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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(6): 215, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39004693

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of cobiotic (CO) composed of organic fructans powder of Agave tequilana and turmeric powder of Curcuma longa L. as an alternative of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on growth performance, blood parameters, intestinal pH, oxidative stress, and cytokines serum levels of broiler chickens. A total of 135 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers distributed to five experimental groups, which included starter or finisher standard diets without AGPs (CON), CON + 0.25 COLI-ZIN g/kg feed (AGP), CON + 0.1 g Agave fructans/kg feed (AF), CON + 0.5 g turmeric powder/kg feed (TP) and CON + 0.1 g AF + 0.5 g TP /kg feed (CO), for 49 days. AF followed by TP, decreased feed intake, obtaining the best FCR. AGP increased the heterophil-lymphocyte ratio compared to other groups. CO significantly decreased the pH of the cecal content. AF increased IL-10 levels, while TP decreased it. AF decreased the IL-1ß levels. The present study showed that including a cobiotic based on AF and TP or components separately in a broilers diet improved growth performance, modified intestinal and cecum pH, and stimulated the immune system, which suggests CO as a safe alternative to AGP.


Assuntos
Agave , Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/sangue , Frutanos/administração & dosagem , Frutanos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Agave/química , Dieta/veterinária , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Curcuma/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Comp Neurol ; 532(7): e25657, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987912

RESUMO

The tectofugal pathway is a highly conserved visual pathway in all amniotes. In birds and mammals, retinorecipient neurons located in the midbrain roof (optic tectum/superior colliculus) are the source of ascending projections to thalamic relays (nucleus rotundus/caudal pulvinar), which in turn project to specific pallial regions (visual dorsal ventricular ridge [vDVR]/temporal cortex) organized according to a columnar recurrent arrangement of interlaminar circuits. Whether or to which extent these striking hodological correspondences arise from comparable developmental processes is at present an open question, mainly due to the scarcity of data about the ontogeny of the avian tectofugal system. Most of the previous developmental studies of this system in birds have focused on the establishment of the retino-tecto-thalamic connectivity, overlooking the development of the thalamo-pallial-intrapallial circuit. In this work, we studied the latter in chicken embryos by means of immunohistochemical assays and precise ex vivo crystalline injections of biocytin and DiI. We found that the layered organization of the vDVR as well as the system of homotopic reciprocal connections between vDVR layers were present as early as E8. A highly organized thalamo-vDVR projection was also present at this stage. Our immunohistochemical assays suggest that both systems of projections emerge simultaneously even earlier. Combined with previous findings, these results reveal that, in striking contrast with mammals, the peripheral and central stages of the avian tectofugal pathway develop along different timelines, with a tecto-thalamo-intrapallial organization arising before and possibly independently of the retino-isthmo-tectal circuit.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Colículos Superiores , Tálamo , Vias Visuais , Animais , Vias Visuais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embrião de Galinha , Tálamo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colículos Superiores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 295: 110163, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959807

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection and vaccination against live attenuated infectious bronchitis virus (aIBV) are frequent in poultry worldwide. Here, we evaluated the clinical effect of H9N2 subtype AIV and QX genotype aIBV co-infection in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens and explored the potential mechanisms underlying the observed effects using by 4D-FastDIA-based proteomics. The results showed that co-infection of H9N2 AIV and QX aIBV increased mortality and suppressed the growth of SPF chickens. In particular, severe lesions in the kidneys and slight respiratory signs similar to the symptoms of virulent QX IBV infection were observed in some co-infected chickens, with no such clinical signs observed in single-infected chickens. The replication of H9N2 AIV was significantly enhanced in both the trachea and kidneys, whereas there was only a slight effect on the replication of the QX aIBV. Proteomics analysis showed that the IL-17 signaling pathway was one of the unique pathways enriched in co-infected chickens compared to single infected-chickens. A series of metabolism and immune response-related pathways linked with co-infection were also significantly enriched. Moreover, co-infection of the two pathogens resulted in the enrichment of the negative regulation of telomerase activity. Collectively, our study supports the synergistic effect of the two pathogens, and pointed out that aIBV vaccines might increased IBV-associated lesions due to pathogenic co-infections. Exacerbation of the pathogenicity and mortality in H9N2 AIV and QX aIBV co-infected chickens possibly occurred because of an increase in H9N2 AIV replication, the regulation of telomerase activity, and the disturbance of cell metabolism and the immune system.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Coinfecção/virologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Replicação Viral , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Genótipo , Virulência , Proteômica , Rim/virologia , Rim/patologia
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1399732, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39006743

