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1.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359835

RESUMO

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is mainly localized in focal adhesions where it interacts and modulates the downstream signaling of integrins affecting cell migration, adhesion, and survival. The interaction of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells, being part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), with the extracellular matrix (ECM) via integrins is crucial for proper PNS development. A few studies have focused on ILK's role in PNS development, but none of these have focused on chicken. Therefore, we decided to investigate ILK's role in the development of Gallus gallus domesticus's DRG. First, using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and in situ hybridization, we show that ILK is expressed in DRG. Next, by immunocytochemistry, we show ILK's localization both intracellularly and on the cell membrane of DRG neurons and Schwann cell precursors (SCPs). Finally, we describe ILK's involvement in multiple aspects of DRG development by performing functional experiments in vitro. IgG-mediated interruption of ILK's action improved DRG neurite outgrowth, modulated their directionality, stimulated SCPs migration, and impacted growth cone morphology in the presence of laminin-1 or laminin-1 mimicking peptide IKVAV. Taken together, our results show that ILK is important for chicken PNS development, probably via its exposure to the ECM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Galinhas/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Laminina/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Matriz Extracelular/química , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglios Espinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Laminina/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/citologia , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann/metabolismo
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 283, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to estimate the impacts of using varied feeding regimens with or without protease supplementation on the growth performance, apparent amino acid ileal digestibility (AID%), economic efficiency, intestinal histology, and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Three hundred one-day-old chicks (Ross 308 broiler) were randomly allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial design. The experimental design consisted of three feeding regimens; FR1: a recommended protein SBM diet, FR2: a low-protein SBM diet, and FR3: a low-protein diet with the inclusion of 5% DDGS and 5% SFM, with or without protease supplementation (250 mg/kg). RESULTS: Increased feed intake and feed conversion ratio were observed in the FR3 treatment during the starter stage and decreased body weight and body weight gain during the grower stage. However, there was no significant effect of the different feeding regimens, protease supplementation, or interaction on the overall performance. The economic value of diets also remained unaffected by the different feeding regimens, protease supplementation, or interaction. Protease supplementation resulted in lowering the AID% of tryptophan and leucine. Reduced AID% of methionine was evident in the FR2 + VE and FR3 - VE treatments. Histological findings substantiated the FR3 treatment mediated a decrease in the duodenal and jejunal villous height (VH), jejunal villous width (VW), and ileal VW, whereas, increase in the ileal crypt depth (CD). The FR2 + VE treatment reduced the VH:CD ratio in the duodenum. The duodenal CD and the jejunal goblet cell count were reduced as a consequence of protease supplementation. The FR3 + VE treatment documented a rise in duodenal CD, while an increase in the jejunal goblet cell count was observed in the FR3 - VE treatment. The FR3 treatment enhanced the IgM serum levels compared to the FR1 and FR2 treatments. IgM serum levels were also elevated following protease supplementation. FR3 + VE treatment increased IgM serum levels. The highest serum ALP was found in the FR3 treatment, whereas the lowest level was obtained in the FR2 treatment. CONCLUSION: Low-protein SBM-based diets could be used without affecting the birds' growth. Altered morphometric measures of the intestine and increased IgM and ALP levels indicated the low-protein SBM/DDGS-SFM diet-induced damage of the intestinal histoarchitecture and immune system of birds. These different diets and protease supplementation failed to affect economic efficiency positively.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/economia , Proteínas na Dieta , Digestão , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 251, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Broilers are continuously stressed because of the rapid growth rate and the environmental issues associated with industrialized poultry production systems, which lead to higher susceptibility for infection with pathogens. It is well known that vitamin E (Vit. E) and selenium (Se) supplementation have protective functions in such stressful conditions. This protocol was to investigate the impact of Vit. E and/or Se on the production performance, some serum biochemistry, and expression of some growth-related gene in the liver tissue of the broilers. The day-old chicks were allotted into four groups according to the supplement; Control group and groups supplemented with Vit. E and/or Se into Vit. E group (100 mg Vit. E/kg diet), Se group (0.3 mg sodium selenite/kg diet), and Vit E + Se group that supplemented with both Vit. E and Se. RESULTS: The data of the present experiment showed that dietary inclusion of Vit. E and/or Se significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved the production parameters without any side effect on the general health status of the broilers, which indicated by normal serum biochemical parameters. Moreover, the treatments positively affected the expression of some genes related to growth performance including growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in the liver tissue of broilers. CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation of Vit. E and/or Se improved the production parameters and upregulate the growth-related genes without effect on the general health status of the broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299582

