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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(2): 124, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997335

RESUMO

Soil pH conditions have important consequences for microbial community structure, their dynamics, ecosystem processes, and interactions with plants. Low soil pH affects the growth and functional activity of bacterial biocontrol agents which may experience a paradigm shift in their ability to act antagonistically against fungal phytopathogens. In this study, the antifungal activity of an acid-tolerant soil bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MBNC was evaluated under low pH and compared to its activity in neutral pH conditions. Bacterial supernatant from 3-day-old culture (approximately 11.2 × 108 cells/mL) grown in low pH conditions was found more effective against fungal pathogens. B. amyloliquefaciens MBNC harboured genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites of which surfactin homologues, with varying chain length (C11-C15), were identified through High-Resolution Mass Spectroscopy. The pH of the medium influenced the production of these metabolites. Surfactin C15 was exclusive to the extract of pH 4.5; production of iturinA and surfactin C11 was detected only in pH 7.0, while surfactin C12, C13 and C14 were detected in extracts of both the pH conditions. The secretion of phytohormones viz. indole acetic acid and gibberellic acid by B. amyloliquefaciens MBNC was detected in higher amounts in neutral condition compared to acidic condition. Although, secretion of metabolites and phytohormones in B. amyloliquefaciens MBNC was influenced by the pH condition of the medium, the isolate retained its antagonistic efficiency against several fungal phyto-pathogens under acidic condition.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Fungos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipopeptídeos , Doenças das Plantas
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253156, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019095

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta
3.
Food Chem ; 374: 131763, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896953

RESUMO

Citrus pectin was used as a precursor and cellulose nanofibers as a reinforcing agent, a mixed aerogel with enhanced structural properties was prepared. Pickering emulsion was a template for aerogel formation, embedding thymol. Its potential application in humidity regulating packaging has been investigated. Results showed that emulsion gel containing cellulose nanofibers has slightly larger droplet diameter, better viscoelasticity and emulsification. Composite aerogel has larger pore size and thinner pore wall. Additionally, its tensile and compressive properties have been significantly improved. Moisture absorption was close to 100% of its own weight, thymol was released slowly. Compared with Escherichia coli, aerogel has better resistance to Staphylococcus aureus. When applied on fresh Agaricus bisporus. It was found that relative humidity in package can be stabilized at about 97%. Hardness, color, total phenol content, cell membrane integrity and total antioxidant capacity of Agaricus bisporus were maintained and fresh-keeping period was extended to 5 days.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Celulose , Embalagem de Alimentos , Fungos , Pectinas
4.
Food Chem ; 374: 131803, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915377

RESUMO

Edible fungi have high nutritional value and great potential. Confusion among edible fungi species, and foodborne diseases due to toadstool poisoning or death induced by inadvertent consumption exist across the world. Therefore, edible fungi must be accurately identified. Based on different substances in edible fungi, there are different detection methods, and the same method can use different identification technology. Sensory identification methods include morphological and odor methods. Instrumental analysis methods based on chemical composition include chromatographic, mass spectrometry and spectral technology. Molecular biology identification methods based on nucleic acids include molecular marker technology, sequencing technology, isothermal amplification technology and endogenous reference gene method. Method is channel, and technology is the means. The principles, advantages, disadvantages and applications of various identification techniques and detection methods were discussed in this work to provide reference for the identification research of edible fungi and technical support for preventing food safety incidents caused by toadstools.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Fungos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Análise Espectral
5.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126899, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715448