RESUMO

Tigecycline serves as a last-resort antimicrobial agent against severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Tet(X) and its numerous variants encoding flavin-dependent monooxygenase can confer resistance to tigecycline, with tet(X4) being the most prevalent variant. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and characterize tigecycline resistance gene tet(X) in E. coli isolates from various origins in Yangzhou, China, to provide insights into tet(X) dissemination in this region. In 2022, we tested the presence of tet(X) in 618 E. coli isolates collected from diverse sources, including patients, pig-related samples, chicken-related samples, and vegetables in Yangzhou, China. The antimicrobial susceptibility of tet(X)-positive E. coli isolates was conducted using the agar dilution method or the broth microdilution method. Whole genome sequencing was performed on tet(X)-positive strains using Illumina and Oxford Nanopore platforms. Four isolates from pig or pork samples carried tet(X4) and exhibited resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents, including tigecycline. They were classified as ST542, ST10, ST761, and ST48, respectively. The tet(X4) gene was located on IncFIA8-IncHI1/ST17 (n=2), IncFIA18-IncFIB(K)-IncX1 (n=1), and IncX1 (n=1) plasmids, respectively. These tet(X4)-carrying plasmids exhibited high similarity to other tet(X4)-bearing plasmids with the same incompatible types found in diverse sources in China. They shared related genetic environments of tet(X4) associated with ISCR2, as observed in the first identified tet(X4)-bearing plasmid p47EC. In conclusion, although a low prevalence (0.65%) of tet(X) in E. coli strains was observed in this study, the horizontal transfer of tet(X4) among E. coli isolates mediated by pandemic plasmids and the mobile element ISCR2 raises great concerns. Thus, heightened surveillance and immediate action are imperative to curb this clinically significant resistance gene and preserve the efficacy of tigecycline.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tigeciclina , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , China , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Suínos , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Verduras/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16021, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992055

RESUMO

Environmental conditions profoundly impact the health, welfare, and productivity of laying hens in commercial poultry farming. We investigated the association between microclimate variations, production indices, and histopathological responses to accidental Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection within a controlled closed-house system. The study was conducted over seven months in a laying hen facility in Cairo, Egypt. Microclimate measurements included temperature, relative humidity (RH%), air velocity (AV), and the temperature humidity index (THI) that were obtained from specific locations on the front and back sides of the facility. Productivity indices, including the egg production percentage (EPP), egg weight (EW), average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio, were assessed monthly. During an NDV outbreak, humoral immune responses, gross pathology, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) variations in EPP and EW between the front and back sides except in April and May. AV had a significant (p = 0.006) positive effect (Beta = 0.346) on EW on the front side. On the back side, AV had a significant (p = 0.001) positive effect (Beta = 0.474) on EW, while it negatively influenced (p = 0.027) EPP (Beta = - 0.281). However, temperature, RH%, and THI had no impact and could not serve as predictors for EPP or EW on either farm side. The humoral immune response to NDV was consistent across microclimates, highlighting the resilience of hens. Histopathological examination revealed characteristic NDV-associated lesions, with no significant differences between the microclimates. This study underscores the significance of optimizing microclimate conditions to enhance laying performance by providing tailored environmental management strategies based on seasonal variations, ensuring consistent airflow, particularly near cooling pads and exhaust fans, and reinforcing the importance of biosecurity measures under field challenges with continuous monitoring and adjustment.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doença de Newcastle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Feminino , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Egito , Microclima , Temperatura
6.
J Comp Neurol ; 532(7): e25653, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38962885

