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1.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 42(05): 2893-2906, set.-out. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764903

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crushed sugarcane in the diet on the performance, bone characteristics and intestinal morphology of slow-growing broiler strains. A total of 448 chickens at 35 days of age were allotted to two randomized blocks in a 4×2 factorial arrangement (levels of feed replacement with crushed sugarcane, on a fresh-matter basis: 0, 15, 30, and 45%) and two strains (Pesadão and Label Rouge (LR)). Two replicates were used per block over time (containing the treatments and the strains), and 14 individuals were used per experimental unit. Weight gain and feed intake decreased linearly in response to the increasing sugarcane levels. Feed intake was higher in the Pesadão strain than in LR. Chicken foot weight was lower in Pesadão than in LR. There were no effects of sugarcane levels or strains on the tarsometatarsal bone weight, breaking strength, maximum load and deformation. The drymatter (DM) content of the tarsometatarsal bone was lower in LR than in Pesadão. The replacement of feed with sugarcane induced a linear increase in bone ash content and a decrease in bone phosphorus and calcium contents. Label Rouge chickens showed a greater crypt depth and lower values of villus/crypt ratio and mucosal layer thickness. The performance and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens are negatively affected by increasing sugarcane levels in the diet. In addition, the increasing intake of sugarcane changesthe bone mineral composition without reducing mechanical resistance, in both the Pesadão and Label Rouge strains.(AU)


O presente estudo foi realizado objetivando avaliar o desempenho, as características ósseas e a morfologia intestinal de duas linhagens de frangos tipo caipira alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar triturada. Foram utilizados 448 frangos aos 35 dias de idade, distribuídos em dois blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4x2, sendo quatro níveis de substituição (0; 15; 30 e 45%) da ração por cana-de-açúcar triturada e duas linhagens (Pesadão e Label Rouge (LR)), em duas repetições por bloco e 14 aves por unidade experimental. Foi observado redução linear com o aumento dos níveis de cana-de-açúcar sobre o ganho em peso e consumo de ração. O consumo de ração foi maior na linhagem Pesadão em relação à linhagem LR. No entanto, o peso do pé das aves foi menor para a linhagem Pesadão em comparação com a linhagem LR. Não foi observado efeitos da substituição da ração por cana-de-açúcar e das linhagens sobre o peso do osso tarsometatarso, carga de ruptura, força máxima e deformação. O teor de matéria seca do osso tarsometatarso foi menor para os animais LR em comparação com a linhagem Pesadão. A substituição da ração por cana-de-açúcar aumentou linearmente o teor de cinzas dos ossos e diminuiu o teor de fósforo e o de cálcio. A linhagem LR apresentou maior profundidade de criptas, menor relação vilosidade/cripta e espessura da camada da mucosa. O desempenho e a morfologia intestinal de frangos caipiras são afetados negativamente com o aumento dos níveis de cana-de-açúcar na dieta. Além disso, o aumento da ingestão de cana-de-açúcar altera a composição mineral óssea, sem prejudicar a resistência mecânica das linhagens Pesadão e LR. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Saccharum/efeitos adversos , Intestinos/anormalidades , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/veterinária
2.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 42(05): 2813-2824, set.-out. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764897

RESUMO

The genus Brachyspira corresponds to the group of bacteria formerly classified into the genus Serpulina and includes several commensal and pathogenic intestinal spirochetes that affect pigs, poultry, and other animal species, including humans. In birds, some pathogenic species of this genus causes a condition known as avian intestinal spirochetosis, which remains under diagnosed, thereby causing serious economic losses. Brachyspira is a fastidious organism that necessitates the employment of fast and efficient identification techniques. The aim of this study was to identify Brachyspira spp. using histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from the cecum of commercial poultry. Samples were collected from129 birds aged between 35 and 45 days from commercial broiler farms. For evaluation, routine histology processing (H&E) and the histochemical technique, periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) were done. Additionally, FFPE tissue samples were evaluated for FISH and IHC. The histological lesions were analyzed and graded after H&E staining, and the goblet cells were counted and compared using PAS staining with the positive and negative samples obtained through FISH and IHC. For FISH, probes labeled with Brachyspira spp., B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, and B. intermedia were used, where as rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for Brachyspira spp. was used for IHC. Of 129 samples, 82 were positive with IHC and 86 were positive with FISH. The samples positive for the genus Brachyspira in the FISH technique were tested for B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, and B. intermedia in which 56 were positive for B. pilosicoli, 75 for B. hyodysenteriae and 80 for B. intermedia. There was an increase in goblet cells in the samples positive for FISH and IHC. The techniques used were effective and gave corresponding results, thus serving as a fast and efficient tool for diagnosis.(AU)


