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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261578, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384110

RESUMO

Three hundred and twenty day old Hubbard broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments (8 replicates, 10 birds/pen) and were raised under standard management conditions. Birds in the first group served as control and were fed a corn based diet, while birds in the remaining three groups i.e.; A, B and C were fed with a basal diet supplemented with copper nanoparticles (CuNP) at 5, 10 and 15 mg /kg of diet respectively for 35 days. Supplementation of CuNP linearly increased (P≤0.05) body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed intake (FI) in broilers. Uric acid, glucose levels in blood and feed conversion ratio (FCR) reduced linearly (P≤0.05) with CuNP supplementation in diet. Supplementation of CuNP in the diet also linearly increased (P≤0.05) tibia weight, length, diameter, weight/length index (W/L) and Tibiotarsal index (TT index). Inclusion of CuNP in broilers diet linearly increased the measured parameters of muscle i.e.; pH, fiber diameter, fiber cross-sectional area, fascicle diameter, fascicle cross-sectional area (P≤0.05). Concentration of copper, iron, calcium and phosphorous in blood also increased line-arly (P ≤ 0.05) with CuNP supplementation. Overall, CuNP positively affected the growth performance, histological characteristics of muscles, bone strength and serum metabolites in broilers.


Frangos de corte Hubbard com 320 dias de idade foram alocados aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos (8 repetições, 10 aves/curral) e foram criados em condições de manejo padrão. As aves do primeiro grupo serviram como controle e foram alimentadas com uma dieta à base de milho, enquanto as aves dos três grupos restantes, ou seja, A, B e C, foram alimentadas com dieta basal suplementada com nanopartículas de cobre (CuNP) a 5, 10 e 15 mg/kg de dieta, respectivamente, por 35 dias. A suplementação de CuNP aumentou linearmente (P ≤ 0,05) o peso corporal (PC), o ganho de peso médio diário (GPDA) e o consumo de ração (FI) em frangos de corte. O ácido úrico, os níveis de glicose no sangue e a conversão alimentar (TCF) reduziram linearmente (P ≤ 0,05) com a suplementação de CuNP na dieta. A suplementação de CuNP na dieta também aumentou linearmente (P ≤ 0,05) peso, comprimento, diâmetro, índice peso/comprimento (P/L) e índice tibiotársico (índice TT) da tíbia. A inclusão de CuNP na dieta de frangos de corte aumentou linearmente os parâmetros medidos de músculo, ou seja; pH, diâmetro da fibra, área da seção transversal da fibra, diâmetro do fascículo, área da seção transversal do fascículo (P ≤ 0,05). A concentração de cobre, ferro, cálcio e fósforo no sangue também aumentou linearmente (P ≤ 0,05) com a suplementação de CuNP. No geral, CuNP afetou positivamente o desempenho de crescimento, características histológicas dos músculos, resistência óssea e metabólitos séricos em frangos de corte.


Assuntos
Animais , Ácido Úrico , Aumento de Peso , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre , Dieta , Nanopartículas
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257179, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374667

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induces colibacillosis, an acute and systemic disease, resulting in substantial economic losses in the poultry sector. This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern associated with frequent virulence gene distribution in APEC O78:K80 that may cause pathological alterations in chickens. The antibiogram profile showed high resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin, and co-trimoxazole, followed by intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and doxycycline hydrochloride, and sensitive to amikacin, streptomycin, gentamicin, and colistin. Virulence gene distribution identifies eight (irp-2, iutA, ompT, iss, iucD, astA, hlyF, iroN) genes through a conventional polymerase chain reaction. APEC O78:K80 caused significantly high liver enzyme concentrations, serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in experimental birds. Also, infected birds have hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Necropsy examination revealed fibrinous perihepatitis and pericarditis, congested lungs, intestinal ecchymotic hemorrhages and necrotizing granulomatosis of the spleen. Histopathological examination depicted hepatocellular degeneration, myocardial necrosis, interstitial nephritis, intestinal hemorrhages and lymphopenia in the spleen. This study is the first evidence to assess the antibiotic resistance profile linked with virulence genes and clinicopathological potential of APEC O78:K80 in chickens in Pakistan, which could be a useful and rapid approach to prevent and control the disease by developing the control strategies.


