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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010491, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports show altered gut bacterial profiles are associated with helminth infected individuals. Our recently published molecular survey of clinical helminthiases in Thailand border regions demonstrated a more comprehensive picture of infection prevalence when Kato Katz microscopy and copro-qPCR diagnostics were combined. We revealed that Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were the most predominant helminth infections in these regions. In the current study, we have profiled the faecal and saliva microbiota of a subset of these helminth infected participants, in order to determine if microbial changes are associated with parasite infection. METHODS: A subset of 66 faecal samples from Adisakwattana et al., (2020) were characterised for bacterial diversity using 16S rRNA gene profiling. Of these samples a subset of 24 participant matched saliva samples were also profiled for microbiota diversity. Sequence data were compiled, OTUs assigned, and diversity and abundance analysed using the statistical software Calypso. RESULTS: The data reported here indicate that helminth infections impact on both the host gut and oral microbiota. The profiles of faecal and saliva samples, irrespective of the infection status, were considerably different from each other, with more alpha diversity associated with saliva (p-value≤ 0.0015). Helminth infection influenced the faecal microbiota with respect to specific taxa, but not overall microbial alpha diversity. Conversely, helminth infection was associated with increased saliva microbiota alpha diversity (Chao 1 diversity indices) at both the genus (p-value = 0.042) and phylum (p-value = 0.026) taxa levels, compared to uninfected individuals. Elevated individual taxa in infected individuals saliva were noted at the genus and family levels. Since Opisthorchis viverrini infections as a prominent health concern to Thailand, this pathogen was examined separately to other helminths infections present. Individuals with an O. viverrini mono-infection displayed both increases and decreases in genera present in their faecal microbiota, while increases in three families and one order were also observed in these samples. DISCUSSION: In this study, helminth infections appear to alter the abundance of specific faecal bacterial taxa, but do not impact on overall bacterial alpha or beta diversity. In addition, the faecal microbiota of O. viverrini only infected individuals differed from that of other helminth single and dual infections. Saliva microbiota analyses of individuals harbouring active helminth infections presented increased levels of both bacterial alpha diversity and abundance of individual taxa. Our data demonstrate that microbial change is associated with helminthiases in endemic regions of Thailand, and that this is reflected in both faecal and saliva microbiota. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an altered saliva microbiota in helminth infected individuals. This work may provide new avenues for improved diagnostics; and an enhanced understanding of both helminth infection pathology and the interplay between helminths, bacteria and their host.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010438, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School-based de-worming is advocated as a strategy for reducing the burden of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among children. However, re-infection tends to occur rapidly, suggesting that comprehensive water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) improvements may be needed to prevent this. We qualitatively assessed the influence of parental engagement activities on parents' motivation to improve WASH infrastructure and hygiene practices at home in the context of a school-based de-worming programme. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a longitudinal qualitative study nested within the Mikono Safi trial, designed to assess the effect of a WASH intervention on STH infection prevalence in children. Meetings were organized for parents/guardians at schools where they were given information about STH infection, the role of WASH in STH infection prevention, and actionable steps they could take at home. During the meetings, parents/guardians received information about their own child's STH infection status. Twenty purposively selected households were visited and interviewed 3 times over a period of about 8-months. We employed thematic analysis; findings are reported following the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation and Behaviour (COM-B) framework. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The engagement strategy improved parents'/guardians' knowledge and skills about handwashing with soap and its benefits. Parents/guardians reported that the sessions had motivated them to improve WASH infrastructure at home. Of 20 households included in this study, 17 renovated or built new latrines and 18 installed handwashing facilities. However, only 8 households established and maintained handwashing stations with both soap and water at 8 months. CONCLUSIONS: The engagement of parents/guardians in a school-based WASH education intervention as part of the Mikono Safi trial resulted in increased knowledge and motivation about handwashing and sanitation. This led to improvements in sanitation facilities and handwashing opportunities at home. However, long-term success in provision of water and soap was limited, indicating that sustained engagement may be required to encourage households to ensure these materials are consistently available at home.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Criança , Desinfecção das Mãos , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pais , Saneamento , Sabões , Solo , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Água
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e002922, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674531

