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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 17, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schisandra chinensis, an ancient member of the most basal angiosperm lineage which is known as the ANITA, is a fruit-bearing vine with the pharmacological effects of a multidrug system, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, anti-osteoporosis effects. Its major bioactive compound is represented by lignans such as schisandrin. Molecular characterization of lignan biosynthesis in S. chinensis is of great importance for improving the production of this class of active compound. However, the biosynthetic mechanism of schisandrin remains largely unknown. RESULTS: To understand the potential key catalytic steps and their regulation of schisandrin biosynthesis, we generated genome-wide transcriptome data from three different tissues of S. chinensis cultivar Cheongsoon, including leaf, root, and fruit, via long- and short-read sequencing technologies. A total of 132,856 assembled transcripts were generated with an average length of 1.9 kb and high assembly completeness. Overall, our data presented effective, accurate gene annotation in the prediction of functional pathways. In particular, the annotation revealed the abundance of transcripts related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Remarkably, transcriptome profiling during fruit development of S. chinensis cultivar Cheongsoon revealed that the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, specific to coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis, showed a tendency to be upregulated at the postfruit development stage. Further the analysis also revealed that the pathway forms a transcriptional network with fruit ripening-related genes, especially the ABA signaling-related pathway. Finally, candidate unigenes homologous to isoeugenol synthase 1 (IGS1) and dirigent-like protein (DIR), which are subsequently activated by phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and thus catalyze key upstream steps in schisandrin biosynthesis, were identified. Their expression was increased at the postfruit development stage, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of schisandrin biosynthesis in S. chinensis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new insights into the production and accumulation of schisandrin in S. chinensis berries and will be utilized as a valuable transcriptomic resource for improving the schisandrin content.


Assuntos
Lignanas , Schisandra , Antioxidantes , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Lignanas/análise , Transcriptoma
2.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s38-s45, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998309

RESUMO

Pollen-food syndrome (PFS) is characterized by allergic sensitization to proteins of pollens of grasses, weeds, and trees, which produce a type I hypersensitivity reaction that is associated with the intake of plant-derived foods that are usually in raw form. The most frequently-associated protein families are: profilins, PR-10, and ns LTP; however, others such as thaumatins, isoflavones, reductases, and B1,2 glucanases have been documented. The prototype syndrome is birch-fruit-vegetables, and of these, the most common is birch-apple due to the fact that more than 70 % of patients who are sensitized to birch present symptoms associated with the intake of plant-derived foods. The symptoms are restricted to the oral cavity; however, some patients may present systemic symptoms, including anaphylaxis, so it is important to identify the type of protein that is involved since the type of reaction that the patient may present depends on that. In spite of everything, it is considered an entity that may be under diagnosed due to its complex diagnosis and treatment, since the procedure, in most cases, is an elimination diet, because treatment with immunotherapy is not yet available. The purpose of this review is to describe the pathophysiology, as well as the most common pollen-food syndromes.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos , Reações Cruzadas , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Frutas , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas , Pólen , Testes Cutâneos
3.
Food Chem ; 375: 131833, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974349

RESUMO

Hypoxia frequently occurs in postharvest logistics, which greatly influences fruit storability. Here, we for the first time studied the dynamic variations of mitochondrial morphology in living citrus fruit cells, and revealed that waxing treatment-induced hypoxia strongly triggered mitochondrial fission and fragmentation. Correspondingly, hypoxia caused a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and mobility. Besides, impairment of energetic and redox status was also found in waxed fruit. The proteomic changes of mitochondria after waxing treatment were also characterized. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 167 key hypoxia-responsive proteins, which were mainly involved in fatty acid, amino acid and organic acid metabolism. Metabolite analysis verified that waxing treatment promoted the accumulation of several hypoxic metabolites, such as ethanol, acetaldehyde, succinic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the cytological and proteomic responses of mitochondria to hypoxia during fruit storage.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Proteômica
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 2, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979911

