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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
2.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 116420, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639312

RESUMO

Sagebrush ecosystems of the western U.S. support ranching livelihoods and imperiled populations of the Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Incentive-based conservation such as cost-sharing is the primary tool used by the federal government to support conservation practices on rangelands in the U.S. Financial support for adopting specific prescribed grazing practices on private land has been supported through the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)-led Sage-Grouse Initiative (SGI), initiated in 2010 as an unparalleled private and public effort to conserve Greater Sage-grouse habitat. The purpose of this research was to provide an economic assessment of the impact of this conservation program on participating ranches. Representative ranch enterprise budgets and ranch economic models were created for this analysis for eleven NRCS Major Land Resource Areas where critical sage-grouse habitat exist, including parts of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Results of the economic assessment showed that SGI/NRCS financial support alleviated the financial impact of conservation practice adoption, but negative financial impacts were estimated in some locations and more frequently for smaller ranches. Larger ranches were found to do better under these programs on average. Results demonstrate the important role of research and government financial support in removing financial barriers to conservation adoption on rangelands.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Galliformes , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Wyoming
3.
Vet Rec ; 192(1): 38-39, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607694

Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765531

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.(AU)


Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes/microbiologia , Microbiota , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Brachyspira/isolamento & purificação
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1687: 463681, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502641

RESUMO

In this study, blood and plasma of grey partridges (Perdix perdix) were analyzed to assess their potential contamination by plant protection products (PPP) and especially pesticide compounds. The group of pesticides selected is composed of a huge variety of compounds. Therefore, in this study, two methods were optimized and validated to analyze 104 compounds including herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and photoprotectors or synergists. Various extraction methods found in the literature were compared and adapted for the extraction of pesticides from blood and plasma. After extraction, samples were concentrated then injected for quantification simultaneously in LC-MS/MS and ATD-GC-MS/MS with an automatic thermal desorption step (ATD). Both LC-MS/MS and ATD-GC-MS/MS analyses were performed using the MRM mode with 2 mass transitions for each compound.The two analytical methods achieved a good linearity for the calibration responses in plasma and blood. Methods allowed sensitive detection and quantification in complex biological matrices such as plasma and blood in both LC and GC. For plasma samples and considering all 104 compounds of the study, the average LOD was 0.005 ng mg-1 in LC-MS/MS and 0.035 ng mg-1 in ATD-GC-MS/MS and the average LOQ was 0.017 ng mg-1 and 0.116 ng mg-1 in LC-MS/MS and ATD-GC-MS/MS respectively. Accordingly, the average LOD for blood samples was 0.011 ng mg-1 in LC and 0.028 ng mg-1 in GC whereas the average LOQ was 0.038 ng mg-1 and 0.094 ng mg-1 in LC-MS/MS and ATD-GC-MS/MS respectively. Those analytical methods were then successfully applied to 70 blood samples and 35 plasma samples.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249159, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339415

RESUMO

Abstract There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Resumo Há uma escassez de pesquisas realizadas sobre a prevalência microbiana em faisões. A microbiota de aves em cativeiro tem significado zoonótico e deve ser caracterizada. O presente estudo está, portanto, planejado para avaliar a microbiota do conteúdo oral, fecal e intestinal de espécies aviárias em cativeiro. Será útil na caracterização de micróbios nocivos. Diferentes amostras retiradas da boca, intestino e fezes de faisões de pescoço redondo (Phasianus colchicus), faisões verdes (Phasianus versicolor), faisões dourados (Chrysolophus pictus) e faisão prateado (Lophura nycthemera). As amostras foram coletadas, diluídas e inoculadas em diferentes placas de ágar (MacConkey, ágar SS, MSA e ágar nutriente) para o cultivo de espécies bacterianas. Colônias de E. coli, Staphylococcus spp., Brachyspira spp. e Campylobacter spp foram observados com base na morfologia da colônia. A unidade formadora de colônia mostrou E. coli como bactéria frequentemente encontrada no conteúdo fecal, oral e intestinal de todos os faisões acima. A diferença de significância geral foi encontrada entre as espécies bacterianas de faisões dourados, faisões verdes, faisões de pescoço anelado e faisões prateados. Verificou-se que a E.coli é predominantemente isolada de faisões saudáveis, seguida por Campylobacter, Staphylococcus e Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Animais , Galliformes , Escherichia coli , Fezes
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21185, 2022 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477415