RESUMO

Although the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) is a species widely distributed in South America, knowledge about their helminth parasites and helminth community structure is scarce. The aims of this study were to describe the species composition and analyze the structure of the helminth community of the common opossum in an area of the Amazonian Arc in northern Mato Grosso. The helminths were recovered, counted, and identified in 32 individuals. Overall, 10,198 specimens were categorized into 9 helminths taxa (seven nematodes, one cestode, and one acanthocephalan). The most abundant species were Aspidodera raillieti, Viannaia hamata, and Travassostrongylus orloffi. No statistically significant differences in helminth abundance and prevalence were observed between host sexes. However, young hosts had higher abundance and prevalence of Didelphonema longispiculata, whereas Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus had higher abundance and prevalence in adult hosts. This was the first study to analyze the helminth fauna and helminth community structure of D. marsupialis in the Amazonian Arc. This is the first report of the presence of A. raillieti, D. longispiculata, T. orloffi, T. minuta, V. hamata, and O. microcephalus in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.


Assuntos
Didelphis , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Marsupiais , Animais , Brasil , Didelphis/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e061682, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current soil-transmitted helminth (STH) morbidity control guidelines primarily target deworming of preschool and school-age children. Emerging evidence suggests that community-wide mass drug administration (cMDA) may interrupt STH transmission. However, the success of such programmes depends on achieving high treatment coverage and uptake. This formative analysis was conducted to evaluate the implementation climate for cMDA and to determine barriers and facilitators to launch. SETTINGS: Prior to the launch of a cMDA trial in Benin, India and Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Community members (adult women and men, children, and local leaders), community drug distributors (CDDs) and health facility workers. DESIGN: We conducted 48 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members, 13 FGDs with CDDs and 5 FGDs with health facility workers in twelve randomly selected clusters across the three study countries. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to guide the design of the interview guide and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Across all three sites, aspects of the implementation climate that were facilitators to cMDA launch included: high community member demand for cMDA, integration of cMDA into existing vaccination campaigns and/or health services, and engagement with familiar health workers. Barriers to launching cMDA included mistrust towards medical interventions, fear of side effects and limited perceived need for interrupting STH transmission. We include specific recommendations from community members regarding cMDA distribution sites, personnel requirements, delivery timing and incentives, leaders to engage and methods for mobilising participants. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to launching the cMDA programme as an alternative to school-based MDA, cMDA was found to be generally acceptable across diverse geographical and demographic settings. Community members, CDDs and health workers felt that engaging communities and tailoring programmes to the local context are critical for success. Potential barriers may be mitigated by identifying local concerns and addressing them via targeted community sensitisation prior to implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03014167; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Solo
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 852900, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694539