RESUMO

The sound localization behavior of the nocturnally hunting barn owl and its underlying neural computations is a textbook example of neuroethology. Differences in sound timing and level at the two ears are integrated in a series of well-characterized steps, from brainstem to inferior colliculus (IC), resulting in a topographical neural representation of auditory space. It remains an important question of brain evolution: How is this specialized case derived from a more plesiomorphic pattern? The present study is the first to match physiology and anatomical subregions in the non-owl avian IC. Single-unit responses in the chicken IC were tested for selectivity to different frequencies and to the binaural difference cues. Their anatomical origin was reconstructed with the help of electrolytic lesions and immunohistochemical identification of different subregions of the IC, based on previous characterizations in owl and chicken. In contrast to barn owl, there was no distinct differentiation of responses in the different subregions. We found neural topographies for both binaural cues but no evidence for a coherent representation of auditory space. The results are consistent with previous work in pigeon IC and chicken higher-order midbrain and suggest a plesiomorphic condition of multisensory integration in the midbrain that is dominated by lateral panoramic vision.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Galinhas , Sinais (Psicologia) , Colículos Inferiores , Localização de Som , Animais , Colículos Inferiores/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
7.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 48(2): 117-119, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958466

RESUMO

This case report was prepared to provide information about Menacanthus pallidulus (Neumann, 1912), which was detected for the first time on a domestic chicken in Hatay province of Türkiye. Louse specimens collected from a chicken by a student were brought to Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology, and sent to Selçuk University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology, for identification of species and microscopic examination revealed the presence of Menacanthus pallidulus (Neumann, 1912). Thus, with this study, the presence of M. pallidulus on domestic chickens was recorded for the first time in Türkiye.


Assuntos
Amblíceros , Galinhas , Infestações por Piolhos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Turquia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Amblíceros/classificação , Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Feminino
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 66(1): 27, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterakis gallinarum (H. gallinarum) is a common poultry parasite that can be found in the ceca of many gallinaceous bird species, causing minor pathology and reduced weight gain. Most infections go unnoticed in commercial flocks due to the dependence on fecal egg counts, which are prone to false-negative diagnoses. Furthermore, there is a lack of research on gastrointestinal nematodes that use molecular identification methods, which could be essential for rapid diagnosis and developing efficient control approaches. As a result, the study aimed to look at the cause of mortality in layer chickens induced by H. gallinarum in Egyptian poultry farms using morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular characterization. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and cell-mediated immune responses from damaged cecal tissues were also examined. RESULTS: Seventy bird samples from ten-layer flocks of different breeds (Native, white, and brown layers) suffering from diarrhea, decreased egg output, and emaciation were collected. Cecal samples were collected from affected and non-affected birds and were examined for parasitic diseases using light and a scanning electron microscope. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX1) gene was used to characterize H. gallinarum. Our results showed that the collected nematodal worms were identified as H. gallinarum (male and female), further confirmed by COX1 gene amplification and sequence alignment. Gene expression analysis of the inflammatory markers in infected tissues showed a significant up-regulation of IL-2, IFN-γ, TLR-4, and IL-1ß and a significant down-regulation of the anti-inflammatory IL-10. The mRNA level of the apoptotic cas-3 revealed apoptotic activity among the H. gallinarum samples compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results implemented the use of molecular methods for the diagnosis of Heterakis, and this is the first report showing the tissue immune response following infection in layers: upregulation of IL-1ß, IFN-γ, Il-2, and TLR-4, while down-regulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in cecal tissue, Cas-3 apoptotic activity and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)activity with immunophenotyping of T-cells in Heterakis infected tissue.


Assuntos
Ceco , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Tiflite , Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Tiflite/veterinária , Tiflite/parasitologia , Tiflite/patologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Ceco/patologia , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea , Egito
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(4): e1538, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is a rare essential element that plays a vital role in the health and performance of animals. By interfering in the production of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase and methionine sulfoxide, Se plays a role in reducing the effects of oxidative stress and animal performance. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet) in the diet of broiler breeder and old broiler breeder roosters on productive performance, reproduction and sperm quality parameters. METHODS: For this purpose, 260 broiler breeders of the Ross 308 strain were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications (13 hens and one rooster in each replication). Experimental treatments included: (1) a basal diet without OH-SeMet (T1:control), (2) a broiler breeder diet without OH-SeMet and a rooster diet containing 0.1 mg/kg OH-SeMet (T2), (3) broiler breeder diet containing 0.1 mg/kg OH-SeMet and rooster diet without OH-SeMet (T3) and (4) broiler breeder and rooster diet contained 0.1 mg/kg OH-SeMet (T4). RESULTS: The results showed that T3 and T4 treatments improved egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control treatment (p < 0.05). The fertility and hatchability percentages of T4 and T2 treatments increased compared to T1 and T3 treatments (p < 0.05). The rate of embryonic losses in T1 was higher than in other treatments. However, grade one chickens were higher in T4 than in other treatments (p < 0.05). Total motility and viability of sperms were significantly higher in T2 and T4 treatments than in T1 and T3 treatments. The sperm abnormality percentage and sperm MDA concentration decreased in T2 and T4 treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, using OH-SeMet may be a practical approach to help old broiler breeders' production and reproduction performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Reprodução , Selenometionina , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Selenometionina/farmacologia , Selenometionina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Feminino , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Butiratos , Compostos de Selênio
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 414, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985204

