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1.
Ecol Lett ; 27(6): e14442, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844373

RESUMO

Highly diverse and abundant organisms coexist in soils. However, the contribution of biotic interactions between soil organisms to microbial community assembly remains to be explored. Here, we assess the extent to which soil fauna can shape microbial community assembly using an exclusion experiment in a grassland field to sort soil biota based on body size. After 1 year, the exclusion of larger fauna favoured phagotrophic protists, with increases up to 32% in their proportion compared to the no-mesh treatment. In contrast, members of the bacterial community and to a lesser extent of the fungal community were negatively impacted. Shifts in bacterial but not in fungal communities were best explained by the response of the protistan community to exclusion. Our findings provide empirical evidence of top-down control on the soil microbial communities and underline the importance of integrating higher trophic levels for a better understanding of the soil microbiome assembly.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fungos , Pradaria , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos/fisiologia , Animais , Eucariotos/fisiologia , Solo/química , Tamanho Corporal
2.
Planta ; 260(1): 24, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858226

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica selectively recruits and assembles drought-specific microbial communities across the plant-soil compartments, which may benefit plant growth and fitness under extreme drought conditions. Plant-associated microbes are essential for facilitating plant growth and fitness under drought stress. The resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica in natural habitats with seasonal rainfall can survive rapid desiccation, yet their interaction with microbiomes under drought conditions remains unexplored. This study examined the bacterial and fungal microbiome structure and drought response across plant-soil compartments of B. hygrometrica by high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer. Our results demonstrated that the diversity, composition, and functional profile of the microbial community varied considerably across the plant-soil compartments and were strongly affected by drought stress. Bacterial and fungal diversity was significantly reduced from soil to endosphere and belowground to aboveground compartments. The compartment-specific enrichment of the dominant bacteria phylum Cyanobacteriota and genus Methylorubrum in leaf endosphere, genera Pseudonocardia in rhizosphere soil and Actinoplanes in root endosphere, and fungal phylum Ascomycota in the aboveground compartments and genera Knufia in root endosphere and Cladosporium in leaf endosphere composed part of the core microbiota with corresponding enrichment of beneficial functions for plant growth and fitness. Moreover, the recruitment of dominant microbial genera Sphingosinicella and Plectosphaerella, Ceratobasidiaceae mycorrhizal fungi, and numerous plant growth-promoting bacteria involving nutrient supply and auxin regulation was observed in desiccated B. hygrometrica plants. Our results suggest that the stable assembled drought-specific microbial community of B. hygrometrica may contribute to plant survival under extreme environments and provide valuable microbial resources for the microbe-mediated drought tolerance enhancement in crops.


Assuntos
Secas , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Microbiota/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Fungos/genética , Rizosfera , Brassicaceae/microbiologia , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4888, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849332