RESUMO

Helminth infections remain a global public health issue, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where roundworms from theTrichuris and Ascaris genera are most prevalent. These geohelminths not only impact human health but most importantly also affect animal well-being, in particular the swine industry. Host-helminth parasite interactions are complex and at the same time essential to understand the biology, dynamics and pathophysiology of these infections. Within these interactions, the immunomodulatory capacity of these helminths in the host has been extensively studied. Moreover, in recent years a growing interest on how helminths interact with the intestinal microbiota of the host has sparked, highlighting how this relationship plays an essential role in the establishment of initial infection, survival and persistence of the parasite, as well as in the development of chronic infections. Identifying the changes generated by these helminths on the composition and structure of the host intestinal microbiota constitutes a field of great scientific interest, since this can provide essential and actionable information for designing effective control and therapeutic strategies. Helminths like Trichuris and Ascaris are a focus of special importance due to their high prevalence, higher reinfection rates, resistance to anthelmintic therapy and unavailability of vaccines. Therefore, characterizing interactions between these helminths and the host intestinal microbiota represents an important approach to better understand the nature of this dynamic interface and explore novel therapeutic alternatives based on management of host microbiota. Given the extraordinary impact this may have from a biological, clinical, and epidemiological public health standpoint, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of current knowledge and future perspectives examining the parasite-microbiota interplay and its impact on host immunity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Ascaris , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Suínos , Trichuris
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0010138, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Schistosoma spp. and Plasmodium falciparum are parasites of major public health importance and co-endemic in many sub-Saharan African countries. Management of these infections requires detection and treatment of infected people and evaluation of large-scale measures implemented. Diagnostic tools are available but their low sensitivity, especially for low intensity helminth infections, leaves room for improvement. Antibody serology could be a useful approach thanks to its potential to detect both current infection and past exposure. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated total IgE responses and specific-IgG levels to 9 antigens from STH, 2 from Schistosoma spp., and 16 from P. falciparum, as potential markers of current infection in a population of children and adults from Southern Mozambique (N = 715). Antibody responses were measured by quantitative suspension array Luminex technology and their performance was evaluated by ROC curve analysis using microscopic and molecular detection of infections as reference. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IgG against the combination of EXP1, AMA1 and MSP2 (P. falciparum) in children and NIE (Strongyloides stercoralis) in adults and children had the highest accuracies (AUC = 0.942 and AUC = 0.872, respectively) as markers of current infection. IgG against the combination of MEA and Sm25 (Schistosoma spp.) were also reliable markers of current infection (AUC = 0.779). In addition, IgG seropositivity against 20 out of the 27 antigens in the panel differentiated the seropositive endemic population from the non-endemic population, suggesting a possible role as markers of exposure although sensitivity could not be assessed. CONCLUSIONS: We provided evidence for the utility of antibody serology to detect current infection with parasites causing tropical diseases in endemic populations. In addition, most of the markers have potential good specificity as markers of exposure. We also showed the feasibility of measuring antibody serology with a platform that allows the integration of control and elimination programs for different pathogens.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Malária Falciparum , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Schistosoma
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 528, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deworming programs aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality from geohelminth infections are common in many countries where these infections are endemic, but data demonstrating increasing levels of resistance to albendazole and mebendazole are causes for concern. Studies to evaluate the clinical efficacy of deworming programs are critical to maintain high infection control goals. METHODS: We propose to assess the clinical efficacy of Peruvian national guidelines for deworming programs in a prospective observational study conducted in the Amazon River basin area near Iquitos, Peru. Major outcomes to be evaluated include (1) albendazole resistance of intestinal helminths (trichuriasis, ascariasis, hookworm), and (2) frequency of reinfection with intestinal helminths 4 months after treatment with albendazole. Children ages 2-11 years from the Belén District of Iquitos will be identified based on a community census. Following parental informed consent, demographic data, weight, and height will be recorded and a stool specimen for parasitological exam by direct observation and Kato-Katz concentration method, and helminthic egg counts will be collected prior to administration of albendazole, following Peruvian national guidelines. Follow-up stool specimens examined in the same manner will be collected at 20 days, 90 days, and 100 days following initial administration of albendazole, and based on parasites found repeat treatment will be administered in accordance with national guidelines. Real-time multiplex qPCR will be performed on helminth positive samples collected prior to initial deworming and on helminth-positive specimens detected on day 15-20. A total sample size of 380 participants was calculated based on total population in the target group and prevalence estimates of helminth infections and clinical resistance based on recent data. DISCUSSION: Data from observational clinical efficacy studies are important to guide geohelminth infection control programs. Trial registration https://www.researchregistry.com/ . Identification number: researchregistry7736; Registered retrospectively March 13, 2022; https://www.researchregistry.com/browse-the-registry#home/registrationdetails/622e024cf06132001e3327bf/.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Peru/epidemiologia , Reinfecção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Solo/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9947, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705676

