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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8987, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643927

RESUMO

Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrinopathy of domestic felines. In humans, toxic nodular goitre is pathophysiologically similar to feline hyperthyroidism and can be caused by chronically low or fluctuating dietary iodine intake. The aetiopathogenesis of feline hyperthyroidism is not known, but chronically low or fluctuating dietary iodine intake is likely common. This study assessed habitual iodine intake in domestic cats by: (1) conducting a dietary survey involving 361 owners of 549 cats, (2) analysing iodine content of 119 cat feeds, 38 urine and 64 hair samples and (3) assessing variation in iodine content of eight cat feeds over 4-6 different batches. Owners varied their cats feed regularly, usually on a day-to-day basis and often between wet and dry feeds with differing flavours. The majority (78%; 93 of 119) feeds for cats were within the guideline range for iodine. Of the 22% (n = 26 feeds) that were not compliant, the majority (n = 23) were below the nutritional minimum value with most (n = 16) being dry kibble. Iodine content of feeds did not vary considerably between types of feed or feed packaging, but variation between different batches of the same feed was 14-31%. Hence, urine iodine in cats also varied markedly. Cats being treated for hyperthyroidism had lower hair iodine. In conclusion, a survey assessing how domestic cats are fed, together with an analysis of commercial cat feeds suggests that domestic cats are likely to experience chronically low or fluctuating dietary iodine intake. The latter is supported by wide variation in urine iodine content.


Assuntos
Bócio Nodular , Hipertireoidismo , Iodo , Animais , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia , Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 894297, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646737

RESUMO

Sporotrichosis has been expanding throughout the Brazilian territory in recent years. New outbreaks have emerged, and consequently, the sporotrichosis agents, mainly Sporothrix brasiliensis, should remain in the environment somehow. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Sporothrix spp. in the environment from an area of ​​the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, with recurrent cases of human and animal sporotrichosis. Abandoned demolition timber wood samples were collected in the garden of a house where the cases of human and feline sporotrichosis have occurred in the last 10 years. The environmental survey revealed a Sporothrix spp. colony from the serial dilution cultures of one abandoned demolition wood sample. In addition, a fungal strain isolated from a cat with skin lesions that lived in the house was also included in the study. The species-specific PCR, and calmodulin partial sequencing identified the environmental and cat isolates as S. brasiliensis. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis performed with the partial sequences of internal transcribed spacer region and constitutive genes (calmodulin, ß-tubulin, and chitin synthase) showed high similarity between environmental and cat isolates from the same geographic region. Moreover, the antifungal susceptibility test revealed that the minimal inhibitory concentration of itraconazole from the environment isolate was lower than the cat isolate, while amphotericin B and terbinafine were similar. Our results show that S. brasiliensis is able to maintain itself in the environmental material for years. With this, we corroborate that the eco-epidemiology of sporotrichosis is not well understood, and despite the major occurrence of S. brasiliensis in Brazil, it is rarely isolated from the environment.


Assuntos
Sporothrix , Esporotricose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Calmodulina/genética , Gatos , Filogenia , Sporothrix/genética , Esporotricose/epidemiologia , Esporotricose/microbiologia , Esporotricose/veterinária
3.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 59(1): 12-21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708399

RESUMO

Fleas (Insecta, Siphonaptera) are important vectors of plague and murine typhus in many parts of the world. Currently, about 2700 flea species were described in the world. The most common vector flea Xenopsylla cheopis is found throughout India, but X. astia, and X. brasiliensis are found less and limited in distribution associated with the domestic rats such as Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Bandicota bengalensis. Bubonic plague is a major flea-borne disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, transmitted from rats to humans via the rodent flea, X. cheopis. A major outbreak of plague and high mortality occurred in India. After 1966 with the 3 decadal intervals, plague cases occurred only during the year 1994 reported in 5 different states (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and New Delhi and subsequently plague cases occurred during 2002 and 2004 after the one-decade interval in Himachal Pradesh (2002). Another outbreak of bubonic plague was reported in Dangud village, Barkhot tehsil, Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand during October 2004. Ctenocephalides fleas are common in cats and dogs, which are the main vectors of bacteria rickettsiae, such as Rickettsia typhi, R. felis, R. conorii, and Bartonella henselae. Molecular and serological evidence also confirms the presence of R. typhi, R. conorii R. felis and B. henselae pathogens in cats and other fleas in India. Flea bites and flea-borne dermatitis are common in men and pet animals. Because of the re-emergence of the plague, updated information on fleas and flea-borne diseases are essential to control the flea vectors and flea-borne diseases in India. Hence, this comprehensive review updates the available information on fleas and fleas transmitted diseases in India.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Peste , Sifonápteros , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/veterinária , Saúde Pública , Ratos
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10057, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710931