RESUMO

The mangrove is an ecosystem bounded by the line of the largest tide in size that occurs in climatic and subtropical regions. In this environment, microorganisms and their enzymes are involved in a series of transformations and nutrient cycling. To evaluate the biotechnological potential of fungi from a mangrove ecosystem, samples from mangrove trees were collected at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex in Brazil and 40 fungal isolates were obtained, cultivated, and screened for hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes production, adaptation to salinity and genetic diversity. The results showed a predominance of hydrolytic enzymes and fungal tolerance to ≤ 50 g L-1 sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, a sign of adaptive halophilia. Through morphological and molecular analyses, the isolates were identified as: Trichoderma atroveride, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Epicoccum sp., Trichoderma sp., Gliocladium sp., Geotrichum sp. and Cryphonectria sp. The ligninolytic enzymatic potential of the fungi was evaluated in liquid cultures in the presence and absence of seawater and the highest activity of laccase among isolates was observed in the presence of seawater with M. arundinis (LB07), which produced 1,037 U L-1. Enzymatic extracts of M. arundinis fixed at 100 U L-1 of laccase partially decolorized a real textile effluent in a reaction without pH adjustment and chemical mediators. Considering that mangrove fungi are still few explored, the results bring an important contribution to the knowledge about these microorganisms, as their ability to adapt to saline conditions, biodegradation of pollutants, and enzymatic potential, which make them promising candidates in biotechnological processes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fungos , Lacase , Tolerância ao Sal , Águas Residuárias , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/genética , Resíduos Industriais , Lacase/genética , Lacase/metabolismo , Têxteis , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 350-359, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of bacteria to fermented tea is not clear and the associated research is relatively limited. To reveal the role of microorganisms in fermented tea processing, the microbial community and metabolites of Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT), a Chinese traditional fermented tea, were revealed via high-throughput sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). RESULTS: In FBT, bacterial communities had a higher abundance and diversity, Lactococcus and Bacillus were the main bacteria, and Eurotium was the predominant fungus. The predictive metabolic function indicated the pathways of cellular growth, environmental information, genetics and material metabolism of bacterial communities were abundant, whereas the fungal community predictive metabolic function was almost saprotroph. Using LC-MS, 1143 and 536 metabolites were defined in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. There were essential correlations between bacterial populations and metabolites, such that Bacillus was correlated significantly with 44 metabolites (P < 0.05) and Enterococcus was significantly associated with 15 metabolites (P < 0.05). Some of the main active components were significantly correlated with the bacteria, such as Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Carnobacterium. CONCLUSION: Not only Eurotium, but also the bacteria were involved in the changes of metabolomics profile in fermented FBT. The present study assists in providing new insights into metabolomics profile generation in fermented tea. The present research lays a foundation for controlling the FBT fermentation by artificial inoculation to improve quality. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Fermentação , Fungos/química , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Chá/química
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 407-416, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydric stress affects the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide, making some tools necessary to cope with the decrease in rainfall. A sustainable alternative is the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biofertilisers. Here, we analysed the effects of AMF strains adapted or non-adapted to hyper-arid conditions on the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of wheat grains from two cultivars with contrasting tolerance to osmotic stress (Ilustre, moderately tolerant; and Maxi, tolerant) grown with and without hydric stress. RESULTS: Eight phenolic compounds were detected, apigenin-C-pentoside-C-hexoside I being the most abundant and showing an increase of 80.5% when inoculated with the fungus Funneliformis mosseae (FM) obtained from Atacama Desert under normal irrigation with respect to non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. NM treatments were associated with higher grain yields. FM showed a noticeable effect on most phenolic compounds, with an increase up to 30.2% in apigenin-C-pentoside-C-hexoside III concentration under hydric stress with respect to normal irrigation, being also responsible for high antioxidant activities such as ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activities. CONCLUSION: Inoculation with FM adapted to hydric stress produced improvements in phenolics composition and antioxidant activities in grains from wheat plants growing under hydric stress conditions, improving their food quality and supporting the development of further studies to determine whether the use of adapted AMF could be a realistic tool to improve grain quality in a scenario of increasing hydric stress conditions. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/química , Fungos/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Fenóis/química , Sementes/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131567, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343920

RESUMO

Soil bacterial community (SBC) and fertility are pivotal for the evaluation of phytoremediation performance. Although affected by earthworms (E) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), little is known about the impacts of the E-AMF interaction on the variation of SBC and fertility in cadmium (Cd)-spiked soil. We elucidated these impacts in rhizosphere soil of Solanum nigrum L. Loss of nutrient availability, and SBC diversity was observed in Cd-polluted soil. AMF increased available phosphorous (AP), whereas E increased available potassium (AK). In soils with 60 and 120 mg/kg Cd, the contents of AK, AP, and soil organic matter (SOM) increased by 7.0-19.7%, 23.7-25.5%, and 11.5-17.4%, respectively; and the residual Cd after remediation decreased by 7.9-8.5% in soils treated with EAM compared to untreated soil. EAM-treated soil had higher alpha diversity estimators compared to uninoculated soil. The predominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 72.5-84.0%. Redundancy analysis showed that total carbon (TC), SOM, pH, and C/N ratio were key factors determining SBC at the phylum level, explaining 26.9, 24.1, 15.1, and 14.8% of the total variance, respectively. These results suggested that EAM affected SBC composition by altering SOM, TC, and C/N ratio. The E-AMF cooperation ameliorates soil nutrients, SBC diversity, and composition, facilitating phytoextraction processes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Fertilidade , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131644, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346335