A Escherichia coli patogênica aviária (APEC) induz a colibacilose, uma doença aguda e sistêmica, resultando em perdas econômicas substanciais no setor avícola. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o padrão de resistência a antibióticos associado à frequente distribuição de genes de virulência em APEC O78:K80 que podem causar alterações patológicas em galinhas. O perfil do antibiograma mostrou alta resistência à eritromicina, cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, ampicilina e cotrimoxazol; resistência intermediária à ciprofloxacina, levofloxacina, enrofloxacina, norfloxacina, nitrofurantoína e cloridrato de doxiciclina; e sensível à amicacina, estreptomicina, gentamicina e colistina . A distribuição de genes de virulência identificou oito genes (irp-2, iutA, ompT, iss, iucD, astA, hlyF e iroN) por meio de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase convencional. A APEC O78:K80 causou concentrações significativamente altas de enzimas hepáticas, níveis séricos de interleucina-6 e fator de necrose tumoral alfa em aves experimentais. Além disso, aves infectadas apresentaram hipoproteinemia, hipoalbuminemia e hiperglobulinemia. O exame de necropsia revelou peri-hepatite e pericardite fibrinosa, pulmões congestos, hemorragias equimóticas do intestino e granulomatose necrosante do baço. O exame histopatológico mostrou degeneração hepatocelular, necrose miocárdica, nefrite intersticial, hemorragias intestinais e linfopenia no baço. Este estudo é a primeira evidência para avaliar o perfil de resistência a antibióticos associado a genes de virulência e potencial clínico-patológico de APEC O78:K80 em galinhas no Paquistão, o que pode ser uma abordagem útil e rápida para prevenir e controlar a doença por meio do desenvolvimento de estratégias de controle.


Assuntos
Animais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e243238, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360207

RESUMO

The use of alternative nutritional sources is an important topic for animal production such as poultry. This study examined the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower leaf meal in the diet of laying shaver brown pullets. A total of 30 laying birds were assigned to three treatments of 0% (as control group), 10% and 15% MSFLM inclusion. Four eggs per replicate were randomly taken for three consecutive days at two weeks interval for five times, and 18 weeks individuals were selected after 40 days of experimental time. External parameters of the eggs (egg weight, egg length, egg breadth and egg shape index, shell thickness), and body parameters (Final body weight, weight gain), feed intake and hen day production were measured. For egg length, egg breadth and shell thickness showed significant difference (p< 0.05) in from the control birds. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and hen day production showed comparable results with values from eggs of birds on control diet. The study revealed the ability of birds to easily utilize the nutrients in the protein sources. MSFLM utilization up to 15% in pullets' diet revealed no detrimental effect on the performance of the laying birds and the external qualities of eggs produced.


O uso de fontes nutricionais alternativas é um tópico importante para a produção animal, como a avicultura. Este estudo examinou o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de folha de girassol na dieta de frangas marrons barbeadoras poedeiras. Um total de 30 aves poedeiras foram designadas a três tratamentos de 0% (como grupo controle), 10% e 15% de inclusão MSFLM. Quatro ovos por repetição foram retirados aleatoriamente por três dias consecutivos em intervalos de duas semanas por cinco vezes, e indivíduos de 18 semanas foram selecionados após 40 dias do tempo experimental. Parâmetros externos dos ovos (peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e índice de forma do ovo, espessura da casca) e parâmetros corporais (peso corporal final, ganho de peso), consumo de ração e produção diária da galinha foram medidos. Para comprimento do ovo, largura do ovo e espessura da casca apresentaram diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas aves controle. Peso corporal final, ganho de peso, consumo de ração e produção de dia de galinha mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​com valores de ovos de aves em dieta controle. O estudo revelou a capacidade das aves de utilizar facilmente os nutrientes das fontes de proteína. A utilização de MSFLM até 15% na dieta das frangas não revelou nenhum efeito prejudicial no desempenho das aves poedeiras e nas qualidades externas dos ovos produzidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Helianthus
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859

RESUMO

Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.


Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Probióticos , Galinhas , Lactobacillus , Ração Animal/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 133977, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994857

RESUMO

In this work, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) was applied to compare the lipidomics profile of chicken breast meat heated to various temperatures. A total of 445 lipids including phospholipids, diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, glycoglycerolipids, and sphingolipids were detected in chicken muscle. Significant decreases in a list of characteristic unsaturated phospholipid species including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol were identified after heating, suggesting the occurrence of lipid oxidation, while significant increases in characteristic lysophospholipid species were found with increasing heating temperature, which were mainly derived from hydrolysis of phospholipids. Moreover, ether phospholipid and neutral lipid species exhibited remarkable changes during the heating process, and monoalk(en)yl diacylglycerol was first identified in chicken meat. The findings could contribute to the improved understanding of key lipids and biochemical reactions engaged in the heating of meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Lipidômica , Animais , Carne , Fosfolipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
6.
Food Chem ; 399: 134004, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037691

RESUMO

Intensive systems of raising chickens in barns prevail worldwide for financial reasons. In contrast, free-range chickens are raised in better welfare conditions, and preferred by consumers due to their distinctive taste/flavor, having higher market prices. Thus, free-range chickens have been the target of frauds. In this study, 1H NMR metabolic profiles of breasts of free-range and barn-raised broilers (108 individuals) were compared by two discriminant models, based on t-test ranking and partial least squares (PLS-DA). Both models provided 100 % of correct classification in both training and test sets, being the univariate model based on t-test screening simpler and more robust. Among other differences, barn-raised broilers presented lower carnosine and anserine concentrations, and higher free amino acids contents. Univariate discrimination was based on the ratio of two NMR signals assigned to ß-alanine and carnosine + anserine, respectively. As an additional advantage, this profiling method could be adapted to other measurement platforms.


Assuntos
Anserina , Carnosina , Animais , Anserina/análise , Carnosina/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos
7.
Food Chem ; 399: 134020, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037694

RESUMO

The effect of freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles on the digestive and protein structural properties of chicken breasts during in vitro digestion was investigated. With F-T cycles increased, the hardiness, chewiness, and shear force of chicken breasts increased, whereas the digestibility decreased, and particle size of digestive samples increased was evidenced by laser particle size analyzer and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestibility of the fifth F-T cycle samples in pepsin and pepsin/trypsin decreased by 25.99% and 11.82% compared to fresh samples, respectively. During F-T cycles, the disruption of protein structure was confirmed by the α-Helix decrease, ß-sheet increase, the intrinsic tryptophan intensities decrease and a redshift in the maximum value. Therefore, F-T cycles destroyed protein structure and induced the protein aggregation, resulting in chicken that was difficult to digest in the simulated digestion. The phenomenon became more acute as the number of F-T cycles increased.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Pepsina A , Animais , Digestão , Congelamento , Carne/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 399: 133824, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041335

RESUMO

Innovative pH-colorimetric sensor film was fabricated from agar and methylcellulose matrix (AM) with various concentrations of sunflower wax (SFW) (6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% w/w) combined with purple Chinese cabbage (CPC) anthocyanins for tracking chicken breast freshness. A bio-composition film AM/CPC with (hydrophobic) SFW exhibited significant color variations in acidic pH level of (2-6) and a slight shift in alkaline pH levels ranging from (7-12), as well as marked color change due to ammonia vapor. Microstructure analyses revealed that SFW was fixed effectively into the AM-CPC matrices. The incorporation of varying SFW concentrations enhanced the mechanical, thermal, antioxidant activity, reduced anthocyanin release and physical properties (mainly water vapor permeability), with the best performance at AM/CPC/9% SFW. Interestingly, SFW films demonstrated perfect defense opposing UV-vis and visible light. Finally, it was proved that the efficiency of the pH-colorimetric film as an indicator for evaluating the freshness of chicken breast.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Brassica , Helianthus , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Biomarcadores , Galinhas , China , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
9.
Food Chem ; 398: 133913, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964560