RESUMO

Tritrichomonas foetus is a flagellated parasite able to infect cattle, cats, and pigs. Despite its prevalence, feline tritrichomonosis has received markedly less attention than venereal infection, and little information about the molecular mechanisms that participate in feline host infection is available. Through a bioinformatics approach, we integrated public transcriptomic data for three T. foetus isolates and explored the differences at transcript level with a focus on pathogenesis and adaptation processes, particularly for the feline isolate. Our analysis revealed higher abundance levels of predicted virulence factors, such as proteases and surface antigens. Additionally, by a comparative and expression analysis of T. foetus genes, we proposed putative virulence factors that could be involved in feline infection. Finally, we identified a great proportion of predicted transcription factors of the MYB protein family and, by a promoter analysis, we revealed that MYB-related proteins could participate in the regulation of gene transcription in T. foetus. In conclusion, this integrated approach is a valuable resource for future studies of host-pathogen interactions and identifying new gene targets for improved feline tritrichomonosis diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Tritrichomonas foetus , Animais , Doenças do Gato/genética , Gatos , Bovinos , Genótipo , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Suínos , Transcriptoma , Tritrichomonas foetus/genética , Fatores de Virulência
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827681, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693765

RESUMO

Emerging influenza virus poses a health threat to humans and animals. Domestic cats have recently been identified as a potential source of zoonotic influenza virus. The influenza virus minigenome replication system based on the ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase I (PolI) promoter is the most widely used tool for investigating polymerase activity. It could help determine host factors or viral proteins influencing influenza virus polymerase activity in vitro. However, influenza virus polymerase activity has never been studied in feline cells thus far. In the present study, the feline RNA PolI promoter was identified in the intergenic spacer regions between adjacent upstream 28S and downstream 18S rRNA genes in the cat (Felis catus) genome using bioinformatics strategies. The transcription initiation site of the feline RNA PolI promoter was predicted. The feline RNA PolI promoter was cloned from CRFK cells, and a promoter size of 250 bp contained a sequence with sufficient PolI promoter activity by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The influenza virus minigenome replication system based on the feline RNA PolI promoter was then established. Using this system, the feline RNA PolI promoter was determined to have significantly higher transcriptional activity than the human and chicken RNA PolI promoters in feline cells, and equine (H3N8) influenza virus presented higher polymerase activity than human (H1N1) and canine (H3N2) influenza viruses. In addition, feline myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1) and baloxavir were observed to inhibit influenza virus polymerase activity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Our study will help further investigations on the molecular mechanism of host adaptation and cross-species transmission of influenza virus in cats.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Influenza Humana , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , RNA , RNA Polimerase I/genética
6.
Vet Res ; 53(1): 42, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692057