RESUMO

BACK GROUND: MYB Transcription factors (TFs) are most imperative and largest gene family in plants, which participate in development, metabolism, defense, differentiation and stress response. The MYB TFs has been studied in various plant species. However, comprehensive studies of MYB gene family in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) are still unknown. RESULTS: In the current study, a total of 69 MYB genes were investigated from sweet cherry genome and classified into 28 subfamilies (C1-C28 based on phylogenetic and structural analysis). Microcollinearity analysis revealed that dispersed duplication (DSD) events might play an important role in the MYB genes family expansion. Chromosomal localization, the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) analysis, molecular characteristics (pI, weight and length of amino acids) and subcellular localization were accomplished using several bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, the members of distinct subfamilies have diverse cis-acting regions, conserved motifs, and intron-exon architectures, indicating functional heterogeneity in the MYB family. Moreover, the transcriptomic data exposed that MYB genes might play vital role in bud dormancy. The quantitative real-time qRT-PCR was carried out and the expression pattern indicated that MYB genes significantly expressed in floral bud as compared to flower and fruit. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive findings provide supportive insights into the evolutions, expansion complexity and functionality of PavMYB genes. These PavMYB genes should be further investigated as they seem to be brilliant candidates for dormancy manipulation in sweet cherry.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus avium/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Flores/genética , Frutas/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255605, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019109

RESUMO

Combining ability analysis provides useful information for the selection of parents, also information regarding the nature and magnitude of involved gene actions. Crops improvement involves strategies for enhancing yield potentiality and quality components. Targeting the improvement of respective characters in bitter gourd, combining ability and genetic parameters for 19 characters were estimated from a 6×6 full diallel analysis technique. The results revealed that the variances due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for most of the important characters. It indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions. GCA variances were higher in magnitude than SCA variances for all the characters studied indicating the predominance of the additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parent P2 (BG 009) appeared as the best general combiner for earliness; P1 (BG 006) for number of fruits, average single fruit weight and fruit yield; P4 (BG 027) for node number of first female flower and days to seed fruit maturity; P3 (BG 011) for fruit length and thickness of the fruit flesh; P5 (BG 033) for 100-seed weight; and P6 for number of nodes per main vine. The SCA effect as well as reciprocal effect was also significant for most of the important characters in different crosses.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia , Produtos Agrícolas , Flores , Frutas/genética , Melhoria de Qualidade
6.
Food Chem ; 375: 131886, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972021

RESUMO

Effects of tray rotation speeds (TRS: 0, 20, 40 rpm), temperatures (50, 60, 70 °C) and wavelength spectra (mid and near-infrared) were comparatively evaluated on improving drying kinetics, physicochemical properties and bioactive content of red dragon fruits. Results indicated that successive increases in TRS and temperature led to significant reductions in drying time and increases in drying rates and moisture diffusivity. High TRS (40 rpm) and lower temperatures (50, 60 °C) also improved colour, total soluble solids, rehydration ratio, total phenolics and flavonoid contents, betalain content and antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, NIR drying presented a more energy-efficient approach, but with substantial reductions in quality properties compared with MIR drying. Overall, the results suggested the importance of wavelength absorption properties of plant tissues and potential avoidance of localized overheating for enhanced efficiency during infrared drying and prompted the development of suitable approaches and optimization studies for improving efficiency.


Assuntos
Cactaceae , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Dessecação , Cinética
7.
Phytochemistry ; 193: 112980, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653909

RESUMO

Three acylated saponins and three flavonoid glycosides, along with nine known flavonoids, were isolated from the fruits of Stewartia koreana Nakai ex Rehder (Theaceae) using relative mass defect filtering analysis. The structures of these compounds were determined by performing spectroscopic analyses and using chemical methods. Furthermore, all the isolates were evaluated for their effects on the mRNA expression of the genes for proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as well as their inhibitory activities on PCSK9 and LDLR binding. None of the isolates was deemed to be active in PCSK9-LDLR binding inhibition. However, (+)-catechin was found to inhibit PCSK9 expression and increase LDLR expression, suggesting the potential of (+)-catechin to lower cholesterol level via the downregulation of PCSK9 expression.