RESUMO

Olive vegetation water (OVW) is a by-product with a noticeable environmental impact; however, its polyphenols may be reused food and feed manufacture as high-value ingredients with antioxidant/antimicrobial activities. The effect of dietary supplementation with OVW polyphenols on the gut microbiota, carcass and breast quality, shelf life, and lipid oxidation in broiler chickens has been studied. Chicks were fed diets supplemented with crude phenolic concentrate (CPC) obtained from OVW (220 and 440 mg/kg phenols equivalent) until reaching commercial size. Cloacal microbial community (rRNA16S sequencing) was monitored during the growth period. Breasts were submitted to culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses during their shelf-life. Composition, fatty acid concentration, and lipid oxidation of raw and cooked thawed breasts were measured. Growth performance and gut microbiota were only slightly affected by the dietary treatments, while animal age influenced the cloacal microbiota. The supplementation was found to reduce the shelf life of breasts due to the growth of spoilers. Chemical composition and lipid oxidation were not affected. The hydroxytyrosol (HT) concentration varied from 178.6 to 292.4 ug/kg in breast muscle at the beginning of the shelf-life period. The identification of HT in meat demonstrates that the absorption and metabolism of these compounds was occurring efficiently in the chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Conservação de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne , Olea/química , Polifenóis , Água , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Água/química , Água/farmacologia
5.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 20(3): 265-276, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feed rations with a different share of pea seed meal on the slaughter value, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of breast muscles in broiler chickens. METHODS: A growth experiment was carried out involving 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens allocated randomly to three feeding groups each consisting of 40 birds of both sexes. Each group was divided into five subgroups each consisting of eight chickens. Until the 21st day of life the birds were fed ad libitum with loose starter rations, and from day 22 to day 35 with grower rations based on corn, post-extraction soybean meal, soy oil and mineral and vitamin additives. In starter and grower rations in experimental groups (II and III) post-extraction soybean meal was replaced with pea seed meal in the amount of 10% and 20% (II) and 15% and 25% (III). On day 35 the chickens were slaughtered, and their meat was analysed. Samples of breast muscles were collected in order to determine their dietary value and physical and sensory characteristics. RESULTS: Pea seed meal in feed rations for experimental chickens had no influence on the body weight and dressing percentage, but it increased their muscularity and decreased the fattening grade in comparison to chickens fed with rations in which the only protein feed was post-extraction soybean meal. The breast muscles of chickens receiving feed rations containing pea (group II and III, respectively) contained significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less crude fat - about 30% and 27% less. Pea added to feed rations significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased (by about 19% and 27%) the share of linoleic acid C18:3n-3 in the lipids of the breast muscle. The lowest (P ≤ 0.05) content of saturated fatty acids (23.43%) and at the same time the highest (P ≤ 0.05) content of unsaturated fatty acids (76.42%) was noted in the breast muscles of chickens receiving feed rations containing 15/25% of pea seed meal. More hypocholesterolemic acids (DFA) and less hypercholesterolemic acids (OFA) were found in the muscles of chickens from groups II and III (P ≤ 0.05). After 24 hours of cooling the carcasses, it was demonstrated that the pH in the muscles of chickens fed with rations containing pea was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than in chickens from the control group. Irrespective of the share of pea in the diet, the muscles of these birds were of a significantly lighter colour (51.37 and 52.45 vs 44.18). In addition, muscles of birds from groups II and III were characterised by less (P ≤ 0.05) redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). The values of psychometric colour saturation (C*) lower by 29% and 48% were identified in the muscles of chickens from groups II and III in comparison to the muscles of birds fed with corn and soy rations. The breast muscles of chickens fed with rations containing a smaller share of pea were characterised by the highest (P ≤  0.05) water holding capacity (WHC) in comparison to others. The muscles of chickens from group III scored the highest for all flavour traits, but a statistically significant difference was noted only for tenderness. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the slaughter value and quality of the breast muscles of chickens, the results provide a basis for recommending pea seed meal as a partial substitute for post-extraction soybean meal in feed rations for broilers. An improvement in muscularity and fattening grade was noted in comparison to carcasses of birds receiving corn and soy rations. In addition, the breast muscles of chickens fed rations with peas contained less intramuscular fat with a more favourable, healthy fatty acids profile (significantly more C18:3n-3, PUFA and DFA). In terms of the physical properties of muscles no deterioration in their quality was noted depending on the feed. Also, the results of sensory evaluation provide a basis for recommending peas as a component of broiler feed rations.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Ervilhas , Sementes , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos , Soja , Paladar , Zea mays
6.
Elife ; 102021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227464

