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1.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(10): 1027-1032, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of children with acute gastroenteritis who were admitted to Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2017 to December 2019. A total of 1 458 stool samples were collected from the children, and viral RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for gene amplification, sequencing, and genotype identification of the VP1 region of capsid protein in norovirus. RESULTS: Among the 1 458 stool samples, 158 (10.8%) were positive for norovirus. There was no significant difference in the positive detection rate of norovirus between different years (P>0.05). Boys had a norovirus detection rate of 12.2% (105/860), which was significantly higher than that in girls (8.9%, 53/598) (P=0.043). The children aged 12 to <18 months had the highest norovirus detection rate (16.9%, 51/301). August, September, and October were the epidemic peak season. A total of 23 norovirus-positive samples were also positive for rotavirus. The norovirus detected were mainly GII type (97.5%, 154/158), and only 4 cases were GI type (2.5%, 4/158). The sequencing of the VP1 region of capsid protein in the positive samples showed that GII.4 (69.6%, 110/158) was the dominant genotype, among which 99 (62.7%, 99/158) were GII.4 Sydney 2012, followed by GII.3 (15.2%, 24/158), GII.2 (10.1%, 16/158), GII.6 (1.9%, 3/158), and GII.17 (0.6%, 1/158). GI.3 (1.3%, 2/158), GI.2 (0.6%, 1/158), and GI.5 (0.6%, 1/158) were rarely detected. CONCLUSIONS: Norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the major epidemic strain in the children with norovirus gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019. Although norovirus infection can exist throughout the year, August to October is the peak period. During this period, norovirus surveillance and key population protection are strengthened to help prevent and control norovirus diarrhea.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Criança , Fezes , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1138, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) vaccines are available in Spain since 2006 but are not included in the National Immunization Program. RV vaccination has reached an intermediate vaccination coverage rate (VCR) but with substantial differences between provinces. The aim of this study was to assess the ratio of RV gastroenteritis (RVGE) admissions to all-cause hospitalizations in children under 5 years of age in areas with different VCR. METHODS: Observational, multicenter, cross-sectional, medical record-based study. All children admitted to the study hospitals with a RVGE confirmed diagnosis during a 5-year period were selected. The annual ratio of RVGE to the total number of all-cause hospitalizations in children < 5 years of age were calculated. The proportion of RVGE hospitalizations were compared in areas with low (< 30%), intermediate (31-59%) and high (> 60%) VCR. RESULTS: From June 2013 to May 2018, data from 1731 RVGE hospitalizations (16.47% of which were nosocomial) were collected from the 12 study hospitals. RVGE hospital admissions accounted for 2.82% (95 CI 2.72-3.00) and 43.84% (95% CI 40.53-47.21) of all-cause and Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations in children under 5 years of age, respectively. The likelihood of hospitalization due to RVGE was 56% (IC95%, 51-61%) and 27% (IC95%, 18-35%) lower in areas with high and intermediate VCR, respectively, compared to the low VCR areas. CONCLUSIONS: RVGE hospitalization ratios are highly dependent on the RV VCR. Increasing VCR in areas with intermediate and low coverage rates would significantly reduce the severe burden of RVGE that requires hospital management in Spain. Clinical trial registration Not applicable.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Cobertura Vacinal
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1316-1320, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749475

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to analyze the the genotyping of norovirus infectious diarrhea epidemic in Songjiang district, Shanghai, and explored the experience in handling the epidemic to provide a scientific basis for formulating prevention and treatment strategies. Methods: The epidemiological data and related samples of 69 outbreaks of infectious diarrhea caused by norovirus was collected from 2017 to 2019 in Songjiang district, Shanghai. Sequencing and type identification were performed by the method of gene sequencing for the junction region of Norovirus ORF1 and ORF2. Results: From 2017 to 2019, 69 outbreaks of norovirus infections diarrhea were reported in Songjiang district, Shanghai. A total of 1 767 samples were tested, including 619 case samples (positive rate 19.9%), 343 practitioner samples (positive rate 1.1%), 505 environmental samples (positive rate 0.5%) and 300 food samples (not detected). 141 sequences were obtained, and the genotype analysis showed that the genotype that mainly caused infectious diarrhea in 2017 and 2018 was GII.P16-GII.2 (50.98%, 26/51). In 2019, the genotypes that mainly caused infectious diarrhea were GII.P16-GII.2 (13.73%, 7/51) and GII.Pe-GII.4 (9.80%, 5/51). Conclusion: The main genotype of the 69 outbreaks of nororirus infectious diarrhea epidemic in Songjiang district, Shanghai from 2017 to 2019 was GII.P16-GII.2, which showed obvious peaks in spring, autumn and winter. There were more infections in kindergartens and schools. The surveillance of norovirus infection should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia
4.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(4): 553-567, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666655

