver cancer.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Fotoquimioterapia , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Lactose , Imagem Óptica , Água
6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 114-117, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937221

RESUMO

Purpose: To find the intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation changes before and after isotonic collagen cross-linking (CXL) in keratoconus patients. Methods: : Thirty-five eyes of 25 patients who underwent isotonic CXL were included. The cases included conventional CXL (n = 16), accelerated CXL (n = 7), contact lens-assisted CXL (CACXL) (n = 9), accelerated CACXL (n = 3). All underwent ocular biometry (IOL master), corneal topography (Orbscan II), and simulated keratometry (Orbscan II) preoperatively and 1-year post CXL. Change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), axial length (AL), simulated keratometry (Sim K), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and IOL power were analyzed in the overall data and then grouped based on flattening (Group A) and no flattening (Group B) of Sim K value post CXL procedure. Results: For the overall data, there was no significant change in IOL power (P = 0.05) at the end of 1 year, BCVA showed a significant increase (P < 0.01), and Sim K reading showed a statistically significant flattening (P = 0.001); ACD and AL showed insignificant change. In intergroup comparison, there was no statistically significant change in IOL power. However, in Group A, a significant change in BCVA and Sim K values was observed. In both groups (Group A and Group B), IOL power was found to be negatively correlated with AL and Sim K values. Conclusion: Isotonic CXL did not affect IOL power calculation at the end of 1 year. However, significant change in BCVA and sim K reading was noted.


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Lentes Intraoculares , Fotoquimioterapia , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Acuidade Visual
7.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 851-862, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371428

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor has achieved good results, but the treatment efficiency is not high due to the lack of effective photosensitizers and tumor hypoxia. In this study, iridium dioxide nanoparticles (IrO2 NPs) with excellent photothermal/photodynamic effects and catalase like activity were synthesized by a simple method. The combination of glucose oxidase (GOx) and IrO2 NPs is formed by hyaluronic acid (HA), which have the activities of glucose oxidase and catalase, can target tumor sites and form in situ amplifiers in tumor microenvironment (IrO2-GOx@HA NPs). Firstly, GOx convert the high levels of glucose in the tumor to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and then IrO2 NPs convert H2O2 to oxygen (O2), which can enhance the type II of PDT. IrO2 NPs also can be used as a thermosensitive agent for photothermal therapy (PTT). In cancer cells, IrO2-GOx@HA NPs-mediated amplifier enhances the effect of type II of PDT, aggravating the apoptosis of breast cancer (4T1) cells and cooperating with its own PTT to further improve the overall treatment effect. Under simulated hypoxic conditions of tumor tissue, it was found that IrO2-GOx@HA NPs treatment can effectively relieve hypoxia inside tumor tissue. In addition, the results in vivo further proved that, IrO2-GOx@HA NPs can enhance the role of II PDT and cooperate with PTT to treat breast cancer effectively. The results highlight the prospect of IrO2-GOx@HA NPs in controlling and regulating tumor hypoxia to overcome the limitations of current cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Irídio , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia Fototérmica , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 1-15, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500412

RESUMO

The intracellular O2-supply not only can relieve tumor hypoxia but also enhance the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this work, metallic Mo2C@N-carbon@PEG nanoparticles were constructed to reveal the near infrared (NIR)-photocatalytic O2 generation and promote photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O nanorods and urea were adopted as resources that were calcined to obtain Mo2C@N-carbon nanoparticles (20 nm). All samples displayed high NIR absorption as well as photothermal conversion efficiency of up to 52.7 % (Mo2C@N-Carbon-3@PEG). The density functional theory calculations demonstrated the metallic characteristic of Mo2C and that the consecutive interband/intraband charge-transition was responsible for the high NIR harvest and redox ability of electron-hole pairs, making the NIR-photocatalytic O2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In comparison with the pure Mo2C, the heterostructure displayed twice the performance due to the enhanced charge-segregation between Mo2C and N-carbon. Given the high X-ray absorption coefficient and photothermal ability, the nanocomposite could be used in novel computer tomography and photothermal imaging contrast. Furthermore, the novel biodegradation and metabolism behaviors of nanocomposites were investigated, which were reflected as elimination from the body (mouse) via feces and urine within 14 days. The as-synthesized Mo2C@N-Carbon@PEG nanocomposites integrated the dual-model imaging, intracellular O2-supply, and phototherapy into one nanoplatform, revealing its potential for anti-cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Animais , Carbono , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Molibdênio , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigênio , Fototerapia
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120357, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534771