RESUMO

How do large and unique brains evolve? Historically, comparative neuroanatomical studies have attributed the evolutionary genesis of highly encephalized brains to deviations along, as well as from, conserved scaling relationships among brain regions. However, the relative contributions of these concerted (integrated) and mosaic (modular) processes as drivers of brain evolution remain unclear, especially in non-mammalian groups. While proportional brain sizes have been the predominant metric used to characterize brain morphology to date, we perform a high-density geometric morphometric analysis on the encephalized brains of crown birds (Neornithes or Aves) compared to their stem taxa-the non-avialan coelurosaurian dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx. When analyzed together with developmental neuroanatomical data of model archosaurs (Gallus, Alligator), crown birds exhibit a distinct allometric relationship that dictates their brain evolution and development. Furthermore, analyses by neuroanatomical regions reveal that the acquisition of this derived shape-to-size scaling relationship occurred in a mosaic pattern, where the avian-grade optic lobe and cerebellum evolved first among non-avialan dinosaurs, followed by major changes to the evolutionary and developmental dynamics of cerebrum shape after the origin of Avialae. Notably, the brain of crown birds is a more integrated structure than non-avialan archosaurs, implying that diversification of brain morphologies within Neornithes proceeded in a more coordinated manner, perhaps due to spatial constraints and abbreviated growth period. Collectively, these patterns demonstrate a plurality in evolutionary processes that generate encephalized brains in archosaurs and across vertebrates.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Jacarés e Crocodilos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino
7.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 81, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108017

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of graded severity of Eimeria maxima infection on the growth performance and intestine health of broiler chickens. Four different levels of E. maxima-challenged treatments were used, including a non-challenged control group, a low challenge (12 500 oocysts), a medium challenge (25 000 oocysts), and a high challenge dose (50 000 oocysts). There were eight replicate cages per treatment, with 12 birds in each cage, and chickens in the challenged groups orally received sporulated oocysts on day 14. Gastrointestinal permeability was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran at 5 days post-infection (dpi), whereas intestinal morphology and gene expression of nutrient transporters and tight junction proteins were determined at 6 dpi. The results demonstrate a linear reduction in growth performance, jejunal villus height, and jejunal integrity with graded challenge doses of E. maxima (P < 0.01). Moreover, linear regulation of nutrient transporters and tight junction proteins was a consequence of increasing Eimeria infection levels (P < 0.01). The linear increase of Claudin 1, cationic amino acid transporter, glucose transporter 1, and L-type amino acid transporter genes was associated with increased severity of coccidiosis (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expression of nutrient transporters located at the brush border membrane were down-regulated (P < 0.01) with increasing E. maxima inoculation dose. In conclusion, growth performance and key intestinal integrity biomarkers in broiler chickens were adversely influenced in a dose-dependent manner by E. maxima infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 641696, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079540