O gênero Brachyspira corresponde ao grupo de bactérias anteriormente classificadas no gênero Serpulinae inclui várias espiroquetas intestinais comensais e patogênicas que afetam suínos, aves e outras espécies animais, incluindo humanos. Em aves, algumas espécies patogênicas desse gênero causam uma condição conhecida como espiroquetose intestinal aviária, que permanece sub-diagnosticada, causando sérios prejuízos econômicos. Brachyspira é um organismo fastidioso que necessita do emprego de técnicas de identificação rápidas e eficientes. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar Brachyspira spp. usando histologia, imunohistoquímica (IHQ) e hibridização fluorescente in situ (FISH) em amostras de tecido fixado em formalina e embebido em parafina (TFEP) do ceco de aves comerciais. As amostras foram coletadas de 129 aves com idades entre 35 e 45 dias em granjas comerciais. Para avaliação, o processamento histológico de rotina (H&E) e a técnica histoquímica, ácido periódico-Schiff (PAS) foram realizados. Além disso, as amostras de tecido TFEP foram avaliadas para FISH e IHC. As lesões histológicas foram analisadas e graduadas após coloração H&E, e as células caliciformes contadas e comparadas pela coloração PAS com as amostras positivas e negativas obtidas por FISH e IHC. Para FISH, foram utilizadas sondas marcadas com Brachyspira spp., B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae e B. intermedia, enquanto o anticorpo policlonal de coelho específico para Brachyspira spp. foi usado para IHC. De 129 amostras, 82 foram positivas com IHC e 86 foram positivas com FISH. As amostras positivas para o gênero Brachyspira pela técnica de FISH foram testadas para B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae e B. intermedia, sendo 56 positivas para B. pilosicoli, 75 para B. hyodysenteriae e 80 para B. intermedia. Houve aumento de células [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Brachyspira/química , Brachyspira/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária
3.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 70, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight (BW) is an economically important trait in the broiler (meat-type chickens) industry. Under the assumption of polygenicity, a "large" number of genes with "small" effects is expected to control BW. To detect such effects, a large sample size is required in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to conduct a GWAS for BW measured at 35 days of age with a large sample size. METHODS: The GWAS included 137,343 broilers spanning 15 pedigree generations and 392,295 imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A false discovery rate of 1% was adopted to account for multiple testing when declaring significant SNPs. A Bayesian ridge regression model was implemented, using AlphaBayes, to estimate the contribution to the total genetic variance of each region harbouring significant SNPs (1 Mb up/downstream) and the combined regions harbouring non-significant SNPs. RESULTS: GWAS revealed 25 genomic regions harbouring 96 significant SNPs on 13 Gallus gallus autosomes (GGA1 to 4, 8, 10 to 15, 19 and 27), with the strongest associations on GGA4 at 65.67-66.31 Mb (Galgal4 assembly). The association of these regions points to several strong candidate genes including: (i) growth factors (GGA1, 4, 8, 13 and 14); (ii) leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LEPROT)/leptin receptor (LEPR) locus (GGA8), and the STAT3/STAT5B locus (GGA27), in connection with the JAK/STAT signalling pathway; (iii) T-box gene (TBX3/TBX5) on GGA15 and CHST11 (GGA1), which are both related to heart/skeleton development); and (iv) PLAG1 (GGA2). Combined together, these 25 genomic regions explained ~ 30% of the total genetic variance. The region harbouring significant SNPs that explained the largest portion of the total genetic variance (4.37%) was on GGA4 (~ 65.67-66.31 Mb). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest GWAS that has been conducted for BW in chicken to date. In spite of the identified regions, which showed a strong association with BW, the high proportion of genetic variance attributed to regions harbouring non-significant SNPs supports the hypothesis that the genetic architecture of BW35 is polygenic and complex. Our results also suggest that a large sample size will be required for future GWAS of BW35.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 66, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In broiler production, breast muscle weight and intramuscular fat (IMF) content are important economic traits. Understanding the genetic mechanisms that underlie these traits is essential to implement effective genetic improvement programs. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression analyses have been performed to identify candidate genes for these traits. However, GWAS mainly detect associations at the DNA level, while differential expression analyses usually have low power because they are typically based on small sample sizes. To detect candidate genes for breast muscle weight and IMF contents (intramuscular fat percentage and relative content of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids), we performed association analyses based on breast muscle transcriptomic data on approximately 400 Tiannong partridge chickens at slaughter age. RESULTS: First, by performing an extensive simulation study, we evaluated the statistical properties of association analyses of gene expression levels and traits based on the linear mixed model (LMM) and three regularized linear regression models, i.e., least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), ridge regression (RR), and elastic net (EN). The results show that LMM, LASSO and EN with tuning parameters that are determined based on the one standard error rule exhibited the lowest type I error rates. Using results from all three models, we detected 43 candidate genes with expression levels that were associated with breast muscle weight. In addition, candidate genes were detected for intramuscular fat percentage (1), triglyceride content (2), cholesterol content (1), and phospholipid content (1). Many of the identified genes have been demonstrated to play roles in the development and metabolism of skeletal muscle or adipocyte. Moreover, weighted gene co-expression network analyses revealed that many candidate genes were harbored by gene co-expression modules, which were also significantly correlated with the traits of interest. The results of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses indicated that these modules are involved in muscle development and contraction, and in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides valuable insight into the transcriptomic bases of breast muscle weight and IMF contents in Chinese indigenous yellow broilers. Our findings could be useful for the genetic improvement of these traits in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
5.
Elife ; 102021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227464