RESUMO

This article focuses on the pathogenic significance of Helicobacter species naturally colonizing the stomach of dogs, cats and pigs. These gastric "non-Helicobacter (H.) pylori Helicobacter species" (NHPH) are less well-known than the human adapted H. pylori. Helicobacter suis has been associated with gastritis and decreased daily weight gain in pigs. Several studies also attribute a role to this pathogen in the development of hyperkeratosis and ulceration of the non-glandular stratified squamous epithelium of the pars oesophagea of the porcine stomach. The stomach of dogs and cats can be colonized by several Helicobacter species but their pathogenic significance for these animals is probably low. Helicobacter suis as well as several canine and feline gastric Helicobacter species may also infect humans, resulting in gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. These agents may be transmitted to humans most likely through direct or indirect contact with dogs, cats and pigs. Additional possible transmission routes include consumption of water and, for H. suis, also consumption of contaminated pork. It has been described that standard H. pylori eradication therapy is usually also effective to eradicate the NHPH in human patients, although acquired antimicrobial resistance may occasionally occur and porcine H. suis strains are intrinsically less susceptible to aminopenicillins than non-human primate H. suis strains and other gastric Helicobacter species. Virulence factors of H. suis and the canine and feline gastric Helicobacter species include urease activity, motility, chemotaxis, adhesins and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. These NHPH, however, lack orthologs of cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island and vacuolating cytotoxin A, which are major virulence factors in H. pylori. It can be concluded that besides H. pylori, gastric Helicobacter species associated with dogs, cats and pigs are also clinically relevant in humans. Although recent research has provided better insights regarding pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies, a lot remains to be investigated, including true prevalence rates, exact modes of transmission and molecular pathways underlying disease development and progression.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Gastrite , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter heilmannii , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Gatos , Citotoxinas , Cães , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Gastrite/veterinária , Helicobacter/metabolismo , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/veterinária , Helicobacter heilmannii/genética , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Humanos , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9575, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688852

RESUMO

Facial expressions in non-human animals are closely linked to their internal affective states, with the majority of empirical work focusing on facial shape changes associated with pain. However, existing tools for facial expression analysis are prone to human subjectivity and bias, and in many cases also require special expertise and training. This paper presents the first comparative study of two different paths towards automatizing pain recognition in facial images of domestic short haired cats (n = 29), captured during ovariohysterectomy at different time points corresponding to varying intensities of pain. One approach is based on convolutional neural networks (ResNet50), while the other-on machine learning models based on geometric landmarks analysis inspired by species specific Facial Action Coding Systems (i.e. catFACS). Both types of approaches reach comparable accuracy of above 72%, indicating their potential usefulness as a basis for automating cat pain detection from images.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Animais , Gatos , Emoções , Face , Humanos , Dor/veterinária , Reconhecimento Psicológico
8.
Biosystems ; 218: 104711, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644322

RESUMO

The evolutionary lineage of neuronal phenotype is notably complex even within a limited number of species. One of the approaches resides in the realm of complex network theory. The theory reduces the connectomic data into a hallmarked set of few parameters, some of which might be correlated with a suitably chosen phylogenetic marker. In this first-of-its-kind attempt, interspecific variations of two structural complexity measures (i.e., clustering coefficient and centrality) along with two independent information-theoretic measures (i.e., von Neumann entropy and multifractality) are investigated to decipher any hidden evolutionary signature considering four mammalian connectomes (i.e., felis catus, mus musculus, macaca mulatta, and homo sapiens). All network complexity measures partially corroborate with the phylogenetic order. Nevertheless, monotonicity of the measures with the chosen phylogenetic marker of genome size has been majorly violated because of the mus musculus data point. On the other hand, von Neumann entropy was found to exhibit an allometric scaling behavior with the community structure of all connectomes (p<0.0001, and R2>0.95). The respective scaling exponent was noted to be monotonic with the genome size. Singularities of the real connectomes were also investigated upon carrying out a similar analysis in three equivalent synthetic network models.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Conectoma , Animais , Encéfalo , Gatos , Entropia , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Filogenia
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 148: 52-64, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667227

RESUMO

Of the numerous animal species affected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, cats are one of the most susceptible, and cat-to-cat transmission has been described. Although cat-to-human infection has not, as yet, been demonstrated, preventive measures should be taken in order to avoid both viral infection in cats and transmission among them. In this respect, the application of an effective vaccine to at-risk populations would be a useful tool for controlling the disease in this species. Here, we test a new vaccine prototype based on the Spike protein of the virus in order to prevent infection and infectious virus shedding in cats. The vaccine employed in experimentation, and which is easily produced, triggered a strong neutralizing antibody response in vaccinated animals. In contrast to that which occurred with control animals, no infectious virus was detected in the oropharyngeal or rectal swabs of vaccinated cats submitted to a SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These results are of great interest as regards future considerations related to implementing vaccination programs in pets. The value of cats as vaccination trial models is also described herein.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Gato , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinas de Subunidades , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
10.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746618