RESUMO

The impact of antibiotic use for growth promotion in livestock and poultry production on the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria led to the ban of this practice in the European Union in 2006 and a restriction of antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal agriculture in Canada and the United States of America. There is a high risk of infectious diseases such as necrotic enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens, and colibacillosis due to avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in antimicrobial-free broiler chickens. Thus, efficient and cost-effective methods for reducing AMU, maintaining good poultry health and reducing public health risks (food safety) are urgently needed for poultry production. Several alternative agents, including plant-derived polyphenolic compounds, have been investigated for their potential to prevent and control diseases through increasing poultry immunity. Many studies in humans reported that plant flavonoids could modulate the immune system by decreasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, T-cell activation, and proliferation. Fruits, especially berries, are excellent sources of flavonoids while being rich in nutrients and other functionally important molecules (vitamins and minerals). Thus, fruit byproducts or wastes could be important resources for value-added applications in poultry production. In the context of the circular economy and waste reduction, this review summarizes observed effects of fruit wastes/extracts on the general health and the immunity of poultry.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Galinhas/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridium perfringens/imunologia , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 229, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorella vulgaris has been proposed as a sustainable green feedstock in poultry nutrition due to its ease of cultivation, minimal environmental impact and balanced nutritional composition. However, the majority of studies documents the use of C. vulgaris as a dietary supplement in broilers instead of a feed ingredient. To the best of our knowledge, no report has shown the effect of a high-level incorporation (>2 % in the diet) of C. vulgaris on plasma metabolites and hepatic lipid composition of broilers. One hundred and twenty Ross 308 male birds were housed in 40 wired-floor cages and randomly distributed by the following experimental diets at 22 days of age (n = 10) during 15 days: (1) a corn-soybean meal based diet (control); (2) based diet with 10% of C. vulgaris; (3) diet 2 supplemented with 0.005% Rovabio® Excel AP; and (4) diet 2 supplemented with 0.01% of a pre-selected four-CAZyme mixture. RESULTS: The inclusion of C. vulgaris at 10% in the diet, regardless of the presence of exogenous CAZymes, changed plasma metabolites but did not compromise broilers growth. Plasma total lipids increased in broilers fed C. vulgaris combined with the two feed CAZymes (p < 0.001) compared with the control diet. Moreover, the supplementation with Rovabio® increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, while the addition of the four-CAZyme mixture increased triacylglycerols, VLDL-cholesterol and ALP activity. In opposition, HDL-cholesterol levels decreased in broilers fed microalga alone (p = 0.002). Regarding hepatic composition, the inclusion of C. vulgaris in broiler diets, individually or combined with exogenous CAZymes, had a minor effect on fatty acids but improved the n-6/n-3 ratio and total carotenoids. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the inclusion of a high level (10%) of C. vulgaris in broiler´s diet, regardless of the presence of exogenous CAZymes, improved hepatic antioxidant composition and did not impair broiler's performance. In addition, the feed supplementation with CAZymes increased broilers lipemia. Therefore, dietary C. vulgaris at this incorporation level seems to be safe for animal health and do not compromise performance traits, with no need of CAZymes supplementation.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Chlorella vulgaris , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enzimas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino
10.
Food Microbiol ; 99: 103823, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119108

RESUMO

Chickens play host to a diverse community of microorganisms which constitute the microflora of the live bird. Factors such as diet, genetics and immune system activity affect this complex population within the bird, while external influences including weather and exposure to other animals alter the development of the microbiome. Bacteria from these settings including Campylobacter and Salmonella play an important role in the quality and safety of end-products from these birds. Further steps, including washing and chilling, within the production cycle aim to control the proliferation of these microbes as well as those which cause product spoilage. These steps impose specific selective pressures upon the microflora of the meat product. Within the next decade, it is forecast that poultry meat, particularly chicken will become the most consumed meat globally. However, as poultry meat is a frequently cited reservoir of zoonotic disease, understanding the development of its microflora is key to controlling the proliferation of important spoilage and pathogenic bacterial groups present on the bird. Whilst several excellent reviews exist detailing the microbiome of poultry during primary production, others focus on fate of important poultry pathogens such as Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. At farm and retail level, and yet others describe the evolution of spoilage microbes during spoilage. This review seeks to provide the poultry industry and research scientists unfamiliar with food technology process with a holistic overview of the key changes to the microflora of broiler chickens at each stage of the production and retail cycle.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia
11.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 122, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development and utilization of probiotics had many environmental benefits for replacing antibiotics in animal production. Bacteria in the intestinal mucosa have better adhesion to the host intestinal epithelial cells compared to bacteria in the intestinal contents. In this study, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the intestinal mucosa of broiler chickens and investigated as the substitution to antibiotic in broiler production. RESULTS: In addition to acid resistance, high temperature resistance, antimicrobial sensitivity tests, and intestinal epithelial cell adhesion, Enterococcus faecium PNC01 (E. faecium PNC01) was showed to be non-cytotoxic to epithelial cells. Draft genome sequence of E. faecium PNC01 predicted that it synthesized bacteriocin to perform probiotic functions and bacteriocin activity assay showed it inhibited Salmonella typhimurium from invading intestinal epithelial cells. Diet supplemented with E. faecium PNC01 increased the ileal villus height and crypt depth in broiler chickens, reduced the relative length of the cecum at day 21, and reduced the relative length of jejunum and ileum at day 42. Diet supplemented with E. faecium PNC01 increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Lactobacillus, decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroides in the cecal microbiota. CONCLUSION: E. faecium PNC01 replaced antibiotics to reduce the feed conversion rate. Furthermore, E. faecium PNC01 improved intestinal morphology and altered the composition of microbiota in the cecum to reduce feed conversion rate. Thus, it can be used as an alternative for antibiotics in broiler production to avoid the adverse impact of antibiotics by altering the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecium/fisiologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Ceco/anatomia & histologia , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/anatomia & histologia , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11609, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078952