RESUMO

How do large and unique brains evolve? Historically, comparative neuroanatomical studies have attributed the evolutionary genesis of highly encephalized brains to deviations along, as well as from, conserved scaling relationships among brain regions. However, the relative contributions of these concerted (integrated) and mosaic (modular) processes as drivers of brain evolution remain unclear, especially in non-mammalian groups. While proportional brain sizes have been the predominant metric used to characterize brain morphology to date, we perform a high-density geometric morphometric analysis on the encephalized brains of crown birds (Neornithes or Aves) compared to their stem taxa-the non-avialan coelurosaurian dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx. When analyzed together with developmental neuroanatomical data of model archosaurs (Gallus, Alligator), crown birds exhibit a distinct allometric relationship that dictates their brain evolution and development. Furthermore, analyses by neuroanatomical regions reveal that the acquisition of this derived shape-to-size scaling relationship occurred in a mosaic pattern, where the avian-grade optic lobe and cerebellum evolved first among non-avialan dinosaurs, followed by major changes to the evolutionary and developmental dynamics of cerebrum shape after the origin of Avialae. Notably, the brain of crown birds is a more integrated structure than non-avialan archosaurs, implying that diversification of brain morphologies within Neornithes proceeded in a more coordinated manner, perhaps due to spatial constraints and abbreviated growth period. Collectively, these patterns demonstrate a plurality in evolutionary processes that generate encephalized brains in archosaurs and across vertebrates.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Jacarés e Crocodilos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino
6.
Anim Genet ; 52(4): 532-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028062

RESUMO

Slaughter traits are crucial economic traits of chickens. We performed a GWAS to discover critical loci and candidate genes for 21 slaughter traits in an F2 chicken population resulting from crossing Luxi gamecocks and recessive white feather broilers. We found some SNPs and genes which were significantly associated with keel length, head length, body slope length, bilateral leg weight without shin, bilateral foot weight, subcutaneous fat thickness, heart weight, muscular stomach weight and glandular stomach weight. This study provides references for further investigation of slaughter traits and molecular breeding in chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fenótipo
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 252, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829333