RESUMO

The application of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is increasing in all walks of life, inevitably resulting in a high risk of ENMs entering the natural environment. Recent studies have demonstrated that phytoaccumulation of ENMs in the environment may be detrimental to plants to varying degrees. However, plants primarily assimilate ENMs through the roots, which are inevitably affected by rhizomicroorganisms. In this review, we focus on a group of common rhizomicroorganisms-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi contribute to ENMs immobilization and inhibition of phytoaccumulation, improvement of host plant growth and activation of systematic protection in response to excess ENMs stress. In present review, we summarize the biological responses of plants to ENMs and the modulatory mechanisms of AMF on the immobilization of ENMs in substrate-plant interfaces, and indirectly regulatory mechanisms of AMF on the deleterious effects of ENMs on host plants. In addition, the information of feedback of ENMs on mycorrhizal symbiosis and the prospects of future research on the fate and mechanism of phyto-toxicity of ENMs mediated by AMF in the environment are also addressed. In view of above, synergistic reaction of plants and AMF may prove to be a cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to bio-control potential ENMs contamination on a sustainable basis.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Nanopartículas , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Simbiose
10.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131945, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426272

RESUMO

Vermicomposting of food waste amended with biochar and cow dung was studied during a 90-day composting period. The improvement of the vermicomposting process by adding three mangrove fungal species as additional amendments were studied. The use of mangrove fungi Acrophialophora jodhpurensis as a bio-catalytic actor during vermicomposting proved to be beneficial in terms of final compost quality (available N, P and K) and the shortening of the composting period. All three fungal species, however, reached the neutral pH at the end of the composting period and appeared to be beneficial. Heavy metal (Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) concentrations decreased throughout the composting process. Food waste can be treated using vermicomposting with biochar, cow dung and the mangrove fungi A. jodhpurensis. The final vermicomposting product is suitable for agricultural use.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Fungos , Sordariales
11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131874, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426280

RESUMO

Wastewater imposes a great threat to any ecosystem across the world, especially the aquatic one because of the different anthropogenic activities of human beings. The present study emphasizes the optimization of ecological parameters [pH, time (h) and temperature (°C)] employing Box-Behnken design (BBD) to achieve better bio-adsorption of a selected heavy metal [lead (Pb II)] from the wastewater through an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of a benthic fungus, Aspergillus penicillioides (F12) (MN210327). The relevant statistical analysis (ANOVA) has enabled to record of the optimized bio-adsorption (73.14 %) of lead (Pb II) by fungal EPS at pH (8.85) and temperature (32 °C) for a duration of 5.74 h. Besides that, at the concentration of 0.5 mg/L of EPS, the flocculating rate was noted to be highest (88.4 %) in kaolin clay and the 50 % emulsifying activity. This investigation has also opened up new vistas on the possibility of the development of an alternative method of eco-sustainable bioremediation of heavy metals by fungal EPS on an industrial scale.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Metais Pesados , Adsorção , Aspergillus , Ecossistema , Fungos , Humanos , Chumbo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149843, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455279