RESUMO

Rotaviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis with the highest mortality and morbidity rates in children aged 0-5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of rotavirus infection in patients whose stool samples were sent to microbiology laboratory to investigate the etiology of diarrhea, to investigate the rotavirus genotypes that are common in our region and G10, G12 genotypes that have recently become common in the world. Fecal samples of 476 patients aged between 0-92 years who applied between November 2016 and February 2018 were studied via immunochromatographic rapid test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. ELISA positive samples were studied by nested reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and genotyped by agarose gel electrophoresis. Rotavirus was found positive in 18.3% and 17% of stool samples by immunochromatographic test and ELISA, respectively. All ELISA positive samples were also detected as positive by RT-PCR. 18.5% of female patients and 15.7% of male patients were found to be positive and rotavirus positivity was not statistically significant between genders. The frequency of rotavirus in different age groups was 23.5% (6-12 years), 17.3% (13-24 months) and 16% (25-36 months). It was determined that rotavirus cases were most common in the spring. G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G10, and G12 were detected in 37%, 7.4%, 16.1%, 6.2%, 9.9%, 2.5%, 26% of the samples, respectively. G12 was the most common genotype after G1. The most common G and P genotype combination was G1P[8] (17.2%). This was followed by G12P[8] (11.11%) and G3P[8] (11.11%). P[8] (53%) was found to be the dominant P genotype. In this study, it was observed that rotavirus, which is the cause of childhood diarrhea, can also be encountered in advanced ages and even new genotypes that infect humans worldwide may also be the causative agents. Therefore, we concluded that it is important to investigate new genotypes such as G10 and G12 in molecular epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
5.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 3119958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594160

RESUMO

Fish and fish products are considered a fundamental part of the human diet due to their high nutritional value. Food-borne diseases are considered a major public health challenge worldwide due to their incidence, associated mortality, and negative economic repercussions. Food safety is the guarantee that foods will not cause harm to the health of those who consume them, and it is a fundamental property of food quality. Food safety can be at risk of being lost at any stage of the food chain if the food is contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. Many diverse bacteria are present in the environment and as part of the microbiota of food that can be transmitted to humans during the handling and consumption of food. Plesiomonas shigelloides has been mainly associated with outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases due to the consumption of fish. This bacterium inhabits the environment and aquatic animals and is associated with the microbiota of fish such as tilapia, a fish of importance in fishing, aquaculture, commercialization, and consumption worldwide. The purpose of this document is to provide, through a bibliographic review of databases (Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, among others), a general informative perspective on food-borne diseases and, in particular, the consumption of fish and tilapia. Diseases derived from contamination by Plesiomonas shigelloides are included, and control and prevention actions and sanitary regulations for fishery products established in several countries around the world are discussed to promote the safety of foods of aquatic origin intended for human consumption and to protect public health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Plesiomonas/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Tilápia/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Carga Bacteriana , Criopreservação , Reservatórios de Doenças , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Plesiomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prevalência , Controle de Qualidade , Poluição da Água
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258391, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634090