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing technologies have accelerated the pace of helminth DNA metabarcoding research, enabling species detection in bulk community samples. However, finding suitable genetic markers with robust species-level resolution and primers targeting a broad species range among parasitic helminths are some of the challenges faced. This study aimed to demonstrate the potential use of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes for parasitic helminth (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes) DNA metabarcoding. To demonstrate the robustness of the 12S and 16S rRNA genes for DNA metabarcoding, we determined the proportion of species successfully recovered using mock helminth communities without environment matrix and mock helminth communities artificially spiked with environmental matrices. The environmental matrices are human fecal material, garden soil, tissue, and pond water. Our results revealed the robustness of the mitochondrial rRNA genes, through the high sensitivity of the 12S rRNA gene, and the effectiveness of the 12S and 16S primers targeting platyhelminths. With the mitochondrial rRNA genes, a broad range of parasitc helminths were successfully detected to the species level. The potential of the mitochondrial rRNA genes for helminth DNA metabarcoding was demonstrated, providing a valuable gateway for future helminth DNA metabarcoding applications like helminth detection and biodiversity studies.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Helmintos , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Genes de RNAr , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 792, 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that community-wide mass drug administration (MDA) may interrupt the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH), a group of intestinal worms that infect 1.5 billion individuals globally. Although current operational guidelines provide best practices for effective MDA delivery, they do not describe which activities are most essential for achieving high coverage or how they work together to produce effective intervention delivery. We aimed to identify the various packages of influential intervention delivery activities that result in high coverage of community-wide MDA for STH in Benin, India, and Malawi. METHODS: We applied coincidence analysis (CNA), a novel cross-case analytical method, to process mapping data as part of the implementation science research of the DeWorm3 Project, a Hybrid Type 1 cluster randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of STH using bi-annual community-wide MDA in Benin, India, and Malawi. Our analysis aimed to identify any necessary and/or sufficient combinations of intervention delivery activities (i.e., implementation pathways) that resulted in high MDA coverage. Activities were related to drug supply chain, implementer training, community sensitization strategy, intervention duration, and implementation context. We used pooled implementation data from three sites and six intervention rounds, with study clusters serving as analytical cases (N = 360). Secondary analyses assessed differences in pathways across sites and over intervention rounds. RESULTS: Across all three sites and six intervention rounds, efficient duration of MDA delivery (within ten days) singularly emerged as a common and fundamental component for achieving high MDA coverage when combined with other particular activities, including a conducive implementation context, early arrival of albendazole before the planned start of MDA, or a flexible community sensitization strategy. No individual activity proved sufficient by itself for producing high MDA coverage. We observed four possible overall models that could explain effective MDA delivery strategies, all which included efficient duration of MDA delivery as an integral component. CONCLUSION: Efficient duration of MDA delivery uniquely stood out as a highly influential implementation activity for producing high coverage of community-wide MDA for STH. Effective MDA delivery can be achieved with flexible implementation strategies that include various combinations of influential intervention components.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia
10.
Parasitology ; 149(8): 1003-1018, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549773

RESUMO

A growing body of research implicates inflammation as a potential pathway in the aetiology and pathophysiology of some mental illnesses. A systematic review was conducted to determine the association between parasitic infection and mental illnesses in humans in Africa and reviewed the state of the evidence available. The search focused on publications from Africa documenting the relationship between parasites from two parasite groups, helminths and protozoans, and four classifications of mental illness: mood affective disorders, neurotic and stress-related disorders, schizotypal disorders and unspecified mental illnesses. In the 26 reviewed papers, the prevalence of mental illness was significantly higher in people with parasitic infection compared to those without infection, i.e., 58.2% vs 41.8% (P < 0.001). An overall odds ratio found that the association of having a mental illness when testing positive for a parasitic infection was four times that of people without infection. Whilst the study showed significant associations between parasite infection and mental illness, it also highlights gaps in the present literature on the pathophysiology of mental illness in people exposed to parasite infection. This study highlighted the importance of an integrated intervention for parasitic infection and mental illness.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Saúde Mental , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência
11.
Parasitology ; 149(8): 1027-1033, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592918