RESUMO

Losses of microbial diversity in degraded ecosystems still have obscure consequences, especially when considering the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil bacteria. This study investigates the effect of decreasing microbial biomass on mycorrhizal attributes and soil quality indicators. The dilution-to-extinction approach was applied in microcosms to search for associations among bacterial diversity, mycorrhizal attributes, and soil quality indicators. The experiment was conducted with four soil treatments (undiluted control 100 = D0, 10-3 = D3, 10-6 = D6, and 10-9 = D9) from a short-term (two years = 2Y) and a long-term (15 years = 15Y) coal mine revegetation area. Microcosms were inoculated with 300 spores of Acaulospora colombiana, Gigaspora albida, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum with millet as the host plant. Results included the total number of AMF spores, mycorrhizal colonization, soil aggregation, glomalin, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA), basal soil respiration, microbial biomass, and soil bacterial microbiome. Larger differences were observed between areas than between dilution treatments within the sampling area. Attributes that presented differences in the dilutions compared to D0 2Y samples were mycorrhizal colonization (D0 = 85% and D9 = 43.3%), FDA (D0 = 77.2% and D9 = 55.5%), extractable glomalin-related soil protein (D0 = 0.09 and D9 = 0.11) and bacterial diversity (D0 = 7.3 and D6 = 5.3). D0 15Y samples presented differences in microbial biomass nitrogen (D0: 232.0) and bacterial diversity (D0: 7.9, D9: 5.6) compared to the dilutions. Bacterial microbiome present in the D0 samples formed distinct clusters as to other samples and correlated with soil aggregation and basal respiration attributes. Results suggest that AMF inoculation and dilution-to-extinction did not affect soil quality indicators preeminently, but the bacterial community is affected and can influence the process of environmental revegetation. A long-term revegetation period is substantial to improve quality indicators and establish the diversity of microorganisms and consequently revegetation in areas impacted by coal mining.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Microbiota , Micorrizas , Biomassa , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132026, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461328

RESUMO

The applications of biogenic Mn oxides (BMOs) formed by Mn-oxidizing fungus in decontaminating heavy metals have attracted increasing attention. In this study, an efficient Mn-oxidizing fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Cladosporium halotolerans strain XM01. The Mn(II) adsorption and oxidation activities of this strain were investigated, showing significantly high removal and oxidation rates of soluble Mn(II) of 99.9% and 88.2%, respectively. Dynamic analysis of the Mn(II) removal process demonstrated the oxidation process of Mn(II) to Mn(III) was the rate-limiting step in the Mn(II) metabolic process. The XRD and SAED characterization showed that more layers were orderly accumulated along the c-axis with the formation of fungal BMOs, which might lead to the decrease in its specific surface area. The adsorption of Cd(II) by the formed BMOs was investigated and compared with two typical abiotic Mn oxides, indicating that the adsorption capacity decreased with the following order: immature BMO, mature BMO, δ-MnO2, acid birnessite, while the fixation capacity decreased in the order of acid birnessite, mature BMO, δ-MnO2, immature BMO. The inverse correlation between the capacity of Cd(II) adsorption and fixation of immature and mature BMOs was probably attributed to the increase in the layer stacking of BMOs. This result indicates an interesting phenomenon of high reservation of Cd(II) resulting from sequential transformation from strong adsorption to strong fixation with the formation of BMOs. This study offers considerable insights into fungal Mn oxidation mechanisms and provides theoretical guidance for fungal BMOs in heavy metals bioremediation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Manganês , Manganês , Adsorção , Cádmio , Cladosporium , Fungos , Oxirredução , Óxidos
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127392, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879582

RESUMO

Many studies have proved the impacts of nanoplastic pollution in freshwaters on aquatic organisms and ecosystems. To explore toxic mechanisms of nanoplastics on stream functioning, we conducted a microcosm experiment to investigate the effects of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs, 1-100 µg L-1) on the process of leaf litter decomposition mediated by the microbial community. The chronic exposure to PS NPs at 1 and 100 µg L-1 caused significant decreases in leaf litter decomposition and nutrient (carbon and nitrogen) releases. During the ecological process, some extracellular enzymes (i.e., ß-glucosidase, glycine-aminopeptidase, and phenol oxidase) rather than fungal biomass were suppressed. Besides, decreases in the relative abundance of Anguillospora and Setophaeosphaeria weakened their functions in leaf litter decomposition. Thus, the microcosm experiment showed that PS NPs inhibited stream leaf decomposition by modulating the microbial metabolic activity and fungal community structure. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence for the consequences of nanoplastic pollution on freshwater microbial community and stream ecosystem functioning, which is conducive to evaluate the potential risks of nanoplastics in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Microbiota , Micobioma , Ecossistema , Fungos , Microplásticos , Folhas de Planta , Rios
15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 30-42, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397162