RESUMO

In France, social distancing measures have been adopted to contain the spread of COVID-19, culminating in national Lockdowns. The use of hand washing, hydro-alcoholic rubs and mask-wearing also increased over time. As these measures are likely to impact the transmission of many communicable diseases, we studied the changes in common infectious diseases incidence in France during the first year of COVID-19 circulation. We examined the weekly incidence of acute gastroenteritis, chickenpox, acute respiratory infections and bronchiolitis reported in general practitioner networks since January 2016. We obtained search engine query volume for French terms related to these diseases and sales data for relevant drugs over the same period. A periodic regression model was fit to disease incidence, drug sales and search query volume before the COVID-19 period and extrapolated afterwards. We compared the expected values with observations made in 2020. During the first lockdown period, incidence dropped by 67% for gastroenteritis, by 79% for bronchiolitis, by 49% for acute respiratory infection and 90% for chickenpox compared to the past years. Reductions with respect to the expected incidence reflected the strength of implemented measures. Incidence in children was impacted the most. Reduction in primary care consultations dropped during a short period at the beginning of the first lockdown period but remained more than 95% of the expected value afterwards. In primary care, the large decrease in reported gastroenteritis, chickenpox or bronchiolitis observed during the period where many barrier measures were implemented imply that the circulation of common viruses was reduced and informs on the overall effect of these measures.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Varicela/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Lab ; 67(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Torque teno virus (TTV) is a single stranded non enveloped DNA virus. Various studies have found a high prevalence of TTV in different populations and in different human samples including blood and stool. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of TTV in adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in stool samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: This study was a retrospective, cross-sectional study carried out on 100 preserved stool samples from adult patients with simple community acquired diarrhea without dehydration. Stool samples were subjected to antigen detection of rotavirus and norovirus by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Detection of TTV was performed by the use of semi- nested PCR. RESULTS: The detected viruses were TTV by semi-nested PCR in 83% of the patients, followed by both norovirus and rotavirus in 20% of patients each. TTV was present without any other studied virus in 52% of the samples, the norovirus antigen was detected as a single virus in 2%, and rotavirus was detected as a single virus in 3%. No viruses were detected in 11% of the stool samples. Norovirus was associated with TTV in 17 isolates and as a sole virus in three samples (p = 0.5). Rotavirus was associated with TTV in 17 isolates and alone in three. CONCLUSIONS: The data of the present study show a high prevalence of TTV in stool samples from adults with acute gastroenteritis. The presence of rotavirus and norovirus was also a common finding in these patients. There were no detected effects on the clinical features of gastroenteritis associated with the presence of TTV in acute gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Rotavirus , Torque teno virus , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rotavirus/genética , Torque teno virus/genética
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1122, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is the main cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. From September 2015 through August 2018, 203 NoV outbreaks involving 2500 cases were reported to the Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: Faecal specimens for 203 outbreaks were collected and epidemiological data were obtained through the AGE outbreak surveillance system in Shenzhen. Genotypes were determined by sequencing analysis. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of NoV in Shenzhen, molecular evolution and mutations were evaluated based on time-scale evolutionary phylogeny and amino acid mutations. RESULTS: A total of nine districts reported NoV outbreaks and the reported NoV outbreaks peaked from November to March. Among the 203 NoV outbreaks, 150 were sequenced successfully. Most of these outbreaks were associated with the NoV GII.2[P16] strain (45.3%, 92/203) and occurred in school settings (91.6%, 186/203). The evolutionary rates of the RdRp region and the VP1 sequence were 2.1 × 10-3 (95% HPD interval, 1.7 × 10-3-2.5 × 10-3) substitutions/site/year and 2.7 × 10-3 (95% HPD interval, 2.4 × 10-3-3.1 × 10-3) substitutions/site/year, respectively. The common ancestors of the GII.2[P16] strain from Shenzhen and GII.4 Sydney 2012[P16] diverged from 2011 to 2012. The common ancestors of the GII.2[P16] strain from Shenzhen and previous GII.2[P16] (2010-2012) diverged from 2003 to 2004. The results of amino acid mutations showed 6 amino acid substitutions (*77E, R750K, P845Q, H1310Y, K1546Q, T1549A) were found only in GII.4 Sydney 2012[P16] and the GII.2[P16] recombinant strain. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the molecular epidemiological patterns in Shenzhen, China, from September 2015 to August 2018 and provides evidence that the epidemic trend of GII.2[P16] recombinant strain had weakened and the non-structural proteins of the recombinant strain might have played a more significant role than VP1.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 70(6): 1-19, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555008