RESUMO

The aim of present study was to determine the effects of supplementation of either synbiotic or probiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics, gut health, cecal microbiota prolife and apparent ileal digestibility of protein, amino acids, and energy in broilers. Two hundred and forty-day-old straight-run broilers (Ross 308) were allotted randomly to 1 of 5 dietary treatments including basal diet (control), supplemented with either synbiotic (Nutromax P) or probiotic (Actera), each at 0.5 and 1 g/kg of the diet for 5 weeks. The overall findings of the study indicated better (p < 0.05) growth performance of broilers by synbiotic supplementation (1 g/kg) compared with those fed probiotic (1 g/kg) supplemented and control diets. The broilers consuming diet supplemented with 1 g/kg synbiotic has an increased carcass yield in comparison with those fed control diet. The findings of gut health indicated significantly increased villus height and goblet cells, by synbiotic supplementation (1 g/kg), compared with control diet in broilers. The broilers fed 1 g/kg synbiotic supplemented diets had 18% increased protein, 9 to 31% higher amino acid, and 34% better energy digestibility, whereas 8.4% decreased protein digestibility in broilers fed probiotic (1 g/kg) supplemented compared with control diet in broilers. The broilers fed synbiotic (1 g/kg) supplemented diets had increased cecal Lactobacillus and decreased Salmonella, E. coli, and Clostridium count compared with those fed control diet. In conclusion, synbiotic supplementation (1 g/kg) resulted in improved production performance, balanced cecal microbial composition, and better digestibility of nutrients in broilers compared with those fed control and diets supplemented with probiotics.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Íleo/fisiologia , Fermento Seco , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
8.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 75(2): 137-152, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752536

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw (PP) and fermented pomegranate pomace (FP) on performance, antioxidant activity, caecal microbiota and ileal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 175 male broiler chicks were allocated to five treatment groups with five replicates and seven birds per replicate in a completely randomised design. Dietary treatments included a soy-corn based diet (control), diets supplemented with PP at 5 (5PP) and 10 g/kg (10PP), and diets supplemented with FP at 5 (5FP) and 10 g/kg (10FP). Dietary PP and FP did not change the body weight and feed conversion ratio. Moreover, dietary PP and FP did not alter the serum glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels but decreased malondialdehyde (p < 0.05) in breast meat. Caecal Clostridium perfringens count was decreased in broiler chickens of groups 10PP, 5FP and 10FP (p < 0.05). However, PP and FP had detrimental effects on the ileum morphology of broiler chicks. The villus height was decreased in the 10PP, 5FP and 10FP groups compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Crypt depth was higher in the 5PP and 10FP groups than control and 10PP groups (p < 0.01). The villus height to crypt depth ratio was also decreased in 5PP, 5FP, and 10FP groups (p < 0.01). These results suggest that PP and FP have the potential to be used in broiler diets as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. However, detailed studies should be conducted to investigate the underlying reasons for the detrimental effects on ileal morphology.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Alimentos Crus/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 180: 339-354, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711372

RESUMO

This work intends to synthesis newer guar gum indole acetate ester and design film scaffolds based on protein-polysaccharide interactions for tissue engineering applications. Guar gum indole acetate(GGIA) was synthesized for the first time from guar gum in presence of aprotic solvent activated hofmeister ions. The newer biopolymer was fully characterized in FT-IR,13C NMR, XRD and TGA analysis. High DS (Degree of Substitution, DS = 0.61) GGIA was cross-linked with hydrolyzed keratin, extracted from chicken feather wastes. Films were synthesized from different biopolymer ratios and the surface chemistry appeared interesting. Physicochemical properties for GGIA-keratin association were notable. Fully bio-based films were non-cytotoxic and exhibited excellent biocompatibility for human dermal fibroblast cell cultivations. The film scaffold showed 63% porosity and the recorded tensile strength at break was 6.4 MPa. Furthermore, the standardised film exerted superior antimicrobial activity against both the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MICs were recorded at 130 µg/mL and 212 µg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus respectively. In summary, GGIA-keratin film scaffolds represented promising platforms for skin tissue engineering applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Ésteres/química , Plumas/química , Galactanos/química , Queratinas/química , Mananas/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/química , Queratinas/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Porosidade , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Tração
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Pathol. ; 14(1): 40-45, mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31198