RESUMO

Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Galliformes, Sylviornithidae), a recently extinct bird of New-Caledonia (Galliformes, Sylviornithidae) is the largest galliform that ever lived and one of the most enigmatic birds in the world. Herein, for the first time, we analyze its neuroanatomy that sheds light on its lifestyle, its brain shape and patterns being correlated to neurological functions. Using morphometric methods, we quantified the endocranial morphology of S. neocaledoniae and compared it with extinct and extant birds in order to obtain ecological and behavioral information about fossil birds. Sylviornis neocaledoniae exhibited reduced optic lobes, a condition also observed in nocturnal taxa endemic to predator-depauperate islands, such as Elephant birds. Functional interpretations suggest that S. neocaledoniae possessed a well-developed somatosensorial system and a good sense of smell in addition to its specialized visual ability for low light conditions, presumably for locating its food. We interpret these results as evidence for a crepuscular lifestyle in S. neocaledoniae.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Fósseis , Neuroanatomia , Nível de Saúde , Nova Caledônia
9.
Vet Rec ; 191(12): 505, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524634

Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Caça
10.
Zoology (Jena) ; 155: 126056, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413830

RESUMO

The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a medium-sized galliform endemic to southwestern Europe. In the easternmost part of the species' range, the population inhabiting Elba Island (Tuscan Archipelago National Park, Italy) is of undisputed conservation value. While we found nuclear and maternal DNA introgression with the exotic chukar partridge (A. chukar) in previous studies based on microsatellite DNA (n = 25) and two mitochondrial markers (n = 103), respectively, we disclosed a limited or null admixture in a few Elban partridges (n = 4) in a recent genomic investigation relying on 168,675 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). We herein carried out an extended microsatellite DNA survey including additional 65 samples (total, 90) and six loci (total, 11) to determine both spatial structure and genetic integrity of local A. rufa. A sharp divergence between the subpopulations inhabiting the two sides of the island was disclosed, and the microsatellites indicated that all Elban partridges were not admixed with the chukar, thus fully reflecting the picture inferred using SNPs. We hypothesized that the spreading of chukar genes was constrained by negative selection, with the persistence of only the maternal lineage being indicative of thermal adaptation. The two subpopulations should be treated as distinct Management Units, and an envisaged plan to secure a stock onto nearby Pianosa Island could not only warrant endurance of the Elban population but also establish a source of valuable founders for the ex-situ management of the species in Italy. Our study exemplifies how a suitable samples/loci combination is the key to solve wildlife issues dealing with introgression.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Galliformes/genética , Itália , Europa (Continente) , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais Selvagens
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277236, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342931

RESUMO

The decline in the population of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in northwestern Germany since 2007 raises questions about the underlying causes. We therefore studied the growth and immune status of ring-necked pheasant chicks dependent on different feed composition. Here, 490 ring-necked pheasant chicks were raised in five groups up to nine weeks. While control groups C1 and C2 received sufficient crude protein (28%) and energy (12.5 MJ/Kg feed) according to current standards, group C2 was treated with cyclosporine eight hours prior to phythemagglutination (PHA) testing, serving as a positive immune suppressed control. Group V1 was fed with reduced protein (20%) but optimal energy content (12.5 MJ/Kg feed), group V2 was fed with sufficient protein (28%) and reduced energy content (10 MJ/kg feed) whereas group V3 was fed reduced crude protein (20%) and reduced energy content (10MJ/kg feed). On all chicks, health status was checked each week, and 20 birds of each group were weighed randomly per week. PHA-testing was performed on 12 birds of each group to study the in vivo non-specific activation of lymphocytes at week 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9. In addition, hemolysis-hemagglutination-assay (HHA) was performed on each of the PHA-tested chicks, which were subsequently euthanized and dissected. Histopathologic examinations of 5 birds that were randomly chosen were performed. The PHA-test results demonstrate significant differences between control (C1, C2) and experimental groups (V1-V3) in several developmental stages. According to the HHA results, weekly testing detected a significant increase of titres per week in all groups without significant differences. Here, only hemagglutination and no lysis of samples was observed. It seems appropriate to conclude that during their first weeks of life, protein content is of higher importance in ring-necked pheasant chicks than energy intake. In particular T-cell response is significantly reduced, which indicate a weaker immune system resulting in a higher risk for clinical diseases. Therefore, we assume that protein i.e. insect availability is a highly important co-factor in the free-ranging population dynamics, and is linked to declines of the northwestern German population.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Codorniz , Animais , Galinhas , Alimentos , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Sistema Imunitário
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 36: 100807, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436894