RESUMO

Chloroxylenol is a worldwide commonly used disinfectant. The massive consumption and relatively high chemical stability of chloroxylenol have caused eco-toxicological threats in receiving waters. We noticed that chloroxylenol has a chemical structure similar to numerous halo-phenolic disinfection byproducts. Solar detoxification of some halo-phenolic disinfection byproducts intrigued us to select a rapidly degradable chloroxylenol alternative from them. In investigating antimicrobial activities of disinfection byproducts, we found that 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone was 9.0-22 times more efficient than chloroxylenol in inactivating the tested bacteria, fungi and viruses. Also, the developmental toxicity of 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone to marine polychaete embryos decreased rapidly due to its rapid degradation via hydrolysis in receiving seawater, even without sunlight. Our work shows that 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone is a promising disinfectant that well addresses human biosecurity and environmental sustainability. More importantly, our work may enlighten scientists to exploit the slightly alkaline nature of seawater and develop other industrial products that can degrade rapidly via hydrolysis in seawater.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Água do Mar , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Hidrólise , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofenóis/química , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Xilenos
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 195, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhizosphere and endophytic fungi play important roles in plant health and crop productivity. However, their community dynamics during the continuous cropping of Knoxia valerianoides have rarely been reported. K. valerianoides is a perennial herb of the family Rubiaceae and has been used in herbal medicines for ages. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing technology Illumina MiSeq to study the structural and functional dynamics of the rhizosphere and endophytic fungi of K. valerianoides. RESULTS: The findings indicate that continuous planting has led to an increase in the richness and diversity of rhizosphere fungi, while concomitantly resulting in a decrease in the richness and diversity of root fungi. The diversity of endophytic fungal communities in roots was lower than that of the rhizosphere fungi. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of K. valerianoides. In addition, we found that root rot directly affected the structure and diversity of fungal communities in the rhizosphere and the roots of K. valerianoides. Consequently, both the rhizosphere and endophyte fungal communities of root rot-infected plants showed higher richness than the healthy plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium in two and three years old root rot-infected plants was significantly higher than the control, indicating that continuous planting negatively affected the health of K. valerianoides plants. Decision Curve Analysis showed that soil pH, organic matter (OM), available K, total K, soil sucrase (S_SC), soil catalase (S_CAT), and soil cellulase (S_CL) were significantly related (p < 0.05) to the fungal community dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of fungal species in the rhizosphere and root of K. valerianoides was reported for the first time. The fungal diversity of rhizosphere soil was higher than that of root endophytic fungi. The fungal diversity of root rot plants was higher than that of healthy plants. Soil pH, OM, available K, total K, S_CAT, S_SC, and S_CL were significantly related to the fungal diversity. The occurrence of root rot had an effect on the community structure and diversity of rhizosphere and root endophytic fungi.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Micobioma
5.
Anim Biotechnol ; 35(1): 2362639, 2024 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856695

RESUMO

Diet is an important component to influence microbiota, there are less data available about the microbiome of Suffolk cross with Tibetan (SCT) animals with different fodders. The current study was conducted for comparing the fungi microbiota in SCT sheep fed with different forages. Sequencing of ileum samples from sheep groups of AH (alfalfa and oat grass), BH (mixture of grass and concentrated feeds), CH (concentrated feed I), DH (concentrated feed II) and EH (concentrated feed III) achieved 3,171,271 raw and 2,719,649 filtered sequences. Concentrated feeds changed fungi microbiota in SCT sheep with three phyla and 47 genera significantly different among the groups. Genera include positive genus of Scytalidium and negative fungi of Sarocladium, Kazachstania, Gibberella, Scytalidium, Candida, Wickerhamomyces. The findings of our study will contribute to efficient feeding of SCT sheep at cold plateau areas.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais , Ovinos/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Tibet , Íleo/microbiologia
6.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 204, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gastrodia elata Bl. is an orchid, and its growth demands the presence of Armillaria species. The strong competitiveness of Armillaria species has always been a concern of major threat to other soil organisms, thus disrupting the equilibrium of soil biodiversity. Introducing other species to where G. elata was cultivated, could possibly alleviate the problems associated with the disequilibrium of soil microenvironment; however, their impacts on the soil microbial communities and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To reveal the changes of microbial groups associated with soil chemical properties responding to different cultivation species, the chemical property measurements coupled with the next-generation pyrosequencing analyses were applied with soil samples collected from fallow land, cultivation of G. elata and Phallus impudicus, respectively. RESULTS: The cultivation of G. elata induced significant increases (p < 0.05) in soil pH and NO3-N content compared with fallow land, whereas subsequent cultivation of P. impudicus reversed these G. elata-induced increases and was also found to significantly increase (p < 0.05) the content of soil NH4+-N and AP. The alpha diversities of soil microbial communities were significantly increased (p < 0.01) by cultivation of G. elata and P. impudicus as indicated with Chao1 estimator and Shannon index. The structure and composition of soil microbial communities differed responding to different cultivation species. In particular, the relative abundances of Bacillus, norank_o_Gaiellales, Mortierella and unclassified_k_Fungi were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the abundances of potentially beneficial genera such as Acidibacter, Acidothermus, Cryptococcus, and Penicillium etc., were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) by cultivation of G. elata. It's interesting to find that cultivation of P. impudicus increased the abundances of these genera that G. elata decreased before, which contributed to the difference of composition and structure. The results of CCA and heatmap indicated that the changes of soil microbial communities had strong correlations with soil nutrients. Specifically, among 28 genera presented, 50% and 42.9% demonstrated significant correlations with soil pH and NO3-N in response to cultivation of G. elata and P. impudicus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that the cultivation of P. impudicus might have potential benefits as result of affecting soil microorganisms coupled with changes in soil nutrient profile.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biodiversidade , Gastrodia , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Solo/química , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Gastrodia/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Armillaria/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 200, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851702