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Gastrointestinal illness is common worldwide and can be transmitted by an infected person or contaminated food, water, or environmental surfaces. Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness commonly occur in crowded living accommodations or communities where persons are physically close. Pathogens that cause gastrointestinal illness outbreaks can spread quickly in closed and semienclosed environments, such as cruise ships. CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) is responsible for conducting public health inspections and monitoring acute gastroenteritis (AGE) illness on cruise ships entering the United States after visiting a foreign port. PERIOD COVERED: 2006-2019. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: VSP maintains the Maritime Illness Database and Reporting System (MIDRS) for monitoring cases of AGE illness among passengers and crew sailing on cruise ships carrying ≥13 passengers and within 15 days of arrival at U.S. ports from foreign ports of call. Cruise ships under VSP jurisdiction are required to submit a standardized report (24-hour report) of AGE case counts for passengers and crew 24-36 hours before arrival at the first U.S. port after traveling internationally. If the cumulative number of AGE cases increases after submission of the 24-hour report, an updated report must be submitted no less than 4 hours before the ship arrives at the U.S. port. A special report is submitted to MIDRS when vessels are within 15 days of arrival at a U.S. port and cumulative case counts reach 2% of the passenger or crew population during a voyage. VSP declares an outbreak when 3% or more of the passengers or crew on a voyage report AGE symptom to the ship's medical staff. RESULTS: During 2006-2019, a total of 37,276 voyage reports from 252 cruise ships were submitted to MIDRS. Of the 252 cruise ships, 80.6% were extra large in size (60,001-120,000 gross registered tons [GRT]), 37.0% and 32.9% had voyages lasting 3-5 days and 8-10 days, respectively, and 53.2% were traveling to a port in the Southeast region of the United States at the time the final MIDRS report was submitted. During 2006-2019, VSP received 18,040 (48.4%) 24-hour routine reports, 18,606 (49.9%) 4-hour update reports, and 612 (1.6%) special reports (2% and 3% AGE reports). Incidence rates decreased from 32.5 cases per 100,000 travel days to 16.9 for passengers and from 13.5 to 5.2 for crew. Among passengers, AGE incidence rates increased with increasing ship size and voyage length. For crew members, rates were significantly higher on extra-large ships (19.8 per 100,000 travel-days) compared with small and large ships and on voyages lasting 6-7 days. Geographically, passenger incidence rates were highest among ships underway to ports in California, Alaska, Texas, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. Among passengers, AGE incidence rates were significantly higher on ships anchoring in California (32.1 per 100,000 travel-days [95% confidence interval (CI) = 31.7-32.4]); among crew, they were significantly higher in the South region of the United States (25.9 [CI = 25.1-26.7]). INTERPRETATION: This report is the first detailed summary of surveillance data from MIDRS during 2006-2019. AGE incidence rates decreased during this time. Incidence rates among passengers were higher on mega and super-mega ships and voyages lasting >7 days. AGE incidence among crew was higher on extra-large ships and voyages lasting 6-7 days. Ship size and voyage length are associated with AGE incidence rates, and more targeted effort is needed to prevent disproportionate AGE incidence rates among passengers and crew sailing in high-risk situations. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: Maritime AGE surveillance provides important information about the epidemiology of gastrointestinal illness among cruise ship populations traveling in U.S. jurisdictions. AGE illness is highly contagious and can be transmitted quickly within vessels. State and local public health departments in the United States can use data in this report to better inform the traveling public about the risk for AGE and the importance of their role in minimizing the risk for illness while traveling onboard cruise ships. Key elements for reducing exposure to AGE illness, limiting the spread of illness, and preventing AGE outbreaks are proper hand hygiene practices and prompt isolation of symptomatic persons. Passengers can work in collaboration with cruise lines to promote onboard public health by frequently washing their hands, promptly reporting AGE illness symptoms, and isolating themselves from other persons immediately after illness onset. Access to and proper use of handwashing stations can reduce the risk for illness transmission aboard cruise ships.