RESUMO

This experiment investigated the underlying mechanism of ultrasonic-assisted stewing to enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by measuring fat content, oil droplet sizes, zeta potential, viscosity, surface protein loading, lipid oxidation, and aroma compound concentrations. As the thermo-ultrasound time increased, the fat content increased from 0.3 % to 1.2 %, resulting in a milky white appearance. After 1 h of thermo-ultrasound, the broth had the smallest particle size and the highest surface protein load, viscosity, and emulsion stability, as well as the highest total amount of aroma-active compounds of 314.70 ng/mg. With the further extension of thermo-ultrasound time, lipid oxidation increased, but the stability of chicken broth decreased, lowering the content of aroma-active compounds. These outcomes suggested that thermo-ultrasound could enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by increasing the fat content and the emulsion stability of the broth.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Odorantes , Animais , Emulsões/química , Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana , Odorantes/análise , Ultrassom
10.
Food Chem ; 398: 133869, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964565

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) formation inhibited by cyanidin and rutin in chemical modeling systems and smoked chicken drumsticks. In the PhIP and ß-carboline chemical modeling systems, cyanidin inhibited the PhIP, Harman, and Norharman formation while rutin inhibited the PhIP formation but promoted the Harman and Norharman formation compared with control sample (P < 0.05). A mechanistic investigation confirmed that inhibiting the PhIP formation by cyanidin was mainly through trapping phenylalanine, creatine, creatinine, glucose, phenylacetaldehyde, and an aldol condensation product. In the smoked chicken drumsticks, cyanidin inhibited the PhIP, Harman, and Norharman formation dose-dependently compared to the control sample (P < 0.05), with 2.0 % (w/v) cyanidin having the highest inhibitory effect. Moreover, cyanidin inhibited the formation of PhIP precursors and intermediates in the smoked chicken drumsticks. These results provide evidence for using phenolic compounds to reduce HAA formation in smoked meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Compostos Heterocíclicos , Aminas/química , Animais , Antocianinas , Culinária/métodos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Temperatura Alta , Carne/análise , Rutina , Fumaça
11.
Food Chem ; 398: 133874, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964567

RESUMO

The influence of ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing (UF), immersion freezing (IF), and air freezing (AF) on the protein oxidation, structure, and thermal stability of chicken breast during frozen storage was evaluated in this study. Compared to IF and AF samples, the UF samples had a lower carbonyl content, dityrosine content, and surface hydrophobicity of myofibrillar protein (MP) (P < 0.05), as well as a higher free amino group content and total and reactive sulfhydryl content (P < 0.05). Moreover, UF significantly delayed the deterioration of protein secondary and tertiary structures and the decrease in protein thermal stability during frozen storage (P < 0.05). Additionally, the UF samples at 180 days had similar protein structures and quality characteristics to the IF samples at 90 days or the AF samples at 60 days. Overall, UF treatment can effectively retard protein oxidation, protein structure deterioration, and protein thermal stability loss caused by frozen storage.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Proteínas , Animais , Congelamento , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estabilidade Proteica
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115687, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084819

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Global interest in phytogenic feed additives as alternatives to antibiotics in feed has been spurred by the banning of antibiotic growth promoters by several countries. Suitable plant extracts for development of phytogenic feed additives should have therapeutic value and should also be safe. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-lipoxygenase activities as well as cytotoxicity of selected plant species used in poultry ethnomedicine in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Antibacterial activity was determined against three ATCC strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis) and two clinical strains isolated from chickens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Gallinarum) using a two-fold serial microdilution assay. Qualitative antibacterial bioautography was also carried out using the ATCC strains. Antioxidant activities of crude acetone and methanol extracts were determined using free radical scavenging assays whilst anti-lipoxygenase activity was evaluated using a ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) on Vero monkey kidney cells. RESULTS: Erythrina abyssinica had the best antibacterial activity against both ATCC strains and clinical strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.02 to 0.156 mg/ml. Aloe greatheadii, Adenia gummifera (leaves), Senna singueana and Aloe chabaudii had moderate activity against the poultry pathogens. Bioautography showed that all ten plant species have antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms with E. abyssinica and S. singueana having prominent bands of inhibition against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The acetone extract of S. singueana and the methanol extract of Euphorbia matabelensis had the most powerful antioxidant activities with mean IC50 values of 1.43 µg/ml and 1.31 µg/ml respectively in the ABTS assay which were comparable with those of the positive controls (ascorbic acid and trolox). Bobgunnia madagascariensis, A. chabaudii, E. abyssinica and Tridactyle bicaudata extracts had reasonable antioxidant activity. The S. singueana extract had the most potent anti-lipoxygenase activity with a mean IC50 value of 1.72 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity results showed that only the acetone extracts of A. greatheadii and S. singueana were relatively safe at concentrations that were active against the tested microorganisms (selective index >1). Regarding anti-lipoxygenase activity, extracts of B. madagascariensis, S. singueana, T. bicaudata and E. matabelensis were more active than toxic (selective index >5) indicating anti-inflammatory potential. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that S. singueana had a cocktail of therapeutic activity and supports further investigation of this plant species for development of phytogenic poultry feed additives. Other plant species with noteworthy biological activities include B. madagascariensis, E. abyssinica, A. greatheadii, T. bicaudata and E. matabelensis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Acetona , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Radicais Livres , Medicina Tradicional , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Aves Domésticas , Zimbábue
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 384: 109981, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306546