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for new bioactive molecules with unique mechanisms of action and chemistry to address the issue of incorrect use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which hurts both the environment and the health of humans. In light of this, research was done for this work to isolate, identify, and evaluate the germination-promoting potential of various plant species' fungal endophytes. Zea mays L. (maize) seed germination was examined using spore suspension of 75 different endophytic strains that were identified. Three promising strains were identified through screening to possess the ability mentioned above. These strains Alternaria alternate, Aspergilus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were isolated from the stem of Tecoma stans, Delonix regia, and Ricinus communis, respectively. The ability of the three endophytic fungal strains to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid (IAA) was also examined. Compared to both Aspergillus flavus as well as Aspergillus terreus, Alternaria alternata recorded the greatest rates of IAA, according to the data that was gathered. On CAS agar versus blue media, all three strains failed to produce siderophores. Moreover, the antioxidant and antifungal potentials of extracts from these fungi were tested against different plant pathogens. The obtained results indicated the antioxidant and antifungal activities of the three fungal strains. GC-Mass studies were carried out to determine the principal components in extracts of all three strains of fungi. The three strains' fungus extracts included both well-known and previously unidentified bioactive compounds. These results may aid in the development of novel plant growth promoters by suggesting three different fungal strains as sources of compounds that may improve seed germination. According to the study that has been given, as unexplored sources of bioactive compounds, fungal endophytes have great potential.


Assuntos
Alternaria , Aspergillus , Bioprospecção , Endófitos , Germinação , Sementes , Sideróforos , Zea mays , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alternaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alternaria/fisiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Bioprospecção/métodos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo
8.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(6): e16662, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840258

RESUMO

Our study delved into the relationship between root-associated fungi, gene expression and plant morphology in Norway spruce cuttings derived from both slow-and fast-growing trees. We found no clear link between the gene expression patterns of adventitious roots and the growth phenotype, suggesting no fundamental differences in the receptiveness to fungal symbionts between the phenotypes. Interestingly, saplings from slow-growing parental trees exhibited a higher richness of ectomycorrhizal species and larger roots. Some ectomycorrhizal species, typically found on mature spruces, were more prevalent on saplings from slow-growing spruces. The ericoid mycorrhizal fungus, Hyaloscypha hepaticola, showed a stronger association with saplings from fast-growing spruces. Moreover, saplings from slow-growing spruces had a greater number of Ascomycete taxa and free-living saprotrophic fungi. Aboveground sapling stems displayed some phenotypic variation; saplings from fast-growing phenotypes had longer branches but fewer whorls in their stems compared to those from the slow-growing group. In conclusion, the observed root-associated fungi and phenotypic characteristics in young Norway spruces may play a role in their long-term growth rate. This suggests that the early interactions between spruces and fungi could potentially influence their growth trajectory.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Picea , Raízes de Plantas , Picea/microbiologia , Picea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/genética , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Noruega , Simbiose , Fungos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 161, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822407