RESUMO

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate and determine the concentration of prostaglandin GF2α (PGF2α) and isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α in plasma and intestine of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Leghorn chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima, with or without dietary supplementation of curcumin using solid-phase microextraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Eighty 1-day-old male SPF chickens were randomly allocated to one of four groups with four replicates (n = 5 chickens/replicate). Groups consisted of: (1) Control (no challenge), (2) Curcumin (no challenge), (3) Eimeria maxima (challenge), and (4) Eimeria maxima (challenge) + curcumin. At day 28 of age, all chickens in the challenge groups were orally gavaged with 40,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the groups regardless of the treatment or challenge with E. maxima. Enteric levels of both isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and PGF2α at 7 days and 9 days post-challenge were significantly increased (P < 0.01) compared to the non-challenge control chickens. Interestingly, the enteric levels of both isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and PGF2α at 7 days post-challenge were significantly reduced in chickens fed curcumin, compared to control chickens challenge with E. maxima. At 9 days post-challenge, only levels of isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α in the enteric samples were significantly reduced in chickens challenged with E. maxima supplemented with curcumin, compared with E. maxima challenge chickens. No differences of isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α or PGF2α were observed in plasma at both days of evaluation. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between the challenge control or chickens challenge with E. maxima and supplemented with curcumin at both times of evaluation. The results of this pilot study suggests that the antioxidant anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin reduced the oxidative damage and subsequent intestinal mucosal over-production of lipid oxidation products. Further studies to confirm and extend these results in broiler chickens are required.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/farmacologia , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/antagonistas & inibidores , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Masculino , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253661, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166442

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short and positively charged peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. AMPs have been investigated as potential antibiotic alternatives to improve growth performance and prevent pathogen infection in the poultry industry. The antimicrobial peptide tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4) was derived from Oreochromis niloticus, possesses antimicrobial activities and immunomodulatory properties, promotes intestinal health, and protects against pathogen infection. The codon-optimized sequence of TP4 was introduced into the pPICZαA vector and transformed into Pichia pastoris. Large-scale expression was induced following culture with methanol in a 500-liter fermenter. Freeze drying of fermented rTP4 broth and then rTP4 evaluation as a feed additive for Gallus gallus domesticus were performed. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of recombinant TP4 (rTP4) against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens was evaluated. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the antimicrobial activity of rTP4 showed its high stability at high temperatures. rTP4 significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of macrophage cells, indicating that rTP4 has a remarkable ability to stimulate macrophages. rTP4 was used as a dietary supplement at 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 12% in G. g. domesticus for five weeks, and growth performance, gut microbiota composition, and histology were assessed. The 3.0% rTP4 supplement group showed a significant increase in weight gain ratio and feed efficiency compared to those of the basal broiler diet group. Crude rTP4 was expressed by yeast to significantly promote growth efficiency and resistance against pathogens in G. g. domesticus, which could indicate its use as a suitable alternative to antibiotics as feed additives in the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas de Peixes/farmacologia , Tilápia/genética , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 186-193, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000649