RESUMO

Durrington Walls was a large Neolithic settlement in Britain dating around 2500 BCE, located very close to Stonehenge and likely to be the campsite where its builders lived during its main stage of construction. Nineteen coprolites recovered from a midden and associated pits at Durrington Walls were analysed for intestinal parasite eggs using digital light microscopy. Five (26%) contained helminth eggs, 1 with those of fish tapeworm (likely Dibothriocephalus dendriticus) and 4 with those of capillariid nematodes. Analyses of bile acid and sterol from these 5 coprolites show 1 to be of likely human origin and the other 4 to likely derive from dogs. The presence of fish tapeworm reveals that the Neolithic people who gathered to feast at Durrington Walls were at risk of infection from eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish. When the eggs of capillariids are found in the feces of humans or dogs it normally indicates that the internal organs (liver, lung or intestines) of animals with capillariasis have been eaten, and eggs passed through the gut without causing disease. Their presence in multiple coprolites provides new evidence that internal organs of animals were consumed. These novel findings improve our understanding of both parasitic infection and dietary habits associated with this key Neolithic ceremonial site.


Assuntos
Difilobotríase , Diphyllobothrium , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária
12.
Parasite ; 29: 27, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We provide the first evaluation of the CE-IVD marked Novodiag® stool parasites assay (NVD), allowing rapid and high-plex detection of 26 distinct targets, encompassing protozoans, helminths and microsporidia in stool samples. METHODS: A total of 254 samples (n = 205 patients) were prospectively processed by the NVD and our routine procedure (RP). Performances of the NVD were compared with RP. Samples only positive by the NVD assay were investigated by external PCR assays. Sensitivity and specificity (Se/Sp) and time from sample receipt to results were determined for each method. The NVD was also evaluated against 77 additional samples positive for a wide range of parasites. RESULTS: Overall positivity rate was 16.9% for RP compared with 34% using the NVD assay, and 164 samples (66%) were negative by both methods. Only 30 positive samples (12%) showed full concordance between RP and NVD. Fifty-three discordant samples were sent for external investigations. Except for Giardia intestinalis and Trichuris spp., higher Se was observed for the NVD assay for Blastocystis spp. (100% vs. 63%), Dientamoeba fragilis (100% vs. 0%), Schistosoma spp. (100% vs. 17%), and Enterobius vermicularis (100% vs. 67%) but roughly similar to RP for the remaining parasites tested. False-positive results were identified for Blastocystis spp., G. intestinalis, and Trichuris spp. using the NVD assay. The NVD mostly provides a diagnosis on the day of sample receipt compared with a mean of three days with RP. CONCLUSIONS: Besides some limitations, the NVD is a new diagnostic strategy allowing rapid and high-plex detection of gastrointestinal parasites from unpreserved stools.


Title: Le test Novodiag® Stool parasites, une technique high-plex innovante pour la détection rapide des protozoaires, helminthes et microsporidies dans les échantillons de selles : une étude rétrospective et prospective. Abstract: Objectifs : Nous présentons la première évaluation du kit Novodiag® Stool parasite (NVD) marqué CE-IVD, permettant la détection rapide de 26 cibles distinctes dans les selles (protozoaires, helminthes et microsporidies). Méthodes : Un total de 254 échantillons (n = 205 patients) a été traité prospectivement par le NVD et notre procédure de routine (PR). Les performances du NVD ont été comparées à celles de la PR. Seuls les échantillons positifs au test NVD ont été étudiés par des PCR externes. La sensibilité et la spécificité (Se/Sp) ainsi que le temps écoulé entre la réception de l'échantillon et les résultats ont été déterminés pour chaque méthode. Le NVD a également été évalué par rapport à 77 échantillons supplémentaires positifs pour un large éventail de parasites. Résultats : Le taux de positivité global était de 16,9 % pour la PR contre 34 % avec le NVD, et 164 échantillons (66 %) étaient négatifs par les deux méthodes. Seuls 30 échantillons positifs (12 %) ont montré une concordance complète entre la PR et le NVD. Cinquante-trois échantillons discordants ont été envoyés pour des investigations externes. À l'exception de Giardia intestinalis et de Trichuris spp., des Se plus élevées ont été observées pour le test NVD pour Blastocystis spp. (100 % contre 63 %), Dientamoeba fragilis (100 % contre 0 %), Schistosoma spp. (100 % contre 17 %), Enterobius vermicularis (100 % contre 67 %) mais étaient à peu près similaires à la PR pour les autres parasites testés. Des faux positifs ont été identifiés pour Blastocystis spp., G. intestinalis et Trichuris spp. en utilisant le NVD. Le NVD fournit le plus souvent un diagnostic le jour de la réception du prélèvement contre une moyenne de trois jours avec la PR. Conclusions : Malgré quelques limites, le test NVD est une nouvelle stratégie de diagnostic permettant une détection rapide et high-plex des parasites gastro-intestinaux à partir de selles non conservées.