RESUMO

The feline calicivirus (FCV) causes infections in cats all over the world and seems to be related to a broad variety of clinical presentations, such as feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS), a severe oral pathology in cats. Although its etiopathogeny is largely unknown, FCV infection is likely to be a main predisposing factor for developing this pathology. During recent years, new strategies for treating FCGS have been proposed, based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. The main mechanism of action of MSC seems to be paracrine, due to the secretion of many biomolecules with different biological functions (secretome). Currently, several pathologies in humans have been shown to be related to functional alterations of the patient's MSCs. However, the possible roles that altered MSCs might have in different diseases, including virus-mediated diseases, remain unknown. We have recently demonstrated that the exosomes produced by the adipose-tissue-derived MSCs (fAd-MSCs) from cats suffering from FCV-positive severe and refractory FCGS showed altered protein contents. Based on these findings, the goal of this work was to analyze the proteomic profile of the secretome produced by feline adipose-tissue-derived MSCs (fAd-MSCs) from FCV-positive patients with FCGS, in order to identify differences between them and to increase our knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of this disease. We used high-resolution mass spectrometry and functional enrichment analysis with Gene Ontology to compare the secretomes produced by the fAd-MSCs of healthy and calicivirus-positive FCGS cats. We found that the fAd-MSCs from cats with FCGS had an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an altered proteomic profile compared to the secretome produced by cells from healthy cats. These findings help us gain insight on the roles of MSCs and their possible relation to FCGS, and may be useful for selecting specific biomarkers and for identifying new therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Calicivirus Felino , Doenças do Gato , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Estomatite , Animais , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo , Humanos , Proteômica
11.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746652

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for COVID-19 in people, has been detected in companion animals on rare occasions. A limited number of large-scale studies have investigated the exposure of companion animals to SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this prospective study was to estimate seroprevalence in privately owned dogs and cats presented in veterinary clinics in different French regions and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of an episode of COVID-19 in the household and close contact with the owner would increase the chances of the animals being seropositive. One hundred and sixty-five dogs and 143 cats were blood-sampled between March 2020 and December 2021. Neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 8.4% of cats (12/143) and 5.4% of dogs (9/165). Seven animals (three dogs and four cats) were seropositive in the absence of an episode of COVID-19 in the household. Despite not being statistically significant (chi-square test, p-value = 0.55), our data may suggest that the occurrence of an episode of COVID-19 in the household could increase the risk of animal seropositivity (odds ratio = 1.38; 95% confidence interval = 0.55-3.77). This survey indirectly shows that SARS-CoV-2 circulates in canine and feline populations, but its circulation appears to be too low for pets to act as a significant viral reservoir.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746678

RESUMO

Continued emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlights the critical need for adaptable and translational animal models for acute COVID-19. Limitations to current animal models for SARS CoV-2 (e.g., transgenic mice, non-human primates, ferrets) include subclinical to mild lower respiratory disease, divergence from clinical COVID-19 disease course, and/or the need for host genetic modifications to permit infection. We therefore established a feline model to study COVID-19 disease progression and utilized this model to evaluate infection kinetics and immunopathology of the rapidly circulating Delta variant (B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, specific-pathogen-free domestic cats (n = 24) were inoculated intranasally and/or intratracheally with SARS CoV-2 (B.1.617.2). Infected cats developed severe clinical respiratory disease and pulmonary lesions at 4- and 12-days post-infection (dpi), even at 1/10 the dose of previously studied wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Infectious virus was isolated from nasal secretions of delta-variant infected cats in high amounts at multiple timepoints, and viral antigen was co-localized in ACE2-expressing cells of the lungs (pneumocytes, vascular endothelium, peribronchial glandular epithelium) and strongly associated with severe pulmonary inflammation and vasculitis that were more pronounced than in wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection. RNA sequencing of infected feline lung tissues identified upregulation of multiple gene pathways associated with cytokine receptor interactions, chemokine signaling, and viral protein-cytokine interactions during acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) of differentially expressed genes identified several distinct clusters of dysregulated hub genes that are significantly correlated with both clinical signs and lesions during acute infection. Collectively, the results of these studies help to delineate the role of domestic cats in disease transmission and response to variant emergence, establish a flexible translational model to develop strategies to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, and identify potential targets for downstream therapeutic development.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Gatos , Furões , Cinética , Camundongos
13.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746719