RESUMO

This paper reports on the setting up and calibration of a portable NIR fluorimeter specifically developed for quantitative direct detection of the highly reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) chemical specie, of great importance in Photodynamic therapies. This quantification relies on the measurement of fluorescence emission of 1O2, which is peaked in the near-infrared (NIR) at λ=1270nm. In recent years, several nanostructures capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) when activated by penetrating radiation (X-rays, NIR light) have been developed to apply Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) to tumours in deep tissue, where visible light cannot penetrate. A bottleneck in the characterization of these nanostructures is the lack of a fast and reliable technique to quantitatively assess their performances in generating ROS, and in particular 1O2. For instance, the widely used PDT "Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green" kit suffers from self-activation under X-ray irradiation. To solve this difficulty, we propose here direct detection of 1O2 by spectroscopic means, using an apparatus developed by us around a recent thermoelectrically-cooled InGaAs single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD). The SPAD is coupled to a custom-made integrating sphere designed for use under irradiation with high-energy X-ray beams from clinical Radiotherapy sources. We determine the detection threshold for our apparatus, which turns to be ∼9·1081O2 in realistic experimental condition and for measurements extending to 1 min of integration. After calibrations on standard photosensitizers, we demonstrate the potentiality of this instrument characterizing some photosensitizing nanostructures developed by us.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Fotoquimioterapia , Raios Infravermelhos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Oxigênio Singlete
10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 442, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Keratoconus (KCN) is a common ectatic disorder of the cornea. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) is used as an effective option to slowdown the disease progression. Although CXL is considered a safe procedure, corneal endothelial damage, especially in corneal thickness of less than 400 µm, has been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old man known case of KCN was referred with complaints about blurred vision and discomfort of the right eye 3 days after performing CXL. The preoperative thinnest point was 461 µm. His presenting BCVA was CF at 1 m. Examination showed central corneal edema and stromal haziness. ASOCT demonstrated increased central corneal thickness and very deep CXL line. In the confocal scan, anterior stroma showed hyper-reflective lines without recognizable cells and nerves, the middle stroma showed rare active and edematous keratocytes and a hyper-reflective reticular pattern with elongated keratocytes and needle-like structures involving the posterior stroma indicated increased depth of CXL. To manage the patient, debridement of loosened epithelium was done. Non-preservative steroid 1% eye drop was prescribed frequently. The corneal edema was completely resolved during 2 months with no need for surgical procedure and BCVA of 20/30 in his right eye. CONCLUSION: The corneal thickness of more than 400 µm cannot guarantee the absence of corneal edema after corneal collagen cross-linking, which can pertain to several factors such as inadvertently using of higher energy as well as the incorrect observance of all guidelines, instructions, and other precautions, even by a trained surgeon.


Assuntos
Edema da Córnea , Fotoquimioterapia , Adulto , Colágeno , Edema da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Edema da Córnea/diagnóstico , Edema da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Substância Própria , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
ACS Nano ; 15(12): 20164-20180, 2021 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898184