Assuntos
Blastocystis , Helmintos , Microsporídios , Parasitos , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Microsporídios/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(5): 718-724, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593618

RESUMO

Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is one of the most common and neglected diseases affecting all age groups, especially among school children. It is a disease condition of suboptimal environment and poor personal hygiene, and is more prevalent in children in institutionalized centers. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and intensity of intestinal helminthiasis among children in motherless babies' homes/orphanages and the relationship between the prevalence and demographic characteristics of the children. The outcome may be useful in strengthening these homes through advocacy to the appropriate authorities on general health promotion and awareness for the management of the homes. Subjects and Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out over 7 months (March-September 2017) in three states of the South-East Nigeria. Prior to the studies ethical clearance and permissions from relevant bodies were obtained. A total of 198 children aged 3 months to 17 years were recruited using multi-stage sampling methods from the homes and orphanages in Anambra, Ebonyi, and Enugu states. Their stool samples were collected and analyzed for ova of intestinal helminths using ether concentration and Kato-Katz techniques.Frequency tables were designed for relevant variables while quantitative variables were summarized using median and interquartile range (IQR). The relationship between demographic factors and presence of intestinal helminths amongst study participants was tested using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test (FET) where appropriate. All analyses were done at the 5% level of significance, and a P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: : Children aged 1-5 years constituting the highest proportion 110 (55.6%). The median age (IQR) of the participants was 2.5 years (3 months to 17 years). They comprised of 89 (44.9%) males and 109 (55.1%) females with a male: female ratio of 1:1.2. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths among institutionalized children was 5/198 (2.5%). Ascaris lumbricoides only was seen in four out of five (80%) infested subjects while mixed infestation of A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura was seen in one out of five (20%) subjects. All the infected subjects had light intensity of 100-300 EPG. It was noted that three out of five infested subjects were preschool children. However, the difference between the age groups and intestinal infestation was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). All the subjects with helminthic infection were females. Gender and location of motherless babies' homes/orphanages were not significantly associated with the presence of infestation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminthiasis amongst the surveyed children in the South-Eastern Nigeria are 2.5% and more common among preschool aged children.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada , Helmintos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase , Humanos , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
J Helminthol ; 96: e33, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514266

RESUMO

We report the first mermithid nematode found to be parasitic in a marine tanaidacean crustacean. Ten host tanaidaceans were collected from a depth of 52 m in Otsuchi Bay, Iwate, Japan, north-western Pacific, and identified as a species in the tanaidid genus Zeuxo Templeton, 1840. Nematodes occurred in the host's body cavity; in one case, at least two individuals inhabited a single host. We provide a brief description and illustrations of the morphology of the nematode. In a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the nematode nested in a clade otherwise containing mermithids from terrestrial or freshwater hosts, showing an expansion in host utilization in Mermithidae Braun, 1883 from terrestrial/freshwater hosts to a marine organism.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Mermithoidea , Nematoides , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Água Doce , Humanos , Mermithoidea/anatomia & histologia , Mermithoidea/genética , Filogenia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010350, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz microscopy technique is the global standard for assessment of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) burden. However, major limitations include its poor sensitivity, requirement for rapid sample processing, and inability to differentiate hookworm species nor detect Strongyloides spp. infections. We assessed the prevalence and intensity of STH species in Solomon Islands by conducting a province-wide survey using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for diagnosis, which can provide much better characterisation of STH burden than microscopy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 villages in Western Province to detect infections with six STH species and quantify intensity with three. We used linear mixed model regression to identify potential water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and environmental risk factors for infection. We collected stool specimens from 830 village residents. Overall STH prevalence was 63.3% (range 27.5 to 91.5% across villages), led by Necator americanus (54.5% [range 17.5-89.4%]), followed by Ancylostoma ceylanicum (15.5% [range 2.8-45.8%]), Trichuris trichiura (9.1% [range 0-79.2%]), and Strongyloides spp. (3.2% [range 0-29.2%]). Most infections were of light intensity for N. americanus (85.7%) and T. trichiura (90.7%). Owning a household latrine was associated with a lower risk of N. americanus infection (AOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.68) while greater precipitation was linked to more common T. trichiura infection (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this first large-scale population survey of STH in the Pacific using qPCR, we found evidence that ivermectin should be incorporated into STH control programmes because of the presence of T. trichiura and Strongyloides spp., both of which are poorly responsive to albendazole. Furthermore, One Health strategies are needed for improved A. ceylanicum and Strongyloides spp. control, WASH access and use should be improved to complement deworming programmes, and control efforts should ideally be expanded to entire communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001086257.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Solo , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Solo/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 121(7): 1983-1992, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522326