RESUMO

Multi resistant fungi are on the rise, and our arsenal compounds are limited to few choices in the market such as polyenes, pyrimidine analogs, azoles, allylamines, and echinocandins. Although each of these drugs featured a unique mechanism, antifungal resistant strains did emerge and continued to arise against them worldwide. Moreover, the genetic variation between fungi and their host humans is small, which leads to significant challenges in new antifungal drug discovery. Endophytes are still an underexplored source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Many studies were conducted to isolate and screen endophytic pure compounds with efficacy against resistant yeasts and fungi; especially, Candida albicans, C. auris, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, which encouraged writing this review to critically analyze the chemical nature, potency, and fungal source of the isolated endophytic compounds as well as their novelty features and SAR when possible. Herein, we report a comprehensive list of around 320 assayed antifungal compounds against Candida albicans, C. auris, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus in the period 1980-2024, the majority of which were isolated from fungi of orders Eurotiales and Hypocreales associated with terrestrial plants, probably due to the ease of laboratory cultivation of these strains. 46% of the reviewed compounds were active against C. albicans, 23% against C. neoformans, 29% against A. fumigatus and only 2% against C. auris. Coculturing was proved to be an effective technique to induce cryptic metabolites absent in other axenic cultures or host extract cultures, with Irperide as the most promising compounds MIC value 1 µg/mL. C. auris was susceptible to only persephacin and rubiginosin C. The latter showed potent inhibition against this recalcitrant strain in a non-fungicide way, which unveils the potential of fungal biofilm inhibition. Further development of culturing techniques and activation of silent metabolic pathways would be favorable to inspire the search for novel bioactive antifungals.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Endófitos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolismo , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/metabolismo , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(6): e16661, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849711

RESUMO

Inland saline ecosystems suffer multiple stresses (e.g., high radiation, salinity, water scarcity) that may compromise essential ecosystem functions such as organic matter decomposition. Here, we investigated the effects of drought on microbial colonization and decomposition of Sarcocornia fruticosa woody stems across different habitats in a saline watershed: on the dry floodplain, submerged in the stream channel and at the shoreline (first submerged, then emerged). Unexpectedly, weight loss was not enhanced in the submerged stems, while decomposition process differed between habitats. On the floodplain, it was dominated by fungi and high cellulolytic activity; in submerged conditions, a diverse community of bacteria and high ligninolytic activity dominated; and, on the shoreline, enzyme activities were like submerged conditions, but with a fungal community similar to the dry conditions. Results indicate distinct degradation paths being driven by different stress factors: strong water scarcity and photodegradation in dry conditions, and high salinity and reduced oxygen in wet conditions. This suggests that fungi are more resistant to drought, and bacteria to salinity. Overall, in saline watersheds, variations in multiple stress factors exert distinct environmental filters on bacteria and fungi and their role in the decomposition of plant material, affecting carbon cycling and microbial interactions.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Secas , Fungos , Caules de Planta , Rios , Salinidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Rios/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Ecossistema
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 566, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and appropriate antibiotic treatment improves the clinical outcome of patients with sepsis. There is an urgent need for rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of bacteria that cause bloodstream infection (BSI). Rapid ID and AST can be achieved by short-term incubation on solid medium of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and the BD M50 system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of rapid method compared to traditional method. METHODS: A total of 124 mono-microbial samples were collected. Positive blood culture samples were short-term incubated on blood agar plates and chocolate agar plates for 5 ∼ 7 h, and the rapid ID and AST were achieved through Zybio EXS2000 MS and BD M50 System, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with the traditional 24 h culture for ID, this rapid method can shorten the cultivation time to 5 ∼ 7 h. Accurate organism ID was achieved in 90.6% of Gram-positive bacteria (GP), 98.5% of Gram-negative bacteria (GN), and 100% of fungi. The AST resulted in the 98.5% essential agreement (EA) and 97.1% category agreements (CA) in NMIC-413, 99.4% EA and 98.9% CA in PMIC-92, 100% both EA and CA in SMIC-2. Besides, this method can be used for 67.2% (264/393) of culture bottles during routine work. The mean turn-around time (TAT) for obtaining final results by conventional method is approximately 72.6 ± 10.5 h, which is nearly 24 h longer than the rapid method. CONCLUSIONS: The newly described method is expected to provide faster and reliable ID and AST results, making it an important tool for rapid management of blood cultures (BCs). In addition, this rapid method can be used to process most positive blood cultures, enabling patients to receive rapid and effective treatment.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Hemocultura/métodos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/diagnóstico
12.
Microbiologyopen ; 13(3): e1422, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847331