RESUMO

Resistance to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is crucial for field-persistent control efficacies of fungal formulations against arthropod pests, because their active ingredients are formulated conidia very sensitive to solar UV wavelengths. This review seeks to summarize advances in studies aiming to quantify, understand and improve conidial UV resistance. One focus of studies has been on the many sets of genes that have been revealed in the postgenomic era to contribute to or mediate UV resistance in the insect pathogens serving as main sources of fungal insecticides. Such genetic studies have unveiled the broad basis of UV-resistant molecules including cytosolic solutes, cell wall components, various antioxidant enzymes, and numerous effectors and signaling proteins, that function in developmental, biosynthetic and stress-responsive pathways. Another focus has been on the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying photorepair of UV-induced DNA lesions and photoreactivation of UV-impaired conidia. Studies have shed light upon a photoprotective mechanism depending on not only one or two photorepair-required photolyases, but also two white collar proteins and other partners that play similar or more important roles in photorepair via interactions with photolyases. Research hotspots are suggested to explore a regulatory network of fungal photoprotection and to improve the development and application strategies of UV-resistant fungal insecticides. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Desoxirribodipirimidina Fotoliase , Inseticidas , Desoxirribodipirimidina Fotoliase/genética , Fungos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Esporos Fúngicos , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 104-115, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungus-growing termites (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) are common forest and agriculture pests. To evaluate the efficacy of termite baiting in suppressing field population of fungus-growing termites, a durable termite bait with hexaflumuron was evenly installed in a one-hectare forest area dominated by a fungus-growing termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki). Monthly monitoring of termite foraging activity on baits and wood stakes was conducted for 4 years to quantify efficacy of baits. To examine whether the hexaflumuron led to colony death, pesticides in fungus gardens of active and deceased nests were quantified using a LC-QTOF/MS. RESULTS: After baiting, 50% and 90% of baits were fed upon 10 and 24 months, respectively. After 2 years of baiting, the monthly number of wood stakes occupied by termites was reduced from 34.7 ± 1.8 to 17.6 ± 2.5 (-49.1%), and the number of wood stakes consumed was reduced from 17.7 ± 0.8 to 13.3 ± 1.2 (-25.7%). Hexaflumuron was detected in deceased colonies, including five of six fungus gardens and the fungal tissue of Xyleria grown on fungus gardens, with a concentration of 0.31-20.11 mg kg-1 dry weight. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that durable hexaflumuron baits consumed by fungus-growing termites were further incorporated into fungus gardens, resulted in colony elimination and negative area-population effects, supporting that durable hexaflumuron baits are effective in suppressing field populations of fungus-growing termites. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Isópteros , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Fungos , Compostos de Fenilureia , Controle da População
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 150728, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606856

RESUMO

Sewers are important parts of wastewater treatment facilities and the fungal microbial communities therein make large contributions to the biotransformation of wastewater. Therefore, this experiment constructed an experimental sewer system and characterized the fungal microbial communities using ITS high-throughput sequencing technology in combination with network structure analysis and statistical correlation analysis methods. The results demonstrated that the overall diversity of the fungal communities gradually increased as growth phases progressed, but the dominant groups differed significantly among phases. In the early growth phase (RS1) the dominant genera were Apiotrichum and Inocybe, with abundances of 34% and 14%, respectively, while the middle and late growth phases (RS2 and RS3) were dominated by Candida, with a relative abundance of 47%-66%. CCA and correlation analysis showed that the fungal communities diversity from the artificial sewers had significant positive correlations with COD (r2 = 0.44, p < 0.05) and NH4+ (r2 = 0.64, p < 0.05) and that environmental factors significantly influenced the abundances of Fusarium and Aspergillus. Network analysis revealed differences in the fungal groups representing key nodes during different periods. Candida, Trichosporon, Fusarium, and Aspergillus played important roles in the microbial ecosystem of the simulated sewer systems. This study provides data-supported insight into the bacterial-fungal interaction mechanisms and associated pollutant biodegradation technologies in sewers.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Micobioma , Biofilmes , Fungos , Simbiose
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150857, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626638