RESUMO

(1) Background: This study aimed to determine the risk factors for outbreaks of feline panleukopenia in shelters. (2) Methods: Four shelters (A-D) with 150 cats were included. Fecal samples were analyzed by parvovirus real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), including culture and sequencing of qPCR-positive samples. Information on cats, husbandry, hygiene, and infection management was evaluated to determine risk factors for feline panleukopenia and parvovirus shedding by logistic regression. (3) Results: Feline panleukopenia occurred in 28.0% (42/150) of cats (0 in shelter D). Shedding was found in 48.7% (73/150) (A: 21/73; B: 29/73; C: 7/73; D: 16/73). Of 73 qPCR-positive fecal samples, 65.8% (48/73) were culture-positive; sequencing revealed feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) isolates in 34/48 samples and vaccine virus isolate in 14/48; canine parvovirus was not detected. Presence of feline panleukopenia was significantly more likely in cats from shelter A (p < 0.05), unvaccinated cats (p < 0.001), and young cats (4 weeks to 2 years; p = 0.008). Parvovirus shedding was significantly more common in young cats (p < 0.001), cats with feline panleukopenia (p = 0.033), and group-housed cats (p = 0.025). (4) Conclusions: Vaccination is the most important measure to reduce the risk of feline panleukopenia in shelters. Risk of parvovirus shedding is especially high in young, group-housed cats.


Assuntos
Panleucopenia Felina , Infecções por Parvoviridae , Parvovirus Canino , Parvovirus , Animais , Gatos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cell ; 185(13): 2279-2291.e17, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700730

RESUMO

The isolation of CCoV-HuPn-2018 from a child respiratory swab indicates that more coronaviruses are spilling over to humans than previously appreciated. We determined the structures of the CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike glycoprotein trimer in two distinct conformational states and showed that its domain 0 recognizes sialosides. We identified that the CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike binds canine, feline, and porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) orthologs, which serve as entry receptors, and determined the structure of the receptor-binding B domain in complex with canine APN. The introduction of an oligosaccharide at position N739 of human APN renders cells susceptible to CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike-mediated entry, suggesting that single-nucleotide polymorphisms might account for viral detection in some individuals. Human polyclonal plasma antibodies elicited by HCoV-229E infection and a porcine coronavirus monoclonal antibody inhibit CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike-mediated entry, underscoring the cross-neutralizing activity among ɑ-coronaviruses. These data pave the way for vaccine and therapeutic development targeting this zoonotic pathogen representing the eighth human-infecting coronavirus.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano 229E , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Animais , Antígenos CD13/química , Antígenos CD13/metabolismo , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus Humano 229E/metabolismo , Cães , Humanos , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Suínos
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2202912119, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727967

RESUMO

VEGF was initially discovered due to its angiogenic activity and therefore named "vascular endothelial growth factor." However, its more recently discovered neurotrophic activity may be evolutionarily more ancient. Our previous work showed that all the changes produced by axotomy on the firing activity and synaptic inputs of abducens motoneurons were completely restored after VEGF administration. Therefore, we hypothesized that the lack of VEGF delivered by retrograde transport from the periphery should also affect the physiology of otherwise intact abducens motoneurons. For VEGF retrograde blockade, we chronically applied a neutralizing VEGF antibody to the lateral rectus muscle. Recordings of extracellular single-unit activity and eye movements were made in alert cats before and after the application of the neutralizing antibody. Our data revealed that intact, noninjured abducens motoneurons retrogradely deprived of VEGF exhibited noticeable changes in their firing pattern. There is a general decrease in firing rate and a significant reduction in eye position and eye velocity sensitivity (i.e., a decrease in the tonic and phasic components of their discharge, respectively). Moreover, by means of confocal immunocytochemistry, motoneurons under VEGF blockade showed a marked reduction in the density of afferent synaptic terminals contacting with their cell bodies. Altogether, the present findings demonstrate that the lack of retrogradely delivered VEGF renders abducens motoneurons into an axotomy-like state. This indicates that VEGF is an essential retrograde factor for motoneuronal synaptic drive and discharge activity.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Neurônios Motores , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Axotomia , Gatos , Movimentos Oculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiologia , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2114441119, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749360