RESUMO

Nanomaterials that combine multimodality imaging and therapeutic functions within a single nanoplatform have drawn extensive attention for molecular medicines and biological applications. Herein, we report a theranostic nanoplatform based on a relatively smaller (<20 nm) iron oxide loaded porphyrin-grafted lipid nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PGL NPs). The amphiphilic PGL easily self-assembled on the hydrophobic exterior surface of ultrasmall Fe3O4 NPs, resulting in a final ultrasmall Fe3O4@PGL NPs with diameter of ∼10 nm. The excellent self-assembling nature of the as-synthesized PGL NPs facilitated a higher loading of porphyrins, showed a negligible dark toxicity, and demonstrated an excellent photodynamic effect against HT-29 cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo experimental results further confirmed that Fe3O4@PGL NPs were ideally qualified for both the fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging guided nanoplatforms to track the biodistribution and therapeutic responses of NPs as well as to simultaneously trigger the generation of highly cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) necessary for excellent photodynamic therapy (PDT). After recording convincing therapeutic responses, we further evaluated the ability of Fe3O4@PGL NPs/Fe3O4@Lipid NPs for ferroptosis therapy (FT) via tumor microenvironment (TME) modulation for improved anticancer activity. We hypothesized that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) could significantly improve the efficacy of FT by accelerating the Fenton reaction in vitro. In our results, the Fe ions released in vitro directly contributed to the Fenton reaction, whereas the presence of RAW 264.7 macrophages further accelerated the ROS generation as observed by the fluorescence imaging. The significant increase in the ROS during the coincubation of NPs, endocytosed by HT-29 cells and RAW264.7 cells, further induced increased cellular toxicity of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Porfirinas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Compostos Férricos , Humanos , Lipossomos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Porfirinas/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Tecidual , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(11): 2125-2141, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906274

RESUMO

Recently, it was demonstrated that doxorubicin (Dox.HCl), a chemotherapeutic agent, could be photoactivated by Cerenkov radiation (CR). The objective of the present work was to develop a multimodal chemotherapy-radiotherapy-photodynamic therapeutic system based on reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) loaded with Dox.HCl and 177Lu-DOTA. 177Lu acts as a therapeutic radionuclide and CR source. The system can be visualized by nuclear imaging. Fluorescence microscopy showed that rHDL-Dox specifically recognized cancer cells (T47D) that are positive for SR-B1 receptors. Encapsulated Dox.HCl was released into the cells and produced reactive oxygen species when irradiated with a 450-nm laser (photodynamic effect). The same effect occurred when Dox.HCl was irradiated by 177Lu CR. Through in vitro experiments, it was confirmed that the addition of 177Lu-DOTA to the rHDL-Dox nanosystem did not affect the specific recognition of SR-B1 receptors expressed in cells, or the cellular internalization of 177Lu-DOTA. The toxicity induced by the rHDL-Dox/177Lu nanosystem in cell lines with high (T47D and PC3), poor (H9C2) and almost-zero (human fibroblasts (FB)) expression of SR-B1 was evaluated in vitro and confirmed the synergy of the combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy-photodynamic therapeutic effect; this induced toxicity was proportional to the expression of the SR-B1 receptor on the surface of the cells used. The HDL-Dox/177Lu nanosystem experienced uptake by tumor cells and the liver-both tissues with high expression of SR-B1 receptors-but not by the heart. 177Lu CR offered the possibility of imparting photodynamic therapy where laser light could not reach.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Portadores de Fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL , Lutécio/farmacologia , Medicina de Precisão , Radioisótopos/farmacologia
13.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e214034, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1282553

RESUMO

Aim: To compare Enterococcus faecalis reduction after antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used with methylene blue, toluidine blue, tannin, and curcumin as photosensitizers, an adjunct to endodontic chemomechanical preparation (CMP) in root canals of human teeth. Methods: A total of 120 single-rooted teeth were divided into 6 groups (n = 20): G1- CMP and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G2- CMP and saline solution; G3- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% methylene blue; G4- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% toluidine blue; G5- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% tannin; and G6- CMP, 2.5% NaOCl, and aPDT with 0.005% curcumin. A portable semiconductor laser was used (660 nm, 100 mW, 1.8 J, 180s) in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and a blue LED light-curing (420-480 nm, 1200 mV/cm2 ) in G6. For all groups, a 5 min pre-irradiation time was applied. Samples were collected before (initial collection), immediately after (intermediate collection) and 7 days after CMP (final collection) for colony-forming unit (CFU) counting. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed (p < 0.05; 95% confidence interval). Results: In between-group comparisons, there was no significant difference observed in the number of CFUs at the initial (p >< 0.001) and final collections (p >< 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies.>< 0.05; 95% confidence interval). Results: In between-group comparisons, there was no significant difference observed in the number of CFUs at the initial (p < 0.001) and final collections (p >< 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies.>< 0.001) and final collections (p < 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies>< 0.001) for G2 and G3. In within-group comparisons, the number of CFUs showed a decreasing trend in G4 (p = 0.007) and G5 (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Photosensitizers promoted E. faecalis reduction, with better results for tannin and curcumin. Alternative photosensitizers should be the focus of further studies