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Navios , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Doença Aguda , Bases de Dados Factuais , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045965, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bacterial aetiologies and associated risk factors of gastroenteritis among typhoid suspected cases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted at Dschang District Hospital of the Menoua Division, West Region of Cameroon, between April-November 2019 and June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged ≥2 years (mean 34±18.77 years) and of both sex suspected of having typhoid fever were included, while non-suspected typhoid cases were excluded. Self-reported sociodemographic and health information at recruitment was obtained from 556 participants. METHODS: Collected stool samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically and subjected to culture. After culture, Gram staining was performed, followed by biochemical testing and characterisation using the Analytical Profile Index (API-20E) test kit. INTERVENTIONS': No intervention was done during the period of study. OUTCOME MEASURES: We identified bacterial causing gastroenteritis, and associated risk factors calculated using binary regression, adjusting for sociodemographic and health variables. RESULTS: Of 556 patients, 74.28% tested positive for gastroenteritis. Among pathogens responsible for gastroenteritis, Escherichia coli was found to be the main cause (21.1%), followed by Salmonella typhi (10.4%), Citrobacter diversus (8.2%), and Proteus mirabilis (8.2%), Proteus vulgaris (7.3%), whereas Citrobacter spp and Yersinia enterocolitica were less represented among pathogens causing the disease among patients. A significant difference (p=0.002) was observed between abdominal pain and all the micro-organisms isolated from the patients. Patients having primary level of education were significantly associated (p=0.017; 3.163 (95% CI 1.228 to 8.147)) with the prevalence of gastroenteritis. Consumption of beverages (Wald statistic: 4.823; OR: 2.471; 95% CI (1.102 to 5.539); p=0.028), use of modern toilet (Wald statistic: 4.471; OR: 1.723; 95% CI (1.041 to 2.852); p=0.034) were strongly associated with gastroenteritis and rearing of bird (Wald statistic: 4.880; OR: 0.560; 95% CI (0.335 to 0.937); p=0.027), was found to be protective. CONCLUSION: Acute bacterial gastroenteritis is a significant cause of morbidity in Dschang, with the prevalence of 74.28%. Many pathogens accounted for gastroenteritis, and E. coli (21.1%) could be a major cause, followed by S. typhi (10.4%), C. diversus (8.2%), P. mirabilis (8.2%), P. vulgaris (7.3%), whereas Citrobacter spp and Y. enterocolitica were less represented. Gastroenteritis was highly associated with primary level of education, consumption of beverages, use of modern toilet while rearing of birds was unexpectedly found to be protective against Gastroenteritis. Further characterisation is planned.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Hospitais de Distrito , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco
11.
Vaccine ; 39(41): 6151-6156, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends research into non-specific effects of vaccination. For rotavirus vaccines, these have not yet been well established. We studied non-specific effects up to 18 months of age using data from a quasi-experimental before-after study comparing cohorts of rotavirus vaccinated and unvaccinated infants with medical risk conditions. METHODS: Infants were enrolled at six weeks of age before and after a stepped-wedge implementation of a hospital-based risk-group rotavirus vaccination program. Other infant vaccinations were administered according to the Dutch National Immunization Program and similar in both cohorts. Non-specific effect outcomes were prospectively collected using monthly questionnaires and included acute hospitalization (excluding for acute gastroenteritis), monthly incidence of acute respiratory illness and eczema. We used time-to-event analysis and negative binomial regression to assess the effect of at least one dose of rotavirus vaccination for each of these outcomes. Findings The analysis included 496 rotavirus unvaccinated and 719 vaccinated medical risk infants. In total, 1067 (88%) were premature, 373 (31%) small for gestational age and 201 (17%) had a congenital pathology. The adjusted hazard ratio for first acute hospitalization was 0·91 (95 %CI 0·76;1·16) for rotavirus vaccinated versus unvaccinated infants. Adjusted incidence rate ratio for acute respiratory illness was 1·05 (95 %CI 0·96;1·15) and for eczema 0·89 (95 %CI 0·69;1·15). CONCLUSION: The results suggest no, or minimal non-specific effects from rotavirus vaccination on acute hospitalization, acute respiratory illness or eczema in medical risk infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: as NTR5361 in the Dutch trial registry, www.trialregister.nl.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
12.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 3165-3172, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417874