RESUMO

Host genetic resistance to viral infection controls the pathogenicity and epidemic dynamics of infectious diseases. Refrex-1 is a restriction factor against feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D) and an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) in domestic cats (ERV-DC). Refrex-1 is encoded by a subset of ERV-DC loci with truncated envelope genes and secreted from cells as a soluble protein. Here, we identified the copper transporter CTR1 as the entry receptor for FeLV-D and genotype I ERV-DCs. We also identified CTR1 as a receptor for primate ERVs from crab-eating macaques and rhesus macaques, which were found in a search of intact envelope genes capable of forming infectious viruses. Refrex-1 counteracted infection by FeLV-D and ERV-DCs via competition for the entry receptor CTR1; the antiviral effects extended to primate ERVs with CTR1-dependent entry. Furthermore, truncated ERV envelope genes found in chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, crab-eating macaque, and rhesus macaque genomes could also block infection by feline and primate retroviruses. Genetic analyses showed that these ERV envelope genes were acquired in a species- or genus-specific manner during host evolution. These results indicated that soluble envelope proteins could suppress retroviral infection across species boundaries, suggesting that they function to control retroviral spread. Our findings revealed that several mammalian species acquired antiviral machinery from various ancient retroviruses, leading to convergent evolution for host defense.


Assuntos
Transportador de Cobre 1 , Genes env , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Leucemia Felina , Infecções por Retroviridae , Animais , Gatos , Transportador de Cobre 1/genética , Evolução Molecular , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/fisiologia , Leucemia Felina/genética , Leucemia Felina/virologia , Macaca mulatta , Infecções por Retroviridae/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 251, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac tumors in cats are relatively rare, with lymphoma accounting for more than half of all cases. However, feline cardiac lymphoma is often diagnosed post-mortem, and it is difficult to diagnose while the cat is still alive. It is the first report of a direct, rather than estimative, diagnosis with cardiac needle biopsy of a living cat with cardiac lymphoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old domestic short-haired male cat experienced loss of energy and loss of appetite. Thoracic radiography and transthoracic echocardiography showed cardiomegaly with slight pleural effusion and cardiac tamponade due to pericardial effusion, respectively. In addition, partial hyperechoic and hypertrophy of the papillary muscle and myocardium were observed. Blood test showed an increase in cardiac troponin I levels. Pericardial fluid, removed by pericardiocentesis, was analyzed; however, the cause could not be determined. With the owner's consent, pericardiectomy performed under thoracotomy revealed a discolored myocardium. Cardiac needle biopsy was performed with a 25G needle, and a large number of large atypical lymphocytes were collected; therefore, a direct diagnosis of cardiac lymphoma was made. Pathological examination of the pericardium diagnosed at a later date revealed T-cell large cell lymphoma. The cat underwent chemotherapy followed by temporary remission but died 60 days after the diagnosis. Postmortem, two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (data when alive) revealed an abnormal left ventricular myocardial deformation, which corresponded to the site of cardiac needle biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: This rare case demonstrates that cardiac lymphoma should be added to the differential diagnosis in cats with myocardial hypertrophy and that the diagnosis can be made directly by thoracotomy and cardiac needle biopsy. In addition, the measurement of cardiac troponin I levels and local deformation analysis of the myocardium by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful in the diagnosis of cardiac tumors.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Neoplasias Cardíacas , Linfoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha/veterinária , Cardiomegalia/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cardíacas/veterinária , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/veterinária , Masculino , Neoplasias do Timo/veterinária , Troponina I
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 32: 100743, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725106