RESUMO

The root nodules of actinorhizal plants are home to nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts, known as Frankia, along with a small percentage of other microorganisms. These include fungal endophytes and non-Frankia bacteria. The taxonomic and functional diversity of the microbial consortia within these root nodules is not well understood. In this study, we surveyed and analyzed the cultivable, non-Frankia fungal and bacterial endophytes of root nodules from red and Sitka alder trees that grow together. We examined their taxonomic diversity, co-occurrence, differences between hosts, and potential functional roles. For the first time, we are reporting numerous fungal endophytes of alder root nodules. These include Sporothrix guttuliformis, Fontanospora sp., Cadophora melinii, an unclassified Cadophora, Ilyonectria destructans, an unclassified Gibberella, Nectria ramulariae, an unclassified Trichoderma, Mycosphaerella tassiana, an unclassified Talaromyces, Coniochaeta sp., and Sistotrema brinkmanii. We are also reporting several bacterial genera for the first time: Collimonas, Psychrobacillus, and Phyllobacterium. Additionally, we are reporting the genus Serratia for the second time, with the first report having been recently published in 2023. Pseudomonas was the most frequently isolated bacterial genus and was found to co-inhabit individual nodules with both fungi and bacteria. We found that the communities of fungal endophytes differed by host species, while the communities of bacterial endophytes did not.


Assuntos
Alnus , Bactérias , Endófitos , Fungos , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/genética , Alnus/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Simbiose , Filogenia
13.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 81, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829379

RESUMO

Koinobiont endoparasitoids regulate the physiology of their hosts through altering host immuno-metabolic responses, processes which function in tandem to shape the composition of the microbiota of these hosts. Here, we employed 16S rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing to investigate whether parasitization by the parasitoid wasps, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmaed) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Psyttalia cosyrae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), induces gut dysbiosis and differentially alter the gut microbial (bacteria and fungi) communities of an important horticultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). We further investigated the composition of bacterial communities of adult D. longicaudata and P. cosyrae to ascertain whether the adult parasitoids and parasitized host larvae share microbial taxa through transmission. We demonstrated that parasitism by D. longicaudata induced significant gut perturbations, resulting in the colonization and increased relative abundance of pathogenic gut bacteria. Some pathogenic bacteria like Stenotrophomonas and Morganella were detected in both the guts of D. longicaudata-parasitized B. dorsalis larvae and adult D. longicaudata wasps, suggesting a horizontal transfer of microbes from the parasitoid to the host. The bacterial community of P. cosyrae adult wasps was dominated by Arsenophonus nasoniae, whereas that of D. longicaudata adults was dominated by Paucibater spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Parasitization by either parasitoid wasp was associated with an overall reduction in fungal diversity and evenness. These findings indicate that unlike P. cosyrae which is avirulent to B. dorsalis, parasitization by D. longicaudata induces shifts in the gut bacteriome of B. dorsalis larvae to a pathobiont-dominated community. This mechanism possibly enhances its virulence against the pest, further supporting its candidacy as an effective biocontrol agent of this frugivorous tephritid fruit fly pest.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Larva , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tephritidae , Vespas , Animais , Tephritidae/microbiologia , Tephritidae/parasitologia , Vespas/microbiologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microbiota , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/parasitologia
14.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 80, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829422