RESUMO

Poultry meat has been a vehicle of antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. Yet, the diversity of selective pressures associated with their maintenance in the poultry-production chain remains poorly explored. We evaluated the susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. from chicken meat collected 20 years apart to antibiotics, metals, acidic pH and peracetic acid-PAA. Contemporary chicken-meat samples (n = 53 batches, each including a pool of neck skin from 10 single carcasses) were collected in a slaughterhouse facility using PAA as disinfectant (March-August 2018, North of Portugal). Broilers were raised in intensive farms (n = 29) using CuSO4 and organic acids as feed additives. Data were compared with that of 67 samples recovered in the same region during 1999-2001. All 2018 samples had multidrug resistant-MDR isolates, with >45 % carrying Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus gallinarum resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol or aminoglycosides. Resistance rates were similar (P > 0.05) to those of 1999-2001 samples for all but five antibiotics. The decrease of samples carrying vancomycin-resistant isolates from 46 % to 0 % between 1999-2001 and 2018 was the most striking difference. Isolates from both periods were similarly susceptible to acid pH [minimum-growth pH (4.5-5.0), minimum-survival pH (3.0-4.0)] and to PAA (MIC90 = 100-120 mg/L/MBC90 = 140-160 mg/L; below concentrations used in slaughterhouse). Copper tolerance genes (tcrB and/or cueO) were respectively detected in 21 % and 4 % of 2018 and 1999-2001 samples. The tcrB gene was only detected in E. faecalis (MICCuSO4 > 12 mM), and their genomes were compared with other international ones of chicken origin (PATRIC database), revealing a polyclonal population and a plasmid or chromosomal location for tcrB. The tcrB plasmids shared diverse genetic modules, including multiple antimicrobial resistance genes (e.g. to tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B-MLSB, aminoglycosides, bacitracin, coccidiostats). When in chromosome, the tcrB gene was co-located closely to merA (mercury) genes. Chicken meat remains an important vehicle of MDR Enterococcus spp. able to survive under diverse stresses (e.g. copper, acid) potentially contributing to these bacteria maintenance and flux among animal-environment-humans.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Enterococcus faecium , Animais , Humanos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Enterococcus , Aminoglicosídeos , Cloranfenicol , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Carne/microbiologia
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 385: 110000, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370528

RESUMO

Peracetic acid (PAA) applied to whole poultry carcasses can reduce the number of Campylobacter, a leading cause of human gastroenteritis. However, previous modelling experiments indicated that Campylobacter survived in greater numbers when pre-treated with a thermal stress equivalent to poultry processing scalding prior to chilling with PAA than when subject to chilling with PAA only. To better understand how Campylobacter responds to PAA, proteomes of C. jejuni poultry strain 2704 were measured after exposure to PAA (60 ppm, pH 4.0) for 45 min under laboratory ambient conditions (approximately 23 °C) to establish a foundational map of survival mechanism before combining with other stresses. Analysis of 580 quantified proteins did not indicate a triggered "peroxide shock" response, nor were common heat shock responses detected. Thioredoxin, iron homeostatic, peroxiredoxins and cytochrome c peroxidases became more abundant suggesting that PAA disturbed cytoplasmic redox homeostasis resulting in antioxidant activation and increased prioritisation of iron homeostasis. The PAA treatment led to responses that included an increased priority for oxidative phosphorylation and a simultaneous decrease in central metabolism associated protein abundances. Lon protease was induced suggesting it has a role in maintaining homeostasis during non-thermal stress. Proteins in flagella and chemotaxis became more abundant though whether PAA has a chemorepellent effect requires further investigation. Overall, the proteome data suggests there was a rapid cellular response to applied PAA stress in the first 15 min with the adaptation to the stress completing between 30 and 45 min. The findings will help guide PAA implementation in commercial poultry processing in terms of processing location and length of application.