RESUMO

The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is a competent vector of numerous bacterial pathogens in the genera Bartonella and Rickettsia. In the United States, free-roaming domestic cats (Felis catus) increase the risk of exposure to C. felis for humans and their companion animals. In collaboration with a trap-neuter-return program, we collected fleas from 283 feral/stray cats in southeastern Georgia between May and July of 2020. A total of 3,643 flea specimens were collected, and C. felis was the only flea species recovered from all cats sampled. The mean number of fleas per cat host was highest in the month of June when compared to May and July, and higher in juvenile cats (< 1 year) than the adults (≥ 1 year). Real-time PCR assays were used to test a subset of the collected fleas (n = 468) for the presence of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. DNA. Among those flea pools tested, 35.2% were positive for genus-specific citrate synthase gene of Bartonella, 16.5% were positive for the genus-specific 17-kDa protein antigen gene of Rickettsia, and none were positive for the species-specific outer membrane protein B gene of Rickettsia typhi. The identification of potential flea-borne pathogens was more frequent from the subset of C. felis collected in May, and female cats had more Bartonella-positive fleas and less Rickettsia-positive fleas than male cats. Overall, the present study provides valuable insights into the frequency of C. felis from outdoor community cats in southeastern Georgia, and highlights the possible risk for human exposure to potential flea-borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Bartonella , Doenças do Gato , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas , Rickettsia , Sifonápteros , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Chlamydia , Ctenocephalides/microbiologia , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Georgia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Rickettsia/genética
19.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 32: 100744, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725107

RESUMO

The public health implications of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens are numerous because domestic animals, such as dogs, live in close proximity to humans. Blood was collected from 116 domestic dogs in Cairo, Egypt from three different settings at the human-animal interface. The three settings the dogs came from were: privately owned animals seeking care at the Cairo University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Clinic, non-laboratory reared research dogs maintained at the Cairo University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and an urban private animal rescue in Shabramont, Giza, Egypt. Enrolled animals were visually inspected for presence of flea or tick ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks were recovered from 56 enrolled animals and a flea identified as Ctenocephalides felis was recovered from one animal. To test for past and/or current infection with vector-borne pathogens, conventional PCR and IDEXX SNAP® 4Dx® Plus were performed on whole blood. Pathogen targets included: Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Dirofilaria spp., and Rickettsia spp. Among dogs sampled across all locations, one dog was positive for Babesia sp. infection and one dog was positive for Anaplasma sp. infection as detected by PCR and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Three additional dogs were positive for infection but had incomplete sequences obtained: two for Ehrlichia sp. and one for Borrelia sp. The SNAP® test results for all sampled dogs included: eight dogs positive for Anaplasma spp., 14 dogs positive for Ehrlichia spp., and five additional dogs positive for both Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. SNAP® test results by sampling location showed that 66% of the dogs at the animal rescue were positive for Anaplasma spp. and/or Ehrlichia spp., 17% of the privately owned dogs at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine were positive for Anaplasma spp. and/or Ehrlichia spp., and none of the research dogs were positive for any of the targets on the SNAP® test. This high proportion of seropositivity in the animals sampled indicates a vector population which is not well controlled and a need for continued owner education and promotion of consistent use of preventive medications and the risk for zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Babesia , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Anaplasma , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Egito/epidemiologia , Ehrlichia , Humanos , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10576, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732706

RESUMO

To explore the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and specific receptor tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the primary visual cortex of young and old cats, especially to reveal the age-related differences in the mediating mechanism of BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway in cats' visual cortex and their possible effects on synaptic plasticity, Nissl staining was used to display neurons in each layer of cats' primary visual cortex, and immunohistochemical ABC method was used to label BDNF and TrkB immunopositive cells in each layer of cats' primary visual cortex. The BDNF and TrkB receptor immunoreactive neurons and non-neurons were observed and photographed. Their density and immunoreactive intensity were measured. Results showed that BDNF and TrkB were widely expressed in all layers of visual cortex in young and old cats. Compared with the young group, the density and intensity of BDNF and TrkB positive cells in each layer of primary visual cortex in the old group decreased significantly (P < 0.01). The findings indicate that the expression levels of BDNF and TrkB in the primary visual cortex of cats decrease with age, suggesting that the change of BDNF-TrkB signal pathway caused by the weakening of brain-derived neurotrophic factor activity may be one of the important reasons for the decline of visual function.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Receptor trkB , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gatos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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