RESUMO

This study combined conventional epidemiology of human astroviruses. From 2010 to 2016, 232 stool samples from children under 5 years of age were screened using NGS and conventional RT-PCR followed by genetic analysis in order to investigate the genotypic diversity of classical human astrovirus (HAstV) circulating in Tocantins State, Brazil. HAstV was detected in 16 cases (6.9%). Seven specimens (43.7%; 7/16) were positive according RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to investigate the molecular to both NGS and RT-PCR. NGS and RT-PCR individually revealed six (37.5%; 6/16) and three (18.8%; 3/16) additional positive samples, respectively. Sequencing of the HAstV-positive samples revealed HAstV-1a (9/16), HAstV-4c (3/16), and HAstV-5c (4/16) lineages.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Mamastrovirus/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , População Rural
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 757, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis globally. However, norovirus is rarely laboratory confirmed or recorded explicitly as a cause of hospitalization. In recent years, there has been an interest in using medical databases and indirect modelling methods to estimate the incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of hospitalizations for norovirus gastroenteritis in Europe (2004-2015) using nationwide in-patient discharge records from different European countries. METHODS: National hospital discharge registers in all 28 European Union countries (at that time) and all 4 European Free Trade Association countries were contacted and invited to participate in the study. Discharges with ICD9/ICD10 codes for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) as first-listed (principal) diagnosis were extracted to assess hospitalization rates for AGE and norovirus gastroenteritis (NGE), overall, by age group, country, month, and seasonal year. The number of cause-unspecified episodes was regressed against pathogen-specific AGE episodes: Rotavirus, Clostridium difficile, Other Bacterial, Other Viral and Parasitic separately. NGE hospital discharges were estimated for each month by calculating the difference between observed cause-unspecified and model-predicted counts, assuming that any remaining seasonality not otherwise captured in the model was due to norovirus, and adding those to the coded NGE episodes to get the total number of norovirus-associated episodes. RESULTS: Data were available from 15 countries, representing 68% of the total population in Europe. Only 24.4% of all AGE discharges were coded as cause-specified. We estimated that between 2004 and 2015, the overall rate of NGE hospital discharges in Europe was 3.9 per 10,000 person-years, ranging from 1.2 (Portugal) to 10.7 (Lithuania). Norovirus was predicted to be responsible for 17% of all AGE hospital discharges in Europe in this period. Norovirus affects individuals of all ages, but NGE discharge rates were highest in children < 5 years (24.8 per 10,000 person-years), and adults aged ≥80 years (10.7 per 10,000 person-years). CONCLUSION: We estimated that 1 in 400 hospitalizations in Europe can be attributed to Norovirus. In the absence of routine norovirus testing and recording in hospital settings, modelling methods are useful resources to estimate the incidence of norovirus gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Adulto , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Alta do Paciente
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1575, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common infectious disease leading to gastroenteritis, dehydration, uveitis, etc. Internet search is a new method to monitor the outbreak of infectious disease. An internet-based surveillance system using internet data is logistically advantageous and economical to show term-related diseases. In this study, we tried to determine the relationship between salmonellosis and Google Trends in the USA from January 2004 to December 2017. METHODS: We downloaded the reported salmonellosis in the USA from the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) from January 2004 to December 2017. Additionally, we downloaded the Google search terms related to salmonellosis from Google Trends in the same period. Cross-correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: The results showed that 6 Google Trends search terms appeared earlier than reported salmonellosis, 26 Google Trends search terms coincided with salmonellosis, and 16 Google Trends search terms appeared after salmonellosis were reported. When the search terms preceded outbreaks, "foods" (t = 2.927, P = 0.004) was a predictor of salmonellosis. When the search terms coincided with outbreaks, "hotel" (t = 1.854, P = 0.066), "poor sanitation" (t = 2.895, P = 0.004), "blueberries" (t = 2.441, P = 0.016), and "hypovolemic shock" (t = 2.001, P = 0.047) were predictors of salmonellosis. When the search terms appeared after outbreaks, "ice cream" (t = 3.077, P = 0.002) was the predictor of salmonellosis. Finally, we identified the most important indicators of Google Trends search terms, including "hotel" (t = 1.854, P = 0.066), "poor sanitation" (t = 2.895, P = 0.004), "blueberries" (t = 2.441, P = 0.016), and "hypovolemic shock" (t = 2.001, P = 0.047). In the future, the increased search activities of these terms might indicate the salmonellosis. CONCLUSION: We evaluated the related Google Trends search terms with salmonellosis and identified the most important predictors of salmonellosis outbreak.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Salmonella , Surtos de Doenças , Previsões , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Ferramenta de Busca
15.
Euro Surveill ; 26(34)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448447