RESUMO

The Gypsum Karst of Sorbas, Almeria, southeast Spain, includes a few caves whose entrances are open and allow the entry and roosting of numerous bats. Caves are characterized by their diversity of gypsum speleothems, such as stalactites, coralloids, gypsum crusts, etc. Colored biofilms can be observed on the walls of most caves, among which the Covadura and C3 caves were studied. The objective was to determine the influence that bat mycobiomes may have on the fungal communities of biofilms. The results indicate that the fungi retrieved from white and yellow biofilms in Covadura Cave (Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota, Basidiomycota) showed a wide diversity, depending on their location, and were highly influenced by the bat population, the guano and the arthropods that thrive in the guano, while C3 Cave was more strongly influenced by soil- and arthropod-related fungi (Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota), due to the absence of roosting bats.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Biofilmes , Sulfato de Cálcio , Cavernas , Quirópteros , Fungos , Cavernas/microbiologia , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Animais , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Artrópodes/microbiologia , Espanha , Biodiversidade , Micobioma , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 555, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The search for new bioactive natural compounds with anticancer activity is still of great importance. Even though their potential for diagnostics and treatment of cancer has already been proved, the availability is still limited. Hypericin, a naphthodianthrone isolated essentially from plant source Hypericum perforatum L. along with other related anthraquinones and bisanthraquinones belongs to this group of compounds. Although it has been proven that hypericin is synthesized by the polyketide pathway in plants, none of the candidate genes coding for key enzymes has been experimentally validated yet. Despite the rare occurrence of anthraquinones in plants, their presence in microorganisms, including endophytic fungi, is quite common. Unlike plants, several biosynthetic genes grouped into clusters (BGCs) in fungal endophytes have already been characterized. RESULTS: The aim of this work was to predict, identify and characterize the anthraquinone BGCs in de novo assembled and functionally annotated genomes of selected endophytic fungal isolates (Fusarium oxysporum, Plectosphaerella cucumerina, Scedosporium apiospermum, Diaporthe eres, Canariomyces subthermophilus) obtained from different tissues of Hypericum spp. The number of predicted type I polyketide synthase (PKS) BGCs in the studied genomes varied. The non-reducing type I PKS lacking thioesterase domain and adjacent discrete gene encoding protein with product release function were identified only in the genomes of C. subthermophilus and D. eres. A candidate bisanthraquinone BGC was predicted in C. subthermophilus genome and comprised genes coding the enzymes that catalyze formation of the basic anthraquinone skeleton (PKS, metallo-beta-lactamase, decarboxylase, anthrone oxygenase), putative dimerization enzyme (cytochrome P450 monooxygenase), other tailoring enzymes (oxidoreductase, dehydrogenase/reductase), and non-catalytic proteins (fungal transcription factor, transporter protein). CONCLUSIONS: The results provide an insight into genetic background of anthraquinone biosynthesis in Hypericum-borne endophytes. The predicted bisanthraquinone gene cluster represents a basis for functional validation of the candidate biosynthetic genes in a simple eukaryotic system as a prospective biotechnological alternative for production of hypericin and related bioactive anthraquinones.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas , Endófitos , Hypericum , Família Multigênica , Policetídeos , Hypericum/microbiologia , Hypericum/genética , Hypericum/metabolismo , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/metabolismo , Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Simulação por Computador , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Perileno/metabolismo , Antracenos/metabolismo , Genômica , Filogenia
16.
Mycopathologia ; 189(4): 56, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869662

RESUMO

The incidence of breakthrough mold infections (bIMI) has been increasing, due to routine administration of broad-spectrum antifungal prophylaxis and an increasing pool of high-risk patient populations, with fungi more challenging to treat, resulting in a sustained high mortality, despite progress in diagnostic and therapeutic options. Pharmacokinetics of antifungal drugs, fungal, and host, including genetic, factors play a role in the emergence of bIMI. Suggested therapeutic approaches have included change of antifungal class treatment, with amphotericin-B products predominating as first-line empirical treatment and switching from one broad-spectrum azole to another remaining the most frequently used treatment modalities. Future perspectives include determining individual susceptibility to IMI to tailor prophylaxis and treatment strategies, improved diagnostic tests, and the introduction of new antifungal agents that may reduce morbidity and mortality caused by bIMI.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Incidência , Farmacorresistência Fúngica
17.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(6): e16660, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822592