RESUMO

Coccidia are protozoan parasites in the class Conoidasida. To determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of coccidia species in blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Henan, China, 240 fecal specimens were collected and screened for the presence of Eimeria spp. and Isospora spp. The overall prevalence was 65.0% (156/240), and seven different coccidia species were identified: E. pavonis (51.3%, 123/240), E. arabic (40.0%, 96/240), E. riyadhae (37.1%, 89/240), E. mandali (22.9%, 55/240), E. mayurai (14.2%, 34/240), I. mayuir (10.9%, 26/240), and I. lacazei (8.5%, 21/240). E. arabic and E. riyadhae were detected for the first time in China. Additionally, we provide molecular data of the seven different coccidia species at the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and the COI loci. Sequence homology percentages among the five species of Eimeria at the 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and COI loci were 96.0%-98.6%, 90.7%-98.2%, and 85.0%-94.9%, respectively, whereas for two species of Isospora the sequence homology percentages were 98.8%, 99.1%, and 95.4% at three corresponding loci. This is the first report of the molecular data of the seven coccidia species in blue peafowl in China.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Galliformes , Isospora , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Galliformes/parasitologia
13.
Poult Sci ; 101(12): 102212, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283140

RESUMO

This study is part of a series of studies on the possibility of substituting alternative protein source supplements to the diet of guinea fowl in order to improve food security in the fight against poverty on the African Continent. This study assesses the identified sensory characteristics of guinea fowl meat and consumer preferences to determine if the possible alternative supplements identified result in a product acceptable to consumers and if consumer preference was evident. Indigenous guinea fowl or selected breed (Galor animals) were fed a control diet C, a commercial diet I (diet used for guinea fowl in Côte d'Ivoire), or one of 2 experimental diets N (diet C supplemented with 15% cashew nut meal) or diet H (diet C supplemented with 15% detoxified hevea seed meal). Meat samples were assessed by 120-trained people using 18 sensory attributes. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that meats from guinea fowl fed diet C or diet I were clearly distinguished from guinea fowl fed N or H diets and that meat of indigenous guinea fowl or Galor animals were also clearly distinguished. The results of the hierarchical group analysis showed that meat from guinea fowl fed diet H was the preferred guinea fowl meat. A first partial least squares regression PLSR1 identified the relationships between guinea fowl meat samples, their sensory attributes and consumer preference and showed that 82.6% of the sensory data of the first 2 principal components accounted for 95.5% of the preference. The PLSR2 identified the relationships between guinea fowl samples, their sensory attributes, and their biochemical characteristics and showed that the fat content of the meat determined the intensity of flavor, odor, juiciness, and tenderness of the meat. Our results showed that meat from birds fed diet H was preferred, and thus emphasized the existence of a place for the use of hevea seed meal in guinea fowl diet in Côte d'Ivoire.


Assuntos
Anacardium , Galliformes , Hevea , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Anacardium/química , Ração Animal/análise , Nozes , Galinhas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Carne/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Sementes
14.
Zootaxa ; 5134(3): 426-434, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101057

RESUMO

The final stadium larvae of Huosoma latiloba (Yu, Yang Bu, 2008) and Huosoma tinctipenne (McLachlan, 1894) from Yunnan Province, China are described and illustrated for the first time, with diagnostic differences between the two species identified. While no morphological characters separating the adults of this genus, and the closely related western Palaearctic Pyrrhosoma Charpentier, 1840 have been found, the larvae of these two genera do show differences which are discussed here.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Odonatos , Animais , China , Larva/anatomia & histologia
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274059, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126057