RESUMO

Fourteen, 31-week-old Lohmann white layers from a flock of 30,000 chickens had a history of apathy, and a drop in egg production. Clinical signs were observed in approximately 40% of the flock, and lasted for three months. Fourteen hens were euthanized for post-mortem examinations. Macroscopic findings included marked atrophy and loss of renal lobes along with compensatory renal hypertrophy of the contralateral lobe. Ureters were markedly dilated and filled with mucus and/or with molded white to yellow-grey uroliths that obliterated the lumen. At histopathology, the uroliths inside ureters and tubules were composed of concentrically arranged mineralized concretions, as well as urates associated with heterophilic infiltrations and epithelial hyperplasia. Renal parenchyma adjacent to obstructed ureters was compressed with tubules replaced by fibrous tissue. Multifocal interstitial lymphocytic nephritis, proteinuria and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis were also found. Heterophilic and caseous ureteritis associated with numerous Gram-positive coccoid bacteria occurred in three chickens. Immunohistochemistry for avian coronavirus was negative. This negative result along with the case history indicated that water restriction was the most likely cause of mortality. This condition resulted in significant economic loss for this farmer.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Urolitíase/patologia , Rim , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Parenquimatoso
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100965, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652534

RESUMO

We studied the correlations between egg geometrical parameters (i.e., egg shape index, sphericity, geometric mean diameter, surface area, and volume) and eggshell qualities, or the organic matrix in eggshell. Eggs were collected from 5 poultry breeds belonging to 3 species (commercial Hy-line Brown Chicken, Shaoxing Duck, Jinding Duck, Taihu Goose, and Zhedong White Goose). The geometrical parameters showed high variation among 3 species of poultry, and even between breeds in the same species. The five geometrical parameters were grouped into 2 sets, one contained shape index and sphericity, the other comprised geometric mean diameter, surface area, and volume. The parameters in the same set can be perfectly fitted to one another. Egg weight, shell membrane weight, and calcified shell weight were significantly correlated with geometric mean diameter, surface area, and volume. In accordance with false discovery rate-adjusted P value, both shell membrane relative weight and calcified shell thickness showed no significant correlations with any of the geometrical parameters. However, the correlations between geometrical parameters and other shell variables (calcified shell weight, shell relative weight, calcified shell thickness uniformity, and eggshell breaking strength) depend on breed. Both constitutive proportions and percentage contents of 3 eggshell matrix components (acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and both acid and water facultative-soluble matrix) had no effects on egg shape and size. The correlations between the amounts of various shell matrix, egg shape and size depend on breed or species. This study provides a methodology and the correlation between geometrical parameters and eggshell qualities, and between geometrical parameters and organic matrix components in calcified shells.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/classificação , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Patos/classificação , Casca de Ovo/anatomia & histologia , Casca de Ovo/química , Ovos , Gansos/anatomia & histologia , Gansos/classificação , Óvulo , Aves Domésticas/anatomia & histologia , Aves Domésticas/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682859

RESUMO

The avian embryo has been used as a model system for more than a century and has led to fundamental understanding of vertebrate development. One of the strengths of this model system is that the effect of, and interaction among, tissues can be directly assessed in chimeric embryos. We have previously shown that signals from the forebrain contribute to facial morphogenesis by regulating the shape of the expression domain of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) in the Frontonasal Ectodermal Zone (FEZ). In this article, the method of generating the forebrain chimeras and provide illustrations of the outcomes of these experiments is described.