Assuntos
Saponinas , Theaceae , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Receptores de LDL , Saponinas/farmacologia
8.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt A): 131401, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710687

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at 0 (control), 20 and 40 mM on maintaining postharvest quality, chilling tolerance and fungal decay of 'Sahebi' grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated during 60 days storage at 1 °C. GABA-treated fruits especially at 40 mM showed less weight loss (35%), rachis browning (30%) and decay incident (63%) compared to the control. GABA-induced abscisic acid was linked to lower membrane electrolyte leakage (13%) in treated grapes. Moreover, at the end of 60 days, GABA treatment at 40 mM resulted in higher activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (50%), catalase (35%), guaiacol peroxidase (65%), and ascorbate peroxidase (47%) and lower malondialdehyde (21%) compared to control samples. The highest soluble sugars and organic acids were related to 40 mM GABA-treated grape clusters. Phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, stilbenes, flavonoids and anthocyanidins) and antioxidant capacity increased in 40 mM GABA-treated grape due to lower polyphenol oxidase activity. Therefore, GABA is recommended for maintaining internal quality and reduction in fungal decay and chilling injury of grapes during postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Vitis , Antioxidantes , Ascorbato Peroxidases , Frutas , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
9.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt A): 131397, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710695

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatments, including pasteurization (PT) and high-temperature short-time sterilization (HTST) on pomegranate juice (PJ) color attributes, anthocyanin (ACNs), vitamin C, and in vitro bioaccessibility of ACNs and antioxidants were investigated. Compared to HPP, thermal treatments significantly changed the CIE color, decreased the total monomeric ACNs and total vitamin C contents, and increased the percent polymeric color (PPC) and browning index (BI). Correlation analysis showed that the generation of polymeric ACNs played a significant role in color change during thermal treatments. The recovery of 7 ACNs in the control sample after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was ranged from 0.43% to 5.0% and total individual ACNs after digestion showed no significant changes among different treatments. These results contributed to promoting the color quality and health benefits of pomegranate juice rich in ACNs by optimizing the processing conditions in the food industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Romã (Fruta) , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais
10.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt A): 131406, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742046

RESUMO

Grape ripening accelerates under warmer and drier conditions, resulting in the accumulation of sugars ('technological' maturity) being decoupled from phenolic and aromatic composition. This study investigated the effect of different rates of ripening on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon and Riesling wines. Manipulating crop load and irrigation led to distinct rates of berry ripening. In the resulting wines, reduced crop load affected the aroma composition, altering the profile and abundance of grape-derived compounds and fermentative esters. Phenolic composition was impacted by the irrigation regime, with color and tannin increased by late season irrigation. In Cabernet Sauvignon, the combination of treatments led to the largest ripening delay (3 weeks), resulting in less green and more fruity compounds, and improved phenolic composition. By mapping grape and wine metabolites and exploring their relationship, the outcomes of this study demonstrate the importance of ripening rates in determining wine quality.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Aromatizantes , Frutas , Açúcares , Vinho/análise
11.
Nutrition ; 93: 111503, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular diseases. Traditional, Western, Mediterranean, and vegetarian are common dietary patterns, derived from principal component analysis (PCA) of dietary food intakes associated with cardiovascular diseases; however, these patterns were derived mostly from the diet habits of people in Western and European countries. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine dietary patterns linked with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Nepalese population. METHODS: Food frequency questionnaires were used to estimate dietary intakes in 306 people with CAD and 306 people in a control group matched for age and sex. PCA was performed to deduce the dietary patterns, and conditional logistic regression was executed to determine the association of the dietary patterns with CAD. RESULTS: The component of PCA with higher loadings of refined grain, sugar, and meat and lower loadings of milk, whole grain, and fruit was named the non-traditional dietary pattern in the present study. We found a 34% increased risk of CAD (odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.58; P < 0.001) associated with this dietary pattern after adjusting for smoking, physical activity, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Dietary-pattern scores were further categorized into tertiles, and the third tertile was observed with significanly higher odds of CAD than the first tertile (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.14; P for trend = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: PCA-derived non-traditional dietary patterns can be a risk for developing CAD in Nepalese people. However, further cohort studies or randomized community trials are suggested to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2396: 19-27, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786672