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether a phytogenic blend (PB), formulated based on organic acids, tannins, curcumin, and essential oils, could replace the antimicrobials commonly used as growth promoters in the poultry industry without compromising zootechnical performance, health, or meat quality. In addition, our goal was to report the anti-aflatoxin effect of this phytogenic blend. Four treatments were used: TC, or control; T250, T500, and T1000, representing test doses of 250, 500, 1000 mg PB/kg of feed, respectively, or a 34-day experiment (initial and growth phases). On day 22 of the study and age of the birds, 500 ppb of aflatoxin was included in the diet to represent an intestinal challenge and to evaluate the growth-promoting effects of PB. In the initial phase (up to 21 days), there were no differences between groups in weight gain, feed intake, or feed conversion. After adding an aflatoxin-contaminated feed, doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg minimized the adverse effects on feed consumption and feed conversion caused by aflatoxin; but 1000 mg/kg did not differ between groups. In birds that consumed PB (T250, T500, and T1000) compared to the control, there were the following changes: 1) lower counts of heterophiles, lymphocytes, and monocytes; 2) lower lipid peroxidation and high non-protein thiols levels in breast meat; 3) lower bacteria counts in broiler litter; and 4) lower ALT levels. Greater intestinal villus/crypt ratios were observed at T250 and T500. The dose of 250 mg/kg reduced saturated fatty acids and increased unsaturated fatty acids. The chemical-physical composition of the meat did not differ between treatments. The findings suggest that the addition of a PB has a high potential to improve performance for chickens in the growing stage and minimize the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Plantas Comestíveis , Produtos Avícolas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 44, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In all organisms, life-history traits are constrained by trade-offs, which may represent physiological limitations or be related to energy resource management. To detect trade-offs within a population, one promising approach is the use of artificial selection, because intensive selection on one trait can induce unplanned changes in others. In chickens, the breeding industry has achieved remarkable genetic progress in production and feed efficiency over the last 60 years. However, this may have been accomplished at the expense of other important biological functions, such as immunity. In the present study, we used three experimental lines of layer chicken-two that have been divergently selected for feed efficiency and one that has been selected for increased antibody response to inactivated Newcastle disease virus (ND3)-to explore the impact of improved feed efficiency on animals' immunocompetence and, vice versa, the impact of improved antibody response on animals' growth and feed efficiency. RESULTS: There were detectable differences between the low (R+) and high (R-) feed-efficiency lines with respect to vaccine-specific antibody responses and counts of monocytes, heterophils, and/or T cell population. The ND3 line presented reduced body weight and feed intake compared to the control line. ND3 chickens also demonstrated an improved antibody response against a set of commercial viral vaccines, but lower blood leucocyte counts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the value of using experimental chicken lines that are divergently selected for RFI or for a high antibody production, to investigate the modulation of immune parameters in relation to growth and feed efficiency. Our results provide further evidence that long-term selection for the improvement of one trait may have consequences on other important biological functions. Hence, strategies to ensure optimal trade-offs among competing functions will ultimately be required in multi-trait selection programs in livestock.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Galinhas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Traços de História de Vida , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia
16.
Turk Neurosurg ; 31(4): 594-600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978217

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of pregabalin on neural tube closure, and other potential effects on other organ systems in a chick embryo model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into groups, and different doses of pregabalin was administered. All embryos were harvested in the 8th day of incubation, and investigated both macroscopically and microscopically against any developmental malformations caused by Pregabalin. RESULTS: Macroscopically not any malformations were detected but macrosomia was statistically significant in medium and high dose groups. Microscopically, vertebral lamina ossification was delayed in some embryos in high dose group but not interpreted as midline closure defect and also not statistically significant. Decrease in the number of renal glomerulus and increase in the tubular damage was statistically significant in medium and high dose groups. Cardiomegaly was also found in some embryos in middle and high dose groups but not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The use of pregabalin does not cause neural tube closure defect in the embryo unless not exceed recommended maximum dose. Causing macrosomia instead of developmental retardation by Pregabalin is in conflict with the literature. This study revealed that Pregabalin causes fetal nephrotoxicity and macrosomia. These findings indicate that the use of Pregabalin in pregnancy still needs to be accounted as suspicious.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Tubo Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Pregabalina/toxicidade , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Tubo Neural/embriologia , Tubo Neural/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/induzido quimicamente , Pregabalina/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803037

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is the most widespread mycotoxin in poultry feed worldwide. Long term-exposure from low to moderate DON concentrations can produce alteration in growth performance and impairment of the health status of birds. To evaluate the efficacy of mycotoxin-detoxifying agent alleviating the toxic effects of DON, the most relevant biomarkers of toxicity of DON in chickens should be firstly determined. The specific biomarker of exposure of DON in chickens is DON-3 sulphate found in different biological matrices (plasma and excreta). Regarding the nonspecific biomarkers called also biomarkers of effect, the most relevant ones are the impairment of the productive parameters, the intestinal morphology (reduction of villus height) and the enlargement of the gizzard. Moreover, the biomarkers of effect related to physiology (decrease of blood proteins, triglycerides, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes and the increase of alanine transaminase (ALT)), immunity (response to common vaccines and release of some proinflammatory cytokines) and welfare status of the birds (such as the increase of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the stress index), has been reported. This review highlights the available information regarding both types of biomarkers of DON toxicity in chickens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nível de Saúde , Fatores de Tempo , Tricotecenos/metabolismo
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 252, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829333