Assuntos
Aves/anatomia & histologia , Quimera/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Coturnix/anatomia & histologia , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Embrião não Mamífero/anatomia & histologia , Embrião não Mamífero/transplante , Face
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 675-684, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518121

RESUMO

In the present study, 200 Brown commercial egg-type layers (60 wk old) were used to study the effects of different levels of ecofriendly synthesis of calcium (Ca) nanoparticles (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kg diet) with biocompatible Sargassum latifolium algae extract (SL-CaNps) on exterior egg quality traits, electronic microscopic view of eggshells, Ca and phosphorus (P) retention, serum Ca and P concentrations, and the histology of the uterus. Hens fed with dietary SL-CaNps powder had higher egg weight and shell weight % values than those of the control group. All SL-CaNps treatment groups had the greatest values of shell weight per unit surface area and shell thickness. Dietary supplementation of SL-CaNps at graded levels up to 1.5 g/kg diet had higher serum Ca and inorganic P levels than that of the control. Laying hens fed with SL-CaNps-added diets had beneficial effects on shell ultrastructure in terms of well-developed palisade and mammillary layers. The numbers of apical cells along the branched tubular gland were greater in SL-CaNps-treated groups than those of control. Conclusively, supplementing SL-CaNps powder up to 1.5 g/kg to the diet of laying hens improved eggshell thickness, shell weight% and shell weight per unit surface and has no adverse effect on their eggshell quality or electronic microscopic view of their eggshell.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/fisiologia , Casca de Ovo/ultraestrutura , Ovos/normas , Nanopartículas , Sargassum/química , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/veterinária
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100843, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518319

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to describe the variations in morphological characteristics of different selected populations of indigenous chickens. Five populations of chickens in different (localities) of Chhajjian, KP, Pakistan, were studied based on qualitative traits recorded for a total of 100 chickens. Each of the study populations contains multiple variants of plumage colors and other physical features. The average flock size was observed to be 38. Predominant plumage color was grayish and other mixtures along with different percentages in different localities. Pea comb was the dominant comb type in all localities. Most of the chickens were yellow skinned. Males in all populations were heavier and taller than the females. This recorded variation in morphological traits will help in the conservation of these chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Crista e Barbelas , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Crista e Barbelas/anatomia & histologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Pigmentação
15.
Elife ; 102021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393903

RESUMO

Retinal structure and function have been studied in many vertebrate orders, but molecular characterization has been largely confined to mammals. We used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to generate a cell atlas of the chick retina. We identified 136 cell types plus 14 positional or developmental intermediates distributed among the six classes conserved across vertebrates - photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, retinal ganglion, and glial cells. To assess morphology of molecularly defined types, we adapted a method for CRISPR-based integration of reporters into selectively expressed genes. For Müller glia, we found that transcriptionally distinct cells were regionally localized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and central-peripheral retinal axes. We also identified immature photoreceptor, horizontal cell, and oligodendrocyte types that persist into late embryonic stages. Finally, we analyzed relationships among chick, mouse, and primate retinal cell classes and types. Our results provide a foundation for anatomical, physiological, evolutionary, and developmental studies of the avian visual system.


Assuntos
Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/citologia , Embrião de Galinha/embriologia , Embrião de Galinha/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Fotorreceptoras de Vertebrados/citologia , RNA-Seq , Retina/citologia , Retina/embriologia , Análise de Célula Única
16.
Microsc Microanal ; 27(1): 201-214, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300491

RESUMO

The avian alimentary tract has evolved into different histologic structures to accommodate the physical and chemical features of several food types and flight requirements. We compared the esophagus, proventriculus, and gizzard of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus (GGD) and kestrels, Falco tinnunculus (FT) using immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy with various stains and lectins [Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA120)], and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The esophagus of GGD demonstrated thickened epithelium, muscularis mucosae, and inner circular longitudinal tunica muscularis layers; moderate outer longitudinal tunica muscularis layers; and a true crop. In contrast, the esophagus of FT showed a thin epithelium, no muscularis mucosae, moderate inner longitudinal and thick outer circular tunica muscularis layers, and no true crop. In the proventriculus, the nature of the secretion in GGD was neutral, but that of FT was acidic and neutral. In the gizzard, the muscle coat of GGD by α-SMA had no muscularis mucosae, unlike FT, which had muscularis mucosae. In summary, there are many histologic differences between GGD and FT to meet their different physiologic needs, such as feeding.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Sistema Digestório/ultraestrutura , Falconiformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Esôfago , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Proventrículo
17.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(3): 766-772, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326702