RESUMO

Nutrient loss from terrestrial ecosystems via leaching and gaseous emissions is increasingly threatening global environmental and human health. Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to regulate soil N and P losses, a comprehensive quantitative overview of their influences on the losses of these soil nutrients across global scales is currently lacking. This study used a meta-analysis of 322 observations from 36 studies to assess the effect of AMF inoculum on 11 variables related to the loss of soil N and P. We found that the presence of AMF significantly reduced soil N and P losses, with the most pronounced reduction occurring in soil NO3--N (-32%), followed by total P (-21%), available P (-16%) and N2O (-10%). However, the mitigation effects of AMF on soil N and P loss were dependent on the identity of AMF inoculum, plant type and soil biotic and abiotic factors. Generally, the mitigation effects of AMF increased with increasing AMF root colonization rate, microbial diversity of inoculants, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and experimental duration as well as with decreasing soil sand contents and soil N and P availability. Overall, this meta-analysis highlights the importance of AMF inoculation in mitigating N and P nutrient loss and environmental pollution for terrestrial ecosystem sustainability.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Carbono , Ecossistema , Fungos , Humanos , Micorrizas/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150148, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520919

RESUMO

Root exudates play essential roles in shaping root-associated microbial communities in plant-soil systems. However, knowledge regarding the influence of root exudates on soil communities, particularly concerning their assembly processes and species coexistence patterns, remains limited. In this study, we performed a 20-month pot experiment using a nitrogen (N) addition gradient (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 g N m-2 yr-1), amplicon sequencing, and metabolomics to investigate the effect of short-term N addition on the assembly process and species coexistence of fungal communities, as well as their association with root exudates in the rhizosphere and bulk soils around Bothriochloa ischaemum. The results demonstrated that short-term N addition led to distinct differences in the diversity, composition, assembly process, and co-occurrence networks of fungal communities in the rhizosphere and bulk soils. The diversity of fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil increased with the rate of N input and peaked at N10 treatment; this could be correlated with the increased abundance in long-chain organic acids (LCOAs). However, above the threshold N rate of 10 g N m-2 yr-1, diversity decreased probably because of the high N-induced inhibitory effect on root exudates (i.e., LCOAs). N addition increased the relative abundance of Sordariomycetes in the rhizosphere and decreased the relative abundance of Mortierellomycetes in the bulk soil, while enhancing the abundance of pathotrophs in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The rhizosphere fungal community was dominated by a stochastic process at a low N input (N0 and N2.5) and by deterministic processes at a high N input (N10 and N15), which is opposite to the trends in the bulk soil. These fungal assembly processes determine the coexistence of fungal species; deterministic processes lead to less interconnected networks in rhizosphere soils that harbor a more complex network than the bulk soil. Associations between the assembly process and species coexistence in the rhizosphere of B. ischaemum were closely related to the changes in root exudates, such as amino acids, short-chain organic acids, and phenols, which were stimulated by N addition. Collectively, our study emphasizes the key roles of root exudates in the establishment of fungal communities in the plant-soil system and furthers our understanding of plant-microbe interactions.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Rizosfera , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt A): 126200, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710591

RESUMO

Biomass represents an abundant and inexpensive source of sugars and aromatic compounds that can be used as raw materials for conversion into value-added bioproducts. Filamentous fungi are sources of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in nature. Understanding the interactions between enzymes is crucial for optimizing biomass degradation processes. Herein, the concept of the interactome is presented as a holistic approach that depicts the interactions among enzymes, substrates, metabolites, and inhibitors. The interactome encompasses several stages of biomass degradation, starting with the sensing of the substrate and the subsequent synthesis of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes (fungus-substrate interaction). Enzyme-enzyme interactions are exemplified in the complex processes of lignocellulosic biomass degradation. The enzyme-substrate-metabolite-inhibitor interaction also provides a better understanding of biomass conversion, allowing bioproduct production from recalcitrant agro-industrial residues, thus bringing greater value to residual biomass. Finally, technological applications are presented for optimizing the interactome at various levels.


Assuntos
Fungos , Lignina , Biomassa , Parede Celular , Hidrólise
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