RESUMO

Citrus fruits are products of great market values, as used by the juice industry in huge quantities. The juice industry processes millions of tons of citrus fruits per year, but only the pulp is utilized, whereas peels, seeds, and membrane residues are mostly discarded. This generates vast amounts of byproducts (>100 million tons/year), since the peel can make up to 50% of the weight of the fresh fruit. Phytochemical investigations showed that citrus peels are great sources of bioactive compounds, e.g., phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and monoterpenes. These compounds could find numerous applications in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. The recovery of the phytochemicals would provide economic and environmental benefits. Researchers worldwide have developed innovative techniques to recover phytochemicals from the citrus waste, by endorsing the international waste-prevention policies. This chapter reviews the advances in the sector of food technology applied to citrus chemistry and describes the available green techniques that allow the recovery of phytochemicals from citrus byproducts.


Assuntos
Citrus , Carotenoides , Frutas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2396: 85-99, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786678

RESUMO

This chapter describes the application of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in conjunction with gas chromatography (APGC) coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling metabolites in plant and fruit extracts. The APGC technique yields molecular ions and limited fragmentation of volatile or derivatized compounds. The data-independent acquisition mode, MSE, was used for measuring precursor and fragment ions with high resolution using a quadrupole ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry system. We demonstrate the importance of acquiring accurate mass information in conjunction with accurate mass fragment ions for efficient database searching and compound assignments with high confidence. We demonstrate the application of APGC-MSE for obtaining metabolite data for grape berry extracts after derivatization.


Assuntos
Vitis , Pressão Atmosférica , Frutas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2396: 117-136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786680

RESUMO

Analysis of volatile compounds in fruits and plants can be a challenging task as they present in a large amount with structural diversity and high aroma threshold, the information on molecular ion can be very useful for compound identification. Electron ionization gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (EI-GC-MS) which is widely used for the analysis of plant volatiles has a certain limitation providing the limited capability to characterize novel metabolites in a complex biological matrix due to hard fragmentation level. Atmospheric pressure ionization using APGC source in combination with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) provides an excellent combination of GC with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The APGC-MS approach provides several advantages over the conventional EI and CI based GC-MS techniques in metabolomics studies due to highly reduced fragmentation, which preserves molecular ion, and accurate mass measurement by HRMS allows to deduce the elemental composition of the volatile compounds. Moreover, the use of MSE mode provides spectral similarity to EI in high-energy mode which can be used for the further confirmation of metabolite identity. We describe an APGC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approach with a case study of grape volatile compounds and the development of a spectral library for metabolite identification.


Assuntos
Vitis , Pressão Atmosférica , Frutas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica
15.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103922, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809948