Assuntos
Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Animais , Humanos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas , Proteoma , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Galinhas , Ferro
15.
J Comp Neurol ; 531(1): 149-169, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222577

RESUMO

The Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an mRNA binding protein that is essential for neural circuit assembly and synaptic plasticity. Loss of functional FMRP leads to Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by sensory dysfunction including abnormal auditory processing. While the central mechanisms of FMRP regulation have been studied in the brain, whether FMRP is expressed in the auditory periphery and how it develops and functions remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the spatiotemporal distribution pattern of FMRP immunoreactivity in the inner ear of mice, rats, gerbils, and chickens. Across species, FMRP was expressed in hair cells and supporting cells, with a particularly high level in immature hair cells during the prehearing period. Interestingly, the distribution of cytoplasmic FMRP displayed an age-dependent translocation in hair cells, and this feature was conserved across species. In the auditory ganglion (AG), FMRP immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal cell bodies as well as their peripheral and central processes. Distinct from hair cells, FMRP intensity in AG neurons was high both during development and after maturation. Additionally, FMRP was evident in mature glial cells surrounding AG neurons. Together, these observations demonstrate distinct developmental trajectories across cell types in the auditory periphery. Given the importance of peripheral inputs to the maturation of auditory circuits, these findings implicate involvement of FMRP in inner ear development as well as a potential contribution of periphery FMRP to the generation of auditory dysfunction in FXS.


Assuntos
Orelha Interna , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/metabolismo , Gerbillinae , Galinhas/metabolismo , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Orelha Interna/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257570

RESUMO

Selenium deficiency can lead to multiple tissue and organ damage in the body and could coexist with chronic toxic exposures. Contamination from Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure can induce the occurrence of various injuries including pyroptosis. However, it is not clear whether selenium deficiency and BPA exposure affect tracheal tissue pyroptosis in chickens. To investigate whether selenium deficiency and BPA exposure induce chicken tracheal tissue pyroptosis via the NF-κB/NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway and the effect of their combined exposure on tissue injury, we developed a model of relevant chicken tracheal injury. Sixty broilers were divided into four groups: the control group (C group), selenium-deficient group (SeD group), BPA-exposed group (BPA group) and combined exposure group (SeD + BPA group). The study examined the expression indicators of markers of pyroptosis (NLRP3&GSDMD), NF-κB pathway-related inflammatory factors (NF-κB, iNOS, TNF-α, COX-2), pyroptosis-related factors (ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1ß, IL-18), and some heat shock proteins and interleukins (HSP60, HSP90, IL-6, IL-17) in the samples. The results showed that the expression of the above indicators was significantly upregulated in the different treatment groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the expression levels of the above related indicators were more significantly up-regulated in the combined selenium-deficient and BPA-exposed group compared to the group in which they were individually exposed. It was concluded that selenium deficiency and BPA exposure induced tracheal tissue pyroptosis in chickens through NF-κB/NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway, and BPA exposure exacerbated selenium deficiency-induced tracheal pyroptosis. The present study provides new ideas into studies related to the co-exposure of organismal micronutrient deficiency and chronic toxicants.