RESUMO

Airborne animal viral pathogens can rapidly spread and become a global threat, resulting in substantial socioeconomic and health consequences. To prevent and control potential epidemic outbreaks, accurate, fast, and affordable point-of-care (POC) tests are essential. As a proof-of-concept, we have developed a molecular system based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) detection, an airborne communicable agent mainly infecting turkeys and chickens. For this purpose, a colorimetric system was obtained by coupling the LAMP technique with specific DNA-functionalized AuNPs (gold nanoparticles). The system was validated using 50 different samples (pharyngeal swabs and tracheal tissue) collected from aMPV-infected and non-infected chickens and turkeys. Viral detection can be achieved in about 60 min with the naked eye, with 100% specificity and 87.88% sensitivity for aMPV. In summary, this novel molecular detection system allows suitable virus testing in the field, with accuracy and limit of detection (LOD) values highly close to qRT-PCR-based diagnosis. Furthermore, this system can be easily scalable to a platform for the detection of other viruses, addressing the current gap in the availability of POC tests for viral detection in poultry farming. KEY POINTS: •aMPV diagnosis using RT-LAMP is achieved with high sensitivity and specificity. •Fifty field samples have been visualized using DNA-nanoprobe validation. •The developed system is a reliable, fast, and cost-effective option for POCT.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ouro , Metapneumovirus , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/economia , Galinhas/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/economia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Ouro/química , Perus , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Limite de Detecção , Colorimetria/métodos , DNA Viral/genética
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 412, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985354

RESUMO

The filamentous bacteriophage M13KO7 (M13) is the most used in phage display (PD) technology and, like other phages, has been applied in several areas of medicine, agriculture, and in the food industry. One of the advantages is that they can modulate the immune response in the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses. This study evaluated the use of phage M13 in the chicken embryos model. We inoculated 13-day-old chicken embryos with Salmonella Pullorum (SP) and then evaluated survival for the presence of phage M13 or E. coli ER2738 (ECR) infected with M13. We found that the ECR bacterium inhibits SP multiplication in 0.32 (M13-infected ECR) or 0.44 log UFC/mL (M13-uninfected ECR) and that the ECR-free phage M13 from the PD library can be used in chicken embryo models. This work provides the use of the chicken embryo as a model to study systemic infection and can be employed as an analysis tool for various peptides that M13 can express from PD selection. KEY POINTS: • SP-infected chicken embryo can be a helpful model of systemic infection for different tests. • Phage M13 does not lead to embryonic mortality or cause serious injury to embryos. • Phage M13 from the PD library can be used in chicken embryo model tests.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago M13 , Escherichia coli , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Escherichia coli/virologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Bacteriófago M13/genética , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular/métodos , Salmonella , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15999, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987556