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, followed by long-term commercial cold storage with low-dose gaseous ozone on the microbiological safety and quality of fresh apples. Granny Smith apples were inoculated with or without Listeria innocua, treated with or without 1.0 mg/L 1-MCP for 24 h, then subjected to commercial cold storage conditions including refrigerated air (RA, 0.6 °C, control), controlled atmosphere (CA, 2% O2, 1% CO2, 0.6 °C), and CA with 51-87 µg/L ozone gas for up to 36 weeks. RA storage reduced L. innocua on apples by up to 3.6 log10 CFU/apple. CA had no advantage over RA in controlling Listeria. Continuous ozone gas application resulted in an additional ∼2.0 log10 CFU/apple reduction of L. innocua (total reduction up to 5.7 log10 CFU/apple) and suppressed native bacteria and fungi. Treatment with 1-MCP had a minor impact on survival of L. innocua or background microbiota on apples, while it significantly delayed fruit ripening and reduced the incidence of superficial scald and internal browning. In summary, 1-MCP treatment followed by CA storage with low-dose continuous ozone gas can effectively control Listeria on fresh apples and delay fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Listeria , Malus , Ozônio , Malus/microbiologia , Ozônio/farmacologia
16.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103926, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809952

RESUMO

A multiplex PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection of murine norovirus (MNV-1) as a surrogate for human norovirus (HuNoV) GI and GII, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in fresh produce. The toxicity of the glycine buffer on bacterial pathogens viability was evaluated. The growth of each of the three pathogens (previously stressed) was evaluated at 35 and 41.5 °C in modified buffered peptone water (mBPW) and trypticase soy broth (TSB), supplemented with vancomycin, novobiocin and brilliant green at two concentration levels. The selected conditions for simultaneous enrichment were: 41.5 °C/mBPW/supplemented with 8 ppm vancomycin, 0.6 ppm novobiocin and 0.2 ppm brilliant green. The pathogens and aerobic plate count (APC) growth was evaluated in the enrichment of lettuce, coriander, strawberry and blackberry under the best enrichment conditions. Starting from 1 to 10 CFU/mL, Salmonella reached from 7.63 to 8.91, Shigella 6.81 to 7.76 and STEC 7.43 to 9.27 log CFU/mL. The population reached for the APC was 5.11-6.56 log CFU/mL. Simultaneous detection by PCR was done using designed primers targeting invA, ipaH, stx1 and stx2 genes, and MNV-1. The detection sensitivity was 10-100 PFU for the MNV-1 and 1-10 CFU for each pathogenic bacteria. This protocol takes 6 h for MNV-1 and 24 h for Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and STEC detection from the same food portion. In total, 200 samples were analyzed from retail markets from Queretaro, Mexico. Two strawberry samples were positive for HuNoV GI and one lettuce sample was positive for STEC. In conclusion, the method developed in this study is capable of detecting HuNoV GI and GII, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp and STEC from the same fresh produce sample.


Assuntos
Coriandrum , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria , Alface , Rubus , Coriandrum/microbiologia , Coriandrum/virologia , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fragaria/virologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Frutas/virologia , Alface/microbiologia , Alface/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Novobiocina , Rubus/microbiologia , Rubus/virologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Vancomicina
17.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103930, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809956

RESUMO

The growth behavior of Listeria monocytogenes low population (1-4 cells/sample) on fresh-cut mango, melon, papaya and fruit mix stored at 4, 8, 12 and 16 °C was evaluated over 10 days. Mango showed the lowest counts for L. monocytogenes during 10 days regardless of storage temperature (<1.7 log cfu.g-1). Melon supported high bacterial growth over 10 days, reaching 5 log cfu.g-1 at 16 °C. Both the fruit and storage temperature influenced the Listeria low population growth potential (δ). Cumulative frequency distribution of L. monocytogenes showed that after 10 days, 100% of fresh-cut fruits and fruit mix stored at 4 °C remained ≤2 log cfu.g-1, while at 12 and 16 °C 100% of melon, papaya and fruit mix samples exceeded this limit. At 8 °C, 100% of mango and fruit mix samples remained below this limit after 10 days, whereas 100% of melon and papaya reached it after 7 days. Results indicate 4 °C as the ideal to store safely fresh-cut mango, melon, papaya and fruit mix for 10 days. Besides, 8 °C can also be an option, but not for melon and papaya. Findings highlight the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive and grow in fresh-cut fruits even at a very low initial population levels.