RESUMO

BackgroundWaterborne disease outbreaks (WBDO) associated with tap water consumption are probably underestimated in France.AimIn order to improve their detection, Santé publique France launched a surveillance system in 2019, based on the periodical analysis of health insurance data for medicalised acute gastroenteritis (mAGE).MethodsSpatio-temporal cluster detection methods were applied to mAGE cases to prioritise clusters for further investigation. These investigations determined the plausibility that infection is of waterborne origin and the strength of association.ResultsBetween January 2010 and December 2019, 3,323 priority clusters were detected (53,878 excess mAGE cases). They involved 3,717 drinking water supply zones (WSZ), 15.4% of all French WSZ. One third of these WSZ (33.4%; n = 1,242 WSZ) were linked to repeated clusters. Moreover, our system detected 79% of WBDO voluntarily notified to health authorities.ConclusionEnvironmental investigations of detected clusters are necessary to determine the plausibility that infection is of waterborne origin. Consequently, they contribute to identifying which WSZ are linked to clusters and for which specific actions are needed to avoid future outbreaks. The surveillance system incorporates three priority elements: linking environmental investigations with water safety plan management, promoting the systematic use of rainfall data to assess waterborne origin, and focusing on repeat clusters. In the absence of an alternative clear hypothesis, the occurrence of a mAGE cluster in a territory completely matching a distribution zone indicates a high plausibility of water origin.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(4): e913-e920, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) causes a substantial burden in the United States, but its etiology frequently remains undetermined. Active surveillance within an integrated healthcare delivery system was used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of medically attended norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus. METHODS: Active surveillance was conducted among all enrolled members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest during July 2014-June 2016. An age-stratified, representative sample of AGE-associated medical encounters were recruited to provide a stool specimen to be tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus. Medically attended AGE (MAAGE) encounters for a patient occurring within 30 days were grouped into 1 episode, and all-cause MAAGE incidence was calculated. Pathogen- and healthcare setting-specific incidence estimates were calculated using age-stratified bootstrapping. RESULTS: The overall incidence of MAAGE was 40.6 episodes per 1000 person-years (PY), with most episodes requiring no more than outpatient care. Norovirus was the most frequently detected pathogen, with an incidence of 5.5 medically attended episodes per 1000 PY. Incidence of norovirus MAAGE was highest among children aged < 5 years (20.4 episodes per 1000 PY), followed by adults aged ≥ 65 years (4.5 episodes per 1000 PY). Other study pathogens showed similar patterns by age, but lower overall incidence (sapovirus: 2.4 per 1000 PY; astrovirus: 1.3 per 1000 PY; rotavirus: 0.5 per 1000 PY). CONCLUSIONS: Viral enteropathogens, particularly norovirus, are important contributors to MAAGE, especially among children < 5 years of age. The present findings underline the importance of judicious antibiotics use for pediatric AGE and suggest that an effective norovirus vaccine could substantially reduce MAAGE.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Sapovirus , Adulto , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Fezes , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 2989-2998, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383167