RESUMO

Efforts are underway to develop technology for automatically determining the sex of chick embryos, aimed at establishing a stable and efficient poultry farming system while also addressing animal welfare concerns. This study investigated the possibility of chick sexing through blood analysis using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were obtained from whole blood and its constituents, such as red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma, collected from chicks aged 1-2 days, using a 785-nm excitation wavelength. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed statistically significant sex-dependent spectral variations in whole blood and RBCs, whereas blood plasma showed less clear dependency. These spectral differences between male and female chicks were attributed to differences in the proportion of spectral components from oxygenated (oxy-) and deoxygenated (deoxy-) RBCs, with males exhibiting a slightly stronger contribution of oxy-RBCs compared to females. This reflects the higher oxygen affinity of hemoglobin (Hb) in males compared to females. A model for discriminating chick sex was built using the ratios of certain Raman band characteristics of oxy-RBCs and deoxy-RBCs, achieving a sensitivity of 100%. This spectroscopic method holds promise for developing technology to discriminate the sex of early chicken embryos in ovo by detecting differences in oxygen saturation of RBCs based on sex.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Eritrócitos , Análise Espectral Raman , Animais , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Galinhas/sangue , Embrião de Galinha , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/métodos , Hemoglobinas/análise
13.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lincomycin (LIN) is extensively used for treating diseases in livestock and promoting growth in food animal farming, and it is frequently found in both the environment and in food products. Currently, most of the methods for detecting lincomycin either lack sensitivity and precision or require the use of costly equipment such as mass spectrometers. RESULT: In this study, we developed a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UVD) method and used it to detect LIN residue in 11 types of matrices (pig liver and muscle; chicken kidney and liver; cow fat, liver and milk; goat muscle, liver and milk; and eggs) for the first time. The tissue homogenates and liquid samples were extracted via liquid-liquid extraction, and subsequently purified and enriched via sorbent and solid phase extraction (SPE). After nitrogen drying, the products were derivatized with p-toluene sulfonyl isocyanic acid (PTSI) (100 µL) for 30 min at room temperature. Finally, the derivatized products were analyzed by HPLC at 227 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the method displayed impressive performance and demonstrated its reliability and practicability, with a limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of LIN in each matrix of 25-40 µg/kg and 40-60 µg/kg, respectively. The recovery ranged from 71.11% to 98.30%. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that this method had great selectivity, high sensitivity, satisfactory recovery and cost-effectiveness-fulfilling the criteria in drug residue and actual detection requirements-and proved to have broad applicability in the field of detecting LIN in animal-derived foods.


Assuntos
Lincomicina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Animais , Lincomicina/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Suínos , Galinhas , Limite de Detecção , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cabras , Bovinos , Ovos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise
14.
Molecules ; 29(13)2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999173

RESUMO

Ovalbumin (OVA), a protein vital for chick embryo nutrition, hydration, and antimicrobial protection, together with other egg-white proteins, migrates to the amniotic fluid and is orally absorbed by the embryo during embryogenesis. Recently, it has been shown that for optimal eggshell quality, the hen diet can be supplemented with manganese. Although essential for embryonic development, manganese in excess causes neurotoxicity. This study investigates whether OVA may be involved in the regulation of manganese levels. The binding of Mn(II) to OVA was investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The results show that OVA binds a maximum of two Mn(II) ions, one with slightly weaker affinity, even in a 10-fold excess, suggesting it may have a protective role from Mn(II) overload. It seems that the binding of Mn(II), or the presence of excess Mn(II), does not affect OVA's tertiary structure, as evidenced from fluorescence and UV/vis measurements. Comparative analysis with bovine and human serum albumins revealed that they exhibit higher affinities for Mn(II) than OVA, most likely due to their essentially different physiological roles. These findings suggest that OVA does not play a role in the transport and storage of manganese; however, it may be involved in embryo protection from manganese-induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Homeostase , Manganês , Ovalbumina , Manganês/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Bovinos , Galinhas
15.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999816

RESUMO

Dietary diversity is one of the fundamental factors of nutritional security and a proxy used to measure diet quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between village chicken availability and the dietary diversity of households along a rural-urban gradient. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire in rural (n = 100), peri-urban (n = 100), and urban (n = 100) areas of Pietermaritzburg uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, in South Africa. A positive relationship between distance from the city center and village chicken flock sizes (p < 0.001) was observed. Consumption of vegetables increased with an increase in distance from the city center (p < 0.01). A quadratic relationship was observed between distance from the city center and consumption of livestock-derived foods (LDFs) (p < 0.05). Consumption of LDFs increased with an increase in village chicken flock sizes (p < 0.05). Consumption of vegetables increased with an increase in village chicken flock sizes (p < 0.01). Food variety score (FVS) increased with an increase in distance from the city center (p < 0.05). Assessing the availability of village chickens across rural-urban gradients is a worthy opportunity to utilize to improve households' dietary diversity and alleviate poverty. It can be concluded that expanding village flock sizes could enhance the dietary diversity of households.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Dieta , População Rural , População Urbana , Animais , África do Sul , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Características da Família , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000258