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Taninos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Curcumina , Endodontia
14.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 20(11): 1239-1244, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784134

RESUMO

Actinic keratoses (AK) are lesions with potential to transform into nonmelanoma skin cancers. Numerous methods are available for treatment of AK. Here, we review clinical trial data on the use of photodynamic treatment combined with the sensitizing agent aminolevulinic acid 20% solution (ALA-PDT) for AK management. Although treatment guidelines for AK vary in their specific recommendations, efficacy of ALA-PDT is considered comparable or better relative to other FDA-approved treatments for AK. It is generally well tolerated and has a very acceptable long-term safety profile. ALA-PDT is typically recommended for patients who have multiple AKs and is associated with improved cosmetic outcomes compared with cryotherapy. Patients who undergo treatment with ALA-PDT should receive thorough education regarding the risks and benefits of treatment, the treatment regimen and the importance of adhering to it, how to manage local reactions, and signs and symptoms that warrant further evaluation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(11):1239-1244. doi:10.36849/JDD.6166.


Assuntos
Ceratose Actínica , Fotoquimioterapia , Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Crioterapia , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 75(10): 845-855, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728011

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a remarkable alternative or complementary technique to chemotherapy, radiotherapy or immunotherapy to treat certain forms of cancer. The synergistic effect of light, photosensitizer (PS) and oxygen allows for the treatment of tumours with an extremely high spatio-tumoral control, therefore minimizing the severe side effects usually observed in chemotherapy. The currently employed PDT PSs based on porphyrins have, in some cases, some limitations, which include a low absorbance in the therapeutic window, a low body clearance, photobleaching, among others. In this context, Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes are interesting alternatives. They have low lying excited energy states and the presence of a heavy metal increases the possibility of spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, their photophysical properties are relatively easy to tune and they have very low photobleaching rates. All of these make them attractive candidates for further development as therapeutically suitable PDT PSs. In this review, after having presented this field of research, we discuss the developments made by our group in this field of research since 2017. We notably describe how we tuned the photophysical properties of our complexes from the visible region to the therapeutically suitable red region. This was accompanied by the preparation of PSs with enhanced phototoxicity and high phototoxicity index. We also discuss the use of two-photon excitation to eradicate tumours in nude mice. Furthermore, we describe our approach for the selective delivery of our complexes using targeting agents. Lastly, we report on our very recent synergistic approach to treat cancer using bimetallic Ru(ii)-Pt(iv) prodrug candidates.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Fotoquimioterapia , Rutênio , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
16.
J Refract Surg ; 37(11): 741-745, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756139

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare standard epithelium-off corneal cross-linking (standard Epi-Off CXL) to corneal cross-linking with an epithelial flap (Epi-Flap CXL). METHODS: Patients who had undergone sequential bilateral CXL for progressive keratoconus were included in this comparative interventional case series. One eye was treated with the Epi-Off CXL technique and the fellow eye with the Epi-Flap CXL technique. Postoperative pain was measured using the Verbal Rating Scale and corneal densitometry using a Scheimpflug camera. Sex, age, corrected distance visual acuity, keratometry, and corneal thickness were also recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients with keratoconus with a mean age of 27.15 ± 5.15 years were included. The Verbal Rating Scale scores were significantly lower in patients who had Epi-Flap CXL on the first (1.00 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.00 to 1.00] vs 3.00 [IQR: 3.00 to 3.75], P = .01) and third (0.00 [IQR: 0.00 to 1.00] vs 1.00 [IQR: 0.00 to 1.00], P = .01) postoperative day compared to the Epi-Off CXL group. No pain was observed in both groups after the third day. After 12 months, the Epi-Flap CXL group showed significantly less anterior corneal haze (measured as corneal densitometry) compared to the patients treated with Epi-Off CXL (P = .01). Both groups demonstrated stability of keratometry and corneal thickness at 12 months after CXL (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Epi-Flap CXL is associated with less postoperative pain and anterior stromal haze in patients undergoing CXL for progressive keratoconus with no loss of efficacy. [J Refract Surg. 2021;37(11):741-745.].