RESUMO

Although rare, hybrids are more common in broadly sympatric waterfowl than in any other avian family; yet, the behavioral ecology explaining their generation has remained controversial. Leading hypotheses are forced interspecific copulations, mis-imprinting caused by mixed broods, and scarcity of conspecific mates. Using a large sample of hybrid ducks solicited from North American hunters we evaluated these hypotheses by genetically determining the mother and father species of F1 hybrids. Based on abundances in areas where their breeding ranges overlap, the frequency of hybrids varied greatly from expectations, with hybrids between species within recently derived clades being much more frequent than those between more divergent clades. Forced copulations, as measured by large phallus-length asymmetries between parentals, strongly predicted the father species of most F1 hybrids. Thus, most Anas acuta x A. platyrhynchos (Northern Pintail x Mallard) F1s were sired by A. acuta, and most A. platyrhynchos x Mareca strepera (Mallard x Gadwall) F1s were sired by A. platyrhynchos. Siring asymmetries were consistent with phallus length asymmetries in five additional parental combinations, but none had samples large enough to be individually statistically significant. The exception to this trend was our sample of nine A. platyrhynchos x Mareca americana (Mallard x Gadwall) F1s, for which a large phallus asymmetry failed to predict the father species. Hybrids were rare in brood parasitic species, suggesting mis-imprinting to be an unlikely cause of most hybrids; however, our samples of hybrids from regular brood parasites were inadequate to strongly address this hypothesis. We could test the scarcity of mates hypothesis for only a single hybrid combination and it contradicted our prediction: most F1 M. Penelope x M. americana (Eurasian x American Wigeon) were sired by M. penelope, strongly contradicting our prediction that female M. penelope wintering in enormous flocks of M. americana (American Wigeon) on the west coast of North America would have difficulty finding conspecific mates. In general, our results support interspecific forced copulations as the predominant behavioral mechanism generating hybrids in North temperate waterfowl.


Assuntos
Patos , Galliformes , Animais , Copulação , Patos/genética , Feminino , América do Norte
16.
J Parasitol ; 108(5): 419-422, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098751

RESUMO

Texas quail populations have declined over the past few decades. While habitat loss has been identified as the primary cause, it has been speculated that pathogens may also play a role in this decline. To help address this, we collected scaled quail, Callipepla squamata, Gambel's quail, Callipepla gambelii, and Montezuma quail, Cyrtonyx montezumae, from across the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas via hunter-harvest. Quail samples were then necropsied to document pathogens not previously recorded in the host species. Pathogens were submitted to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medicine Diagnostic Lab (TVMDL), where parasite identification and histopathological analyses were conducted. From this, we identified several parasites that had never been documented in the quails of the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas. This study was the first to document Mycobacterium sp. and Sarcocystis sp. in scaled quail, Subulura sp. and Physaloptera sp. in Montezuma quail, and Oxyspirura petrowi and Aulonocephalus pennula in a Texas Gambel's quail.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Doenças das Aves , Galliformes , Thelazioidea , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Humanos , Codorniz/parasitologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274189, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099302

RESUMO

Characterizing genetic structure across a species' range is relevant for management and conservation as it can be used to define population boundaries and quantify connectivity. Wide-ranging species residing in continuously distributed habitat pose substantial challenges for the characterization of genetic structure as many analytical methods used are less effective when isolation by distance is an underlying biological pattern. Here, we illustrate strategies for overcoming these challenges using a species of significant conservation concern, the Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), providing a new method to identify centers of genetic differentiation and combining multiple methods to help inform management and conservation strategies for this and other such species. Our objectives were to (1) describe large-scale patterns of population genetic structure and gene flow and (2) to characterize genetic subpopulation centers across the range of Greater Sage-grouse. Samples from 2,134 individuals were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci. Using standard STRUCTURE and spatial principal components analyses, we found evidence for four or six areas of large-scale genetic differentiation and, following our novel method, 12 subpopulation centers of differentiation. Gene flow was greater, and differentiation reduced in areas of contiguous habitat (eastern Montana, most of Wyoming, much of Oregon, Nevada, and parts of Idaho). As expected, areas of fragmented habitat such as in Utah (with 6 subpopulation centers) exhibited the greatest genetic differentiation and lowest effective migration. The subpopulation centers defined here could be monitored to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity with other subpopulation centers. Many areas outside subpopulation centers are contact zones where different genetic groups converge and could be priorities for maintaining overall connectivity. Our novel method and process of leveraging multiple different analyses to find common genetic patterns provides a path forward to characterizing genetic structure in wide-ranging, continuously distributed species.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Galliformes/genética , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Codorniz/genética
18.
J Anat ; 241(6): 1371-1386, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000871