RESUMO

Currently, there is a dearth of in-depth analysis and research on the impact of canthaxanthin on the production performance, egg quality, physical characteristics, and offspring health of laying hens. Furthermore, the metabolic mechanism of cantharidin in the body remains unclear. Therefore, to solve the above issues in detail, our study was conducted with a control group (C group), a low-dose canthaxanthin group (L group), and a high-dose canthaxanthin group (H group), each fed for a period of 40 days. Production performance was monitored during the experiment, in which L and H groups showed a significant increase in ADFI. Eggs were collected for quality analysis, revealing no significant differences in qualities except for yolk color (YC). The YC of the C group almost did not change, ranging from 6.08 to 6.20; however, the trend in YC change in other groups showed an initial intense increase, followed by a decrease, and eventually reached dynamic equilibrium. By detecting the content of canthaxanthin in the yolk, the YC change trend was found to be correlated with canthaxanthin levels in the yolk. The content of unsaturated fatty acid increased slightly in L and H groups. Following the incubation period, the physical characteristics and blood biochemical indices of chicks were evaluated. It was observed that the shank color of chicks in the L and H groups was significantly higher than that in the C group at birth. However, by the 35th day, there were no significant differences in shank color among the three groups. Further investigation into the metabolic mechanism involving canthaxanthin revealed that the substance underwent incomplete metabolism upon entering the body, resulting in its accumulation as well as metabolic by-product accumulation in the yolk. In summary, this study highlighted the importance of understanding canthaxanthin's role in production performance, egg quality, and offspring health, providing valuable insights for breeders to optimize feeding strategies.


Assuntos
Cantaxantina , Galinhas , Gema de Ovo , Animais , Cantaxantina/metabolismo , Feminino , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/química , Ovos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000259

RESUMO

Molecular breeding accelerates animal breeding and improves efficiency by utilizing genetic mutations. Structural variations (SVs), a significant source of genetic mutations, have a greater impact on phenotypic variation than SNPs. Understanding SV functional mechanisms and obtaining precise information are crucial for molecular breeding. In this study, association analysis revealed significant correlations between 198-bp SVs in the GSTA2 promoter region and abdominal fat weight, intramuscular fat content, and subcutaneous fat thickness in chickens. High expression of GSTA2 in adipose tissue was positively correlated with the abdominal fat percentage, and different genotypes of GSTA2 exhibited varied expression patterns in the liver. The 198-bp SVs regulate GSTA2 expression by binding to different transcription factors. Overexpression of GSTA2 promoted preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, while interference had the opposite effect. Mechanistically, the 198-bp fragment contains binding sites for transcription factors such as C/EBPα that regulate GSTA2 expression and fat synthesis. These SVs are significantly associated with chicken fat traits, positively influencing preadipocyte development by regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Our work provides compelling evidence for the use of 198-bp SVs in the GSTA2 promoter region as molecular markers for poultry breeding and offers new insights into the pivotal role of the GSTA2 gene in fat generation.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Galinhas , Glutationa Transferase , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Animais , Adipogenia/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000537

RESUMO

This research compared how different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) affect the growth performance, nitrogen utilization, serum parameters, protein synthesis, and amino acid (AA) metabolism in broilers aged 1 to 10 days. In a 4 × 3 factorial experimental design, the broilers were fed four levels of dietary CP (20%, 21%, 22%, and 23%) and three levels of dietary AME (2800 kcal/kg, 2900 kcal/kg, and 3000 kcal/kg). A total of 936 one-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 6 replications each. Growth performance, nitrogen utilization, serum parameter, gene expression of protein synthesis, and AA metabolism were evaluated at 10 d. The results revealed no interaction between dietary CP and AME levels on growth performance (p > 0.05). However, 22% and 23% CP enhanced body weight gain (BWG), the feed conversion ratio (FCR), total CP intake, and body protein deposition but had a detrimental effect on the protein efficiency ratio (PER) compared to 20% or 21% CP (p < 0.05). Broilers fed diets with 2800 kcal/kg AME showed increased feed intake (FI) and inferior PER (p < 0.05). Broilers fed diets with 3000 kcal/kg AME showed decreased muscle mRNA expression of mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) and Atrogin-1 compared to those fed diets with 2800 kcal/kg and 2900 kcal/kg AME (p < 0.05). Increasing dietary CP level from 20% to 23% decreased muscle mTOR and increased S6K1 mRNA expression, respectively (p < 0.05). The muscle mRNA expression of Atrogin-1 was highest for broilers fed 23% CP diets (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and Liver alanine aminotransferase of the 22% and 23% CP groups were higher than those of 20% CP (p < 0.05). Significant interactions between dietary CP and AME levels were observed for muscle AMPK and liver lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR) and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) mRNA expression (p < 0.05). Dietary AME level had no effect on muscle AMPK mRNA expression for broilers fed 21% and 22% CP diets (p > 0.05), whereas increasing dietary AME levels decreased AMPK mRNA expression for broilers fed 23% CP diets (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of LKR and BCKDH was highest for broilers fed the diet with 2800 kcal/kg AME and 22% CP, while it was lowest for broilers fed the diet with 3000 kcal/kg AME and 20% CP. The findings suggest that inadequate energy density hindered AA utilization for protein synthesis, leading to increased AA catabolism for broilers aged 1 to 10 days, and a dietary CP level of 22% and an AME level of 2900 to 3000 kcal/kg may be recommended based on performance and dietary protein utilization.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Ração Animal , Galinhas , Proteínas Alimentares , Metabolismo Energético , Nitrogênio , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Alimentares/metabolismo , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(6): 199, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981927