RESUMO

Over 6 years, we conducted an extensive survey of spontaneous grape fermentations, examining 3105 fungal microbiomes across 14 distinct grape-growing regions. Our investigation into the biodiversity of these fermentations revealed that a small number of highly abundant genera form the core of the initial grape juice microbiome. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the region of origin had the most significant impact on microbial diversity patterns. We also discovered that certain taxa were consistently associated with specific geographical locations and grape varieties, although these taxa represented only a minor portion of the overall diversity in our dataset. Through unsupervised clustering and dimensionality reduction analysis, we identified three unique community types, each exhibiting variations in the abundance of key genera. When we projected these genera onto global branches, it suggested that microbiomes transition between these three broad community types. We further investigated the microbial community composition throughout the fermentation process. Our observations indicated that the initial microbial community composition could predict the diversity during the early stages of fermentation. Notably, Hanseniaspora uvarum emerged as the primary non-Saccharomyces species within this large collection of samples.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fermentação , Fungos , Micobioma , Vitis , Vitis/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(6): 3553-3561, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897775

RESUMO

This study was conducted to clarify the long-term effects of biochar application on the structure and function of the fungal community in continuous cropping watermelon soil. Taking watermelon root soil as the research object, Illumina NovaSeq high-throughput sequencing and FUNGuild platform were used to analyze the differences in soil fungal community composition, diversity, and function after 3-year biochar additions of 7.5, 15.0, and 30.0 t·hm-2 and to explore the correlation between soil environmental factors and fungal community structure under the control of biochar. The results showed that compared to that in the absence of biochar (control), the soil pH, available phosphorus, available potassium, total nitrogen, organic matter, and cation exchange capacity increased, but available nitrogen decreased with biochar addition. High-throughput sequencing results showed that biochar amendment improved the fungal community structure in continuous cropping watermelon soil and increased the richness and diversity of soil fungi. A total of 922 OTU were obtained from all soil samples, and the species annotation results indicated that the dominant fungal groups were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Glomeromycota, with these phyla accounting for 85.70 %-92.45 % of the total sequences.The relative abundance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota decreased, whereas the abundance of Mortierellomycota and Glomeromycota increased with biochar addition.At the genus level, the application of biochar increased the relative abundance of Mortierella and Rhizophlyctis but decreased the abundance of Fusarium. The Mantel test showed that soil available potassium, available nitrogen, organic matter, and pH were the main environmental factors leading to the shift in the soil fungal community composition.The functional prediction with FUNGuild showed that the many nutrient types among the different treatments were saprotrophic, pathotrophic, and symbiotrophic. The relative abundance of pathotrophs significantly decreased, but the abundance of symbiotrophs significantly increased with the medium and high doses of biochar treatment. In conclusion, the application of biochar changed the soil physicochemical properties, promoted the development of soil fungal community structure and functional groups in a healthy and beneficial direction, and improved the quality of continuous cropping watermelon soil.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Citrullus , Fungos , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/classificação , Solo/química , Micobioma , Fertilizantes
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(6): 3562-3570, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897776

RESUMO

Studying the effects of different modified materials on the physicochemical properties and fungal community structure of saline-alkali soil can provide theoretical basis for reasonable improvement of saline-alkali soil. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to explore the effects of five treatments, namely, control (CK), desulfurization gypsum (T1), soil ameliorant (T2), organic fertilizer (T3), and desulfurization gypsum compounds soil ameliorant and organic fertilizer (T4), on soil physicochemical properties and fungal community diversity, composition, and structure of saline-alkali soil in Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia. The results showed that compared with those in CK, the contents of available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter, and alkali hydrolysis nitrogen were significantly increased in modified material treatments, and the T4 treatment significantly decreased soil pH. Modified treatments increased the Simpson and Shannon indexes of fungi but decreased the Chao1 index. The dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota, and the dominant genera were Mortierella, Conocybe, Botryotrichum, Fusarium, and Pseudogymnoascus. The application of modified materials increased the relative abundance of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Fusarium, and Pseudogymnoascus, while decreasing the relative abundance of Mortierellomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Mortierella. LEfSe analysis showed that modified treatments altered the fungal community biomarkers. Correlation analysis showed that pH and available potassium were the main environmental factors affecting fungal community structure. The results can provide scientific basis for improving saline-alkali soil and increasing soil nutrients in Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia.


Assuntos
Álcalis , Fungos , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Solo/química , Fungos/classificação , Álcalis/química , China , Fertilizantes , Dinâmica Populacional , Micobioma , Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Salinidade
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