RESUMO

Noroviruses are significant etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across all age groups, especially in children under 5 years of age. Although the prevalence of norovirus infection is known to have increased in various countries, in India there are few reports pertaining to the norovirus disease burden. We investigated the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of noroviruses in children seeking health care at two hospitals in Kolkata, Eastern India. Faecal specimens were collected between January 2018 and December 2019 from 2812 children under 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. Noroviruses were detected in 6.04% (170/2812) of the samples, and 12.9% (22/170) of these were cases of coinfection with rotavirus. Among children (≤5 years), a higher infection rate (8.2%, n = 94/1152) was observed in the 6 to 12 month age group. GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the dominant norovirus capsid genotype (n = 75/90, 83.3%), followed by GII.3 (n = 10/90, 11.1%). Other capsid types GII.13 (n = 4/90, 4.4%) and GII.17 (n = 1/90; 1.1%) were also detected at low frequency. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the GII.P16 polymerase of strains in this region clustered with those of the phylogenetically distinct monophyletic clade of GII.P16 strains, whose members have been circulating worldwide since 2014. Inter-genotypic norovirus recombinants such as GII.P16-GII.3 (n = 10) and GII.P16-GII.13 (n = 4) were also observed among the circulating strains. In comparison to previous studies from eastern India, the present study shows a higher detection rate of norovirus infection in the paediatric population suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Continuous surveillance is required for predicting the emergence of novel genotypes and recombinant strains and for future vaccine development.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Capsídeo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epitopos/genética , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Proteínas Virais/genética
18.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies on gastroenteritis have focused on viral and bacterial infections, while gastroenteritis where intestinal protozoan parasites may have played a role has not been well studied. This study was therefore, designed to assess the frequency and several potential risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection among children suffering from acute gastroenteritis and presented to a tertiary hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Effectiveness of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for Cryptosporidium detection were evaluated as well. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during the period from July 2018 to December 2018, where 100 human diarrheic stool samples were collected from children aged 3 months up to 12 years old presented to Ain Shams University Pediatrics Hospital, Cairo, Egypt with acute gastroenteritis. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the participants. Initial parasite screening was done using the MZN staining method, and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium infection, while genotyping was based on molecular diagnostic assays using nPCR and sequencing for selected samples. RESULTS: The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. Cryptosporidium hominis was the only detected genotype. Clinical picture among cases were not significant in comparison to patients with other causes of gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium infection is more common below 5 years of age; however, clinical data are not enough for suspicion of infection. Nucleic acid-based methods are more sensitive and specific despite the high cost in developing countries. However, real estimation of Cryptosporidium disease burden is of an outmost importance to achieve prevention and detection of the Cryptosporidium species genetic diversity. Lay summaryCryptosporidium is a protozoan, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. It is most common below 5 years of age; however, diarrhea and vomiting characteristics are not different from other causes of gastroenteritis. General diagnostic methods are inadequate for detection of these infections. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing are accurate methods for pathogen detection and species verification. Our study included 100 Egyptian children with acute gastroenteritis. The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. The clinical picture of the children presenting with this disease was not significantly different from those presenting with gastroenteritis due to other causes. This emphasizes the importance of proper diagnosis to know the true burden of the disease.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Gastroenterite , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia , Egito/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(2): 91-97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: On 17th Dec 2019 gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in two Pragues neighbouring institutions. Investigation aimed to describe outbreak, identify etiological agent, vehicle and propose control measures. METHODS: Routine outbreak investigation and retrospective cohort study was done. Data collected via online questionnaire were analysed using descriptive, univariate and stratified analysis. RESULTS: Of 960 employees, 276 responded (29%). We identified 39 (14%) cases, one tested norovirus positive. Canteen staff didnt report illness. No food item or environmental sample was tested. Sichuan pork served for lunch on 17th Dec was the most likely vehicle of outbreak (odds ratio (OR) 5.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98-12.64). Eating Sichuan pork and Chinese soup showed OR 31.5, 95% CI 5.0-320.7. Twenty-two (56%) cases can be explained by consumption of these food items. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological analytical method provided evidence of likely vehicle. We did not find the source. Control measures were early ensured and outbreak ceased. We emphasise full outbreak investigation using analytical epidemiology, environmental screening and microbiological testing of cases and possibly all kitchen staff.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(11): e0115421, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406795

RESUMO

While rotavirus vaccine programs effectively protect against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, rotavirus vaccine strains have been identified in the stool of vaccinated children and their close contacts suffering from acute gastroenteritis. The prevalence of vaccine strains, the emergence of vaccine-derived strains, and their role in acute gastroenteritis are not well studied. We developed a locked nucleic acid reverse transcription real-time PCR assay (LNA-RTqPCR) to detect the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) Rotarix nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) in children with acute gastroenteritis and healthy controls, and validated it using sequence-confirmed RV1 strains. The association between RV1-derived strains and gastroenteritis was determined using logistic regression. The new assay exhibited 100% (95% CI 91.7%, 100%) diagnostic sensitivity and 99.4% (95% CI 96.2%, 100%) diagnostic specificity, with a detection limit of 9.86 copies/reaction and qPCR efficiency of 99.7%. Using this assay, we identified the presence of RV1-derived NSP2 sequences in 7.7% of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases and 98.6% of rotavirus-positive healthy children (94.4% had previously received the RV1). Among gastroenteritis cases, those whose stool contained RV1-derived strains had milder gastroenteritis symptoms compared to that of natural rotavirus infections. We observed no significant association between RV1-derived strains and gastroenteritis (odds ratio [OR] 0.98; 95% CI 0.60, 1.72). Our study demonstrated that the new assay is suitable for monitoring RV1-derived rotavirus strain circulation and that the RV1-derived strains are not associated with development of gastroenteritis symptoms.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Alberta/epidemiologia , Criança , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas
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