RESUMO

The study compared nutrient intake and growth performance of local chickens to that of local x broiler crossbreds under scavenging and indoor conventional systems. A total of 48 male and 48 female chickens for each of the two chicken types were allocated to four outdoor free-range pens. The chickens were allowed to scavenge whilst being supplemented with sorghum plus kitchen waste and broiler growers from week 5 to week 13 of age. The same design was repeated using the indoor conventional system. Local chickens and their crosses with broilers had higher growth rates under the scavenging system than the indoor production system (P < 0.05). Local chickens and their crosses with broilers had the same growth rates when fed the same diet (P > 0.05). Crop and gizzard contents from local chickens had the same crude protein as their crosses with broilers under both systems (P > 0.05). The crude protein values of crop and gizzard contents ranged from 25.4 to 30.4%. Crop and gizzard contents from scavenging chickens had energy content ranging from 16.2 to 17.1 MJ/Kg which was lower (P < 0.05) than that from chickens under the indoor conventional system (20.3 to 25.8 kJ/Kg). Iron content ranged from 655.7 to 1619.4 mg/Kg in scavenging chickens and 156.1 to 621.4 mg/Kg in enclosed chickens. Chickens of the same type had higher iron content in their crop and gizzard contents under the scavenging system than the conventional system (P < 0.05). Crossbreds between local chickens and broilers matches the scavenging abilities of the local chickens but have lower growth rates under the scavenging system.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Estado Nutricional , Papo das Aves , Moela das Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
PLoS Genet ; 20(7): e1011341, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954736

RESUMO

The drug floxuridine (5-fluorodeoxyuridine, FUdR) is an active metabolite of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). It converts to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate (FdUTP), which on incorporation into the genome inhibits DNA replication. Additionally, it inhibits thymidylate synthase, causing dTMP shortage while increasing dUMP availability, which induces uracil incorporation into the genome. However, the mechanisms underlying cellular tolerance to FUdR are yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying cellular resistance to FUdR by screening for FUdR hypersensitive mutants from a collection of DT40 mutants deficient in each genomic maintenance system. We identified REV3, which is involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), to be a critical factor in FUdR tolerance. Replication using a FUdR-damaged template was attenuated in REV3-/- cells, indicating that the TLS function of REV3 is required to maintain replication on the FUdR-damaged template. Notably, FUdR-exposed REV3-/- cells exhibited defective cell cycle arrest in the early S phase, suggesting that REV3 is involved in intra-S checkpoint activation. Furthermore, REV3-/- cells showed defects in Chk1 phosphorylation, which is required for checkpoint activation, but the survival of FUdR-exposed REV3-/- cells was further reduced by the inhibition of Chk1 or ATR. These data indicate that REV3 mediates DNA checkpoint activation at least through Chk1 phosphorylation, but this signal acts in parallel with ATR-Chk1 DNA damage checkpoint pathway. Collectively, we reveal a previously unappreciated role of REV3 in FUdR tolerance.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Replicação do DNA , Floxuridina , Floxuridina/farmacologia , Animais , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/metabolismo , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/genética , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Galinhas , Humanos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Síntese de DNA Translesão , Desoxiuridina/análogos & derivados
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