Assuntos
Piroptose , Selênio , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Caspase 1/farmacologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Traqueia
17.
Theriogenology ; 195: 122-130, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332371

RESUMO

Taihang chickens are a domestic breed distributed throughout Hebei province in the Taihang Mountains of China and are characterized by their high meat and egg quality. However, the relatively limited egg production by this breed constrains their more widespread commercial utilization. The follicle selection process is closely linked to oocyte development and ovulation, making it a key determinant of laying performance and fecundity in hens. To understand the biological basis for such follicle selection and to identify the associated regulatory pathways, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs from the pre-hierarchical follicles and hierarchical follicles of Taihang laying hens. We identified 81 lncRNAs and 528 mRNAs that were differentially expressed during follicle selection, and integrated network analyses suggested that these RNAs were associated with the cell cycle, focal adhesion, oocyte meiosis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling, and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways. The identified lncRNAs were also predicted to influence a series of target genes in cis and trans, suggesting that they may be important regulators of ovarian follicular development. Overall, the present analysis of lncRNA and mRNA expression patterns associated with ovarian follicle development offers a new foundation for future studies of reproductive physiology in Taihang chickens, highlighting new opportunities to improve the laying performance of this important domestic breed.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Feminino , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Galinhas/genética , Folículo Ovariano , Ovulação/genética
18.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114140, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228737

RESUMO

The effects of newt motilin on the contractility of the isolated gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Japanese fire belly newts (newt) were examined to clarify whether motilin regulates GI motility in urodele amphibians. In addition, contractile responsiveness to motilins from seven species of vertebrates (human, chicken, turtle, alligator, axolotol, newt and zebrafish) were compared in GI preparations from three different animals (rabbit duodenum, chicken ileum and newt stomach) to determine the species-specific action of motilin. Newt motilin (10-10 M - 10-6 M) caused a contraction of cognate gastric strips, while the upper, middle, and lower intestinal strips were insensitive. The rank order of motilins for contractile activity in newt gastric strips was newt > alligator > axolotol > chicken > turtle > human ≫ zebrafish. On the other hand, newt motilin caused a weak contraction in the rabbit duodenum (human > alligator = chicken > turtle > newt ≧ axolotol > zebrafish), and it was ineffective in the chicken ileum (chicken > turtle > alligator > human ≫ newt, axolotol and zebrafish). This study demonstrates that motilin induces contraction in the GI tract of a urodele amphibian, the newt, in a region (stomach)-specific manner and further indicates that a ligand-receptor interaction of the motilin system is a species-specific manner probably due to differences in the amino acid sequence of motilin.


Assuntos
Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal , Motilina , Contração Muscular , Animais , Humanos , Coelhos , Galinhas , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Motilina/química , Salamandridae , Estômago , Peixe-Zebra
19.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116573, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323114

RESUMO

Livestock manure is one of the main sources of heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural soil. So, it is necessary to reduce its bioavailability before used as organic fertilizer. In this study, the passivation effect of HMs and the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during four composting processes were explored. Results showed that different composting methods had a great effect on HMs passivation rate and humification degree. HMs were released during the thermophilic phase, and were bound by resynthesized humus during the cooling period. The best passivation effect of HMs was found in FV + T treatment, the passivation rate of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb reached 63.80%, 34.07%, 86.54% and 45.14%, respectively, then followed by the treatment of NV + T and SC. UV-Vis spectra and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra indicated that humus precursors were produced during thermophilic phase and the accumulation of humus mainly occurred in cooling period. This study can be used as a theoretical support for the safe utilization livestock manure.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Esterco , Galinhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Gado
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128241, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332871

RESUMO

Chicken manure is a source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and pathogenic microbes. Mikania micrantha Kunth (MM) is an invasive plant containing phytochemicals as antimicrobial agents. To explore its impacts on ARGs and pathogen-host interactions (PHIs), MM was added to composting mixtures. The findings indicated that compared with control (CK), MM significantly improved the phytochemical abundances, particularly stilbenoids and diarylheptanoids (4.87%), and ubiquinones (2.66%) in the treatment (T) compost. Besides, significant ARGs reduction was noted, where rpoB2, RbpA, FosB1, vatC, and vatB were removed from T compost. PHIs significantly declined in T compost, where the growth of Xanthomonas citri, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Fusarium graminearum, Vibrio cholerae, and Xanthomonas campestris were inhibited. Multiple variable analyses demonstrated that temperature and pH revealed a significant role in ARGs and PHIs decline. Accordingly, this study considerably recommends MM as a promising compost additive in terms of its antimicrobial potential toward pathogenic microbes and ARGs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Mikania , Animais , Esterco/análise , Galinhas/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Compostos Fitoquímicos
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