RESUMO

Age-related changes in bone microstructure can inform our understanding the biology of both extant and fossil birds, but to date, histological work in birds, and particularly work using high-resolution 3D imaging, has largely been restricted to limited growth stages. We used minimally destructive synchrotron radiation-based X-ray computed tomography to visualise and measure key morphological and histological traits in 3D across development in the domestic duck and ring-necked pheasant. We use these measurements to build on the database of key reference material for interpreting bone histology. We found that growth patterns differed between the two species, with the ducks showing rapid growth in their lower limbs and early lower limb maturation, while pheasants grew more slowly, reflecting their later age at maturity. In the pheasant, both walking and flight occur early and their upper and lower limbs grew at similar rates. In the duck, flight and wing development are delayed until the bird is almost at full body mass. Through juvenile development, the second moment of area for the duck wing was low but increased rapidly towards the age of flight, at which point it became significantly greater than that of the lower limb, or the pheasant. On a microstructural level, both cortical porosity and canal diameter were related to cortical bone deposition rate. In terms of orientation, vascular canals in the bone cortex were more laminar in the humerus and femur compared with the tibiotarsus, and laminarity increased through juvenile development in the humerus, but not the tibiotarsus, possibly reflecting torsional vs compressive loading. These age-related changes in cortical bone vascular microstructure of the domestic duck and pheasant will help understanding the biology of both extant and fossil birds, including age estimation, growth rate and growth patterns, and limb function.


Assuntos
Patos , Galliformes , Animais , Osso Cortical/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais , Úmero/anatomia & histologia
19.
Environ Pollut ; 312: 120005, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998772

RESUMO

Numerous toxicological studies have shown that ingestion of pesticides can induce physiological stress in breeding birds, with adverse consequences on egg laying parameters and offspring quality through parental effects. However, previous studies do not mimic current levels of pesticide residues in typical landscapes, and they do not consider potential cocktail effects of pesticides as they occur in the wild. Herein, we explored whether realistic pesticide exposure affected reproduction parameters and offspring condition through parental effects in Grey partridge. We fed 24 breeding pairs with either seeds from conventional agriculture crops treated with various pesticides during cropping, or organic grains without pesticide residues as controls. The conventional and organic grain diets mimicked food options potentially encountered by wild birds in the field. The results showed that ingesting low pesticide doses over a long period had consequences on reproduction and offspring quality without altering mortality in parents or chicks. Compared with organic pairs, conventional pairs yielded smaller chicks at hatching that had a lower body mass index at 24 days old. Additionally, these chicks displayed lower haematocrit when body mass index was higher. Therefore, ingestion of conventional grains by parents resulted in chronic exposure to pesticide residues, even at low doses, and this had detrimental consequences on offspring. These results demonstrate a sublethal effect of pesticide residues through parental effects. The consequences of parental exposure on chicks might partly explain the decline in wild Grey partridge populations, which raises questions for avian conservation and demography if current agrosystem approaches are continued.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Galinhas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Codorniz , Reprodução
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3393-e3399, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810476

RESUMO

Flaviviruses such as West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV) and Bagaza (BAGV) virus and avian malaria parasites are vector borne pathogens that circulate naturally between avian and mosquito hosts. WNV and USUV and potentially also BAGV constitute zoonoses. Temporal and spatial cocirculation and coinfection with Plasmodium spp., and West Nile virus has been documented in birds and mosquito vectors, and fatally USUV-infected passerines coinfected with Plasmodium spp. had more severe lesions. Also, WNV, USUV and BAGV have been found to cocirculate. Yet little is known about the interaction of BAGV and malaria parasites during consecutive or coinfections of avian hosts. Here we report mortality of free-living red-legged partridges in a hunting estate in Southern Spain that were coinfected with BAGV and Plasmodium spp. The outbreak occurred in the area where BAGV first emerged in Europe in 2010 and where cocirculation of BAGV, USUV and WNV was confirmed in 2011 and 2013. Partridges were found dead in early October 2019. Birds had mottled locally pale pectoral muscles, enlarged, congestive greenish-black tinged livers and enlarged kidneys. Microscopically congestion and predominantly mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates were evident and Plasmodium phanerozoites were present in the liver, spleen, kidneys, muscle and skin. Molecular testing and sequencing detected Plasmodium spp. and BAGV in different tissues of the partridges, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence and colocalization of both pathogens in the liver and spleen. Due to the importance of the red-legged partridge in the ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula and as driver of regional economy such mortalities are of concern. Such outbreaks may reflect climate change related shifts in host, vector and pathogen ecology and interactions that could emerge similarly for other pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Coinfecção , Infecções por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Galliformes , Plasmodium , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Ecossistema , Flavivirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Codorniz , Espanha/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária
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