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of apple cider vinegar in diet on the growth performance, immune response, histomorphological changes of the small intestine and some serum biochemical factors in broilers. A total of 85 broiler chicks of Ross 308 were purchased and 64 well-conditioned chicks were selected and divided into four experimental groups with four replicates and four chicks per replicate. The diets of groups 2, 3 and 4 were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of vinegar, respectively, and group 1 as the control group was fed by the standard diet. The results showed that body weight gain was higher in the groups fed vinegar than the control group. There were no significant changes in the feed conversion ratio between the treatment and control groups (p = .507). Vinegar intake through the diet did not change significantly the weight of Bursa of Fabricius (p = .369) and spleen (p = .122). Vinegar significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen levels in the treatment groups compared with the control group (p = .0052). There was a significant increase in the level of antibody titre against Newcastle disease virus by haemagglutination inhibition test in the groups receiving vinegar in comparison with control group (p = .0358). Compared with the control group, the villus height (p = .0022) and intestinal crypts depth (p = .0015) significantly increased in the groups receiving apple cider vinegar. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with apple cider vinegar has beneficial effects on performance, immune response and small intestine histomorphology in broilers.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Acético/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Vet. Not. ; 27(2)2021.
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31007

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens still reserves a great amount of secrets and mysteries. However, it is known that it acts directly on the host's health, but that it is also influenced by several factors, among them the light. Due to the importance of the world production of birds, this review of literature had the objective to shelter the most recent studies, which relate the photoperiod and the circadian rhythm, with the intestinal microbiota, the zootechnical performance, the immune system and the welfare of broiler chickens. Describing in a single work the existence of a bilateral relationship between the intestinal microbiota, the immune system and its host, and that can be directly influenced by light management.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fotoperíodo
19.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 23(1): eRBCA-2020-1337, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30475

RESUMO

Brazilian poultry production is growing, mainly due to the cost and benefit that chicken meat provides. The importance of free-range chickens and the susceptibility, to which they are exposed, makes it necessary to know about gastrointestinal parasites and the consequences that large infections can cause for them as such as weight loss. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in free-range hens raised in an extensive regime in the municipality of Santa Rita, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The studied population was composed of adult chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) acquired from slaughterhouses in the region. The gastrointestinal organs of each chicken were separated and subsequently conditioned in flasks containing Railliet and Henrys solution and sent to the laboratory, to be analyzed and processed. Of the 100 chickens examined, 227 specimens of helminthes were identified, with a frequency of 32.6% for nematodes and 67.4% for cestodes. Among the nematode the following parasites were identified: Ascaridia galli (27.03%); Heterakis gallinarum (48.65%) and Subulura spp. (24, 32%). Raillietina echinobothrida (100%) was the only cestoda identified. The average infection rate by species of parasite was 1.18 for A. galli, 2.22 for H. gallinarum, 1.06 for Subulura spp. and 9.00 for R. echinobothrida. It is concluded that free-range chickens are parasitized by nematodes and cestoda.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/parasitologia
20.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 23(2): eRBCA-2020-1252, abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30452

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine the effect of a combination of propionic-acetic acid on body weight, the relative weight of some organs, lactic acid bacteria, and intestinal pH of neonatal broilers. A total of 60 1-day-old Ross 308® broiler chickens were randomly placed in metabolic cages to two treatments, three replicates, and ten birds per replicates. The treatments consisted of a control diet (CD) and CD + 0.03% of propionic acid and acetic acid in the drinking water at a rate of 4 ml/L of water. The combination of organic acids depressed the body weight in neonatal broilers (p 0.05) and increased the relative weight (p 0.05) of gizzard, proventriculus, small intestine, and liver; also acidified the cecum with a significant decrease (p 0.05) of the pH. Also, these organic acids increased (p 0.05) the count of green bacilli with a white halo in the small intestine and decreased (p 0.05) the proliferation of irregular flat green bacilli in the cecum, although for both intestinal portions, the total lactic acid bacteria count was not different (p>0.05) between treatments. The combined use in the diet and drinking water of the propionic and acetic organic acids, respectively, reduced the bodyweight of neonatal broilers (10 days) and the cecal pH, as well as modified the relative weights of some digestive organs and the growth of some morphological groups of lactic acid bacteria.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Peso Corporal , Propionatos/administração & dosagem
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