RESUMO

The aim of present study was to determine the effects of supplementation of either synbiotic or probiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics, gut health, cecal microbiota prolife and apparent ileal digestibility of protein, amino acids, and energy in broilers. Two hundred and forty-day-old straight-run broilers (Ross 308) were allotted randomly to 1 of 5 dietary treatments including basal diet (control), supplemented with either synbiotic (Nutromax P) or probiotic (Actera), each at 0.5 and 1 g/kg of the diet for 5 weeks. The overall findings of the study indicated better (p < 0.05) growth performance of broilers by synbiotic supplementation (1 g/kg) compared with those fed probiotic (1 g/kg) supplemented and control diets. The broilers consuming diet supplemented with 1 g/kg synbiotic has an increased carcass yield in comparison with those fed control diet. The findings of gut health indicated significantly increased villus height and goblet cells, by synbiotic supplementation (1 g/kg), compared with control diet in broilers. The broilers fed 1 g/kg synbiotic supplemented diets had 18% increased protein, 9 to 31% higher amino acid, and 34% better energy digestibility, whereas 8.4% decreased protein digestibility in broilers fed probiotic (1 g/kg) supplemented compared with control diet in broilers. The broilers fed synbiotic (1 g/kg) supplemented diets had increased cecal Lactobacillus and decreased Salmonella, E. coli, and Clostridium count compared with those fed control diet. In conclusion, synbiotic supplementation (1 g/kg) resulted in improved production performance, balanced cecal microbial composition, and better digestibility of nutrients in broilers compared with those fed control and diets supplemented with probiotics.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Íleo/fisiologia , Fermento Seco , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
19.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13545, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793035

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), coated sodium butyrate (CSB), and their combination on growth performance, immune parameters, and intestinal barrier of broilers. A total of 192 1-day-old chicks were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design including two dietary additives (0 and 150 mg/kg XOS and 0 and 400 mg/kg CSB). This trial lasted for 42 days. CSB supplementation increased the thymus and bursa index, blood myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and IgG and IgM concentrations, whereas adding XOS only improved IgM concentration (p < .05). A significant interaction was observed for MPO activity. Furthermore, broilers fed CSB and their interaction exhibited increased ileal villus height/crypt depth (VH/CD) and goblet cells numbers in the ileum, as well as decreased ileal CD (p < .05). Broilers fed XOS and CSB individually showed higher ileal VH, the number of goblet cells in the duodenum and jejunum (p < .05). Moreover, XOS and CSB individual supplementation upregulated the expression of claudin3 in the ileum (p < .05). Simultaneously, a significant interaction was found for the ileal expression of claudin3. Overall, XOS and CSB supplementation could improve the development of immune organs, the small intestine morphology, and the intestinal physical barrier of broilers. Although no clear synergy of XOS and CSB was detected, the combination had positively affect broilers intestinal barrier and immune parameters.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Contagem de Células , Galinhas/fisiologia , Claudina-3/genética , Claudina-3/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/citologia , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Peroxidase/sangue
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation on broiler growth performance and to determine whether such effects are regulated by broiler strains, sex, environmental stress, or contextual factors including study area and years. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching the Web of Science, Springer, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, Taylor & Francis Online databases. Weighted average differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed with a random-effects model. We performed subgroup analysis stratified by study area, published years, broiler strains and sex, and environmental stress. Publication bias was assessed with Egger's test method. A total of 15 studies eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: The results indicated that CrPic supplementation significantly improved broiler growth performance and subgroup analysis confirmed this conclusion. We also found that Ross 308 or male broilers might be more sensitive to CrPic supplementation and showed better growth performance. A model was used to obtain the amount of chromium addition under the optimal growth performance, which suggested that the maximum value of average daily gain (ADG) was reached when chromium addition was 1810 µg/kg. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed low sensitivity and high stability of the meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: CrPic supplementation had a positive effect on the growth performance of broilers, and this meta-analysis provides a more accurate value of chromium addition, which may be beneficial for the practice of the broiler industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Picolínicos/administração & dosagem , Animais
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