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Fotoquimioterapia , Adulto , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Topografia da Córnea , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 33(1): 34, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor eradication is one of the most important challengeable categories in oncological studies. In this account, besides the molecular genetics methods including cell therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, and general cancer therapy procedures like surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, photodynamic adjuvant therapy is of great importance. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a relatively noninvasive therapeutic method utilizes the irradiation of an appropriate wavelength which is absorbed by a photosensitizing agent in the presence of oxygen. In this procedure, a series of events lead to the direct death of malignant cells such as damage to the microvasculature and also the induction of a local inflammatory function. PDT has participated with other treatment modalities especially in the early stage of malignant tumors and has resulted in decreasing morbidity besides improving survival rate and quality of life. High spatial resolution of PDT has attracted considerable attention in the field of image-guided photodynamic therapy combined with chemotherapy of multidrug resistance cancers. Although PDT outcomes vary across the different tumor types, minimal natural tissue toxicity, minor systemic effects, significant reduction in long-term disease, lack of innate or acquired resistance mechanisms, and excellent cosmetic effects, as well as limb function, make it a valuable treatment option for combination therapies. SHORT CONCLUSION: In this review article, we tried to discuss the potential of PDT in the treatment of some dermatologic and solid tumors, particularly all its important mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
18.
Biomater Sci ; 9(23): 7832-7837, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726672

RESUMO

We report herein a one-pot approach to cyclise a tumour-targeting peptide and conjugate it on the surface of red blood cells loaded with a boron dipyrromethene-based photosensitiser using a bifunctional linker consisting of a bis(bromomethyl)phenyl unit and an ortho-phthalaldehyde unit. This cell-based photosensitiser with surface modification with cyclic RGD peptide moieties can selectively bind against the αvß3 integrin-overexpressed cancer cells, leading to enhanced photocytotoxicity. The results demonstrate that this facile strategy is effective for live-cell surface modification for a wide range of applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Eritrócitos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
19.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(12): e11570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730683

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a serious and endemic infectious disease that has been reported in more than 90 countries and territories. The classical treatment presents a series of problems ranging from difficulty in administration, development of resistance, and a series of side effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has already shown great potential for use as a treatment for leishmaniasis that is effective and non-invasive, with very minor side effects. PDT can also be inexpensive and easy to administer. In this review, we will report the most recent developments in the field, starting with the chemical diversity of photosensitizers, highlighting important mechanistic aspects, and noting information that may assist in designing and developing new and promising photosensitizer molecules.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
20.
Biomater Sci ; 9(22): 7456-7470, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609385

RESUMO

Severe hypoxia in solid tumors limits the efficacy of oxygen (O2)-dependent photodynamic therapy (PDT). The overexpressed heat shock proteins (HSPs) in tumor cells hamper the effect of photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein, a tumor oxygenation-enhanced and ATP-reduced gelatin nanoreactor (MCGPD ∼ RGD NPs) for PDT/PTT-augmented combination cancer therapy is reported. In this nanosystem, the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides of MCGPD ∼ RGD NPs can ensure accurate recognition and sufficient accumulation in the tumor site. After accumulation, doxorubicin (DOX) can be released from MCGPD ∼ RGD NPs in a mild acidic tumor microenvironment (TME) for highly efficient chemotherapy. Upon 808 nm laser irradiation, the overexpressed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the TME and the heat produced from the PDA coating trigger Gel NP degradation to expose chlorin e6 (Ce6) and Met from the cavity of MCGPD ∼ RGD NPs. The exposed Met elevates the O2 content and reduces ATP production in tumor sites to spur the successful O2-dependent PDT and HSP-mediated PTT. The heat generated by the PDA coating directly kills the tumor cells to ensure PTT and amplifies the chemotherapeutic effect. In vitro and in vivo assays indicate that MCGPD ∼ RGD NPs have excellent ability to promote cell apoptosis and to inhibit tumor growth. Overall, this smart responsive hydrogel nanosystem with hypoxia-relieving capacity and ATP-decreasing performance provides a promising strategy against cancer.


Assuntos
Metformina , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hipóxia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Nanotecnologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral
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