Assuntos
Carica , Cucurbitaceae , Listeria monocytogenes , Mangifera , Temperatura , Carica/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cucurbitaceae/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mangifera/microbiologia
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 185-197, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Juices are currently a fast-growing segment in the fruit and vegetable industry sector. However, there are still no reports on the diversity of the phytochemical profile and health-promoting properties of commercial sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) juices. This study aimed to identify and quantify phytoprostanes, phytofurans by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), tocopherols, tocotrienols by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector (UPLC-FL), carotenoids, and free amino acids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode detector-quadrupole and tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS), and assess their anti-cholinergic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant potential by in vitro assays of commercial sea buckthorn juices. RESULTS: Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) in sea buckthorn juices were identified for the first time. Juices contained eight F1 -, D1 -, B1 - and L1 -phytoprostanes and one phytofuran (32.31-1523.51 ng and up to 101.47 µg/100 g dry weight (DW)), four tocopherol congeners (22.23-94.08 mg 100 g-1 DW) and three tocotrienols (5.93-25.34 mg 100 g-1 DW). Eighteen carotenoids were identified, including ten xanthophylls, seven carotenes and phytofluene, at a concentration of 133.65 to 839.89 mg 100 g-1 DW. Among the 20 amino acids (175.92-1822.60 mg 100 g-1 DW), asparagine was dominant, and essential and conditionally essential amino acids constituted 11 to 41% of the total. The anti-enzyme and antioxidant potential of juices correlated selectively with the composition. CONCLUSION: Sea buckthorn juice can be a valuable dietary source of vitamins E and A, oxylipins and amino acids, used in the prevention of metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and neurodegenerative processes. The differentiation of the composition and the bioactive potential of commercial juices indicate that, for the consumer, it should be important to choose juices from the declared berry cultivars and crops. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Hippophae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tocoferóis/química , Tocotrienóis/química , Aminoácidos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 175-184, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the aroma of kiwi wine through the utilization of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, kiwi juice was fermented using a selected W. anomalus strain in pure culture and mixed fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was inoculated simultaneously and sequentially. The physicochemical indices, volatile compounds and aroma properties of the kiwi wines were assessed. RESULTS: The study suggested that the ethanol, color indices and organic acids of the wines were closely related to the method of inoculation. Compared with the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, the mixed fermentations produced more varieties and concentrations of volatiles. The sequential fermentations increased the concentrations of esters and terpenes, improving the flower and sweet fruit notes of the wines. The simultaneous inoculation enhanced the contents of esters and aldehydes, intensifying the flower, sweet and sour fruit of the wines. Partial least-squares regression analysis showed that esters and terpenes contributed greatly to the flower and sweet fruit aroma, whereas aldehydes were the major contributors to the sour note. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the mixed fermentations not only enriched the types and concentrations of volatiles, but also had better sensory properties. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Actinidia/metabolismo , Etanol/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Vinho/microbiologia
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 241-249, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Half of all apple production worldwide comes from China. However, the geographic authentication of Chinese apples has not been well studied. We highlight the multi-element-based geographical discrimination of apples from the southwest cold highlands (SCH) of China. 565 samples from the SCH (138) and others (427) were obtained, and the content of fifteen elements were applied to construct models for discrimination. RESULTS: The SCH apples from 2017 to 2019 had higher concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Se, Pb, and Fe, but lower concentrations of Na, B, Ni, and P. With sufficient training, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) discriminated the SCH, and the testing accuracy averaged 92.5% and 92.2%. Nonlinear discrimination models were more suitable than the linear models. Optimized random forest analysis was the model with the best fit, and with averaged training and testing it obtained a level of accuracy of 98.2% and 98.5%. CONCLUSION: The multielement-based discrimination of SCH apples could aid further studies of geographical origins. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Malus/química , Oligoelementos/análise , China , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/classificação , Malus/classificação
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