RESUMO

Malaria, helminthiasis and HIV are widespread in developing countries taking a heavy toll on pregnant women. Due to similar environmental and human factors of transmission, they co-exist. The epidemiology and pathology of these diseases have been extensively studied but data on serum cytokine profile changes which is crucial in pregnancy is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the co-infections and their impact on peripheral blood cytokines. Blood and stool samples were collected from recruited 18-45-year-old pregnant women in different trimesters who were apparently healthy with no obvious complications in pregnancy. Pretested questionnaires were administered for personal and socio-demographic details. Malaria parasitemia in Giemsa-stained thick blood films was examined microscopically. Stool samples were screened for helminths using Kato-Katz method. Cytokine levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13 and IL-17 in 121 serum samples were determined using ELISA. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U test at α0.05. Relative to the single infections, there were significant reductions in IFN-γ and IL-13 in second and third trimesters respectively in those with Plasmodium and helminth co-infection. IFN-γ and IL-17 were elevated while IL-1α and IL-12p70 were reduced in co-infection of helminths and HIV. Co-infection of Plasmodium and HIV in second and third trimesters showed significant elevations in IL-1α, IL-10 and IL-17 while TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-12p70 were significantly reduced. HIV in pregnancy and its co-infection with Plasmodium resulted in significant distortions in the cytokine profile. However, helminth and its co-infection with Plasmodium or HIV produced less changes in the cytokine profile.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Malária , Plasmodium , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Citocinas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-13 , Interleucina-17 , Interleucina-4 , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Adulto Jovem
17.
Parasitol Res ; 121(7): 2179-2186, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543746

RESUMO

Understanding the epidemiology of canine parasitic infections, gastrointestinal helminthic infections in particular, is crucial for designing an efficient control programs targeted at minimizing the risks of zoonotic transmission. A total of 470 dogs attending veterinary clinics in Northeastern Nigeria were screened for gastrointestinal helminths using standard parasitological techniques. Epidemiological risk factors associated with the canine parasitic infections were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In total, 77.9% (366/470) of dogs had harboured one or more species of the gastrointestinal helminths: Ancylostoma caninum (40.2%), Toxocara canis (35.1%) Trichuris vulpis (26.6%), Spirocerca lupi (5.7%), Taenia/Echinococcus (12.3%), Dipylidium caninum (10.9%) and Diphyllobothriid ova (2.8%). Female dogs (OR=2.1; p=0.02), local breeds (OR=2.3; p<0.01), younger dogs (OR=3.2; p<0.001), dogs adopted as security guards (OR=1.8; p<0.01) and poor body condition score (OR=3.1; p<0.001) were strongly associated with A. caninum infection. For T. canis and T. vulpis, younger dogs (OR=2.5; p=0.02 and OR=2.3; p<0.01) and poor body condition score (OR=4.2; p<0.001 and OR=2.2; p<0.01) were the strong predictors for infection, whereas female dogs (OR=2.8; p=0.02), younger dogs (OR=4.1; p<0.001) and poor body condition score (OR=4.0; p<0.001) were strongly associated with D. caninum infection in dogs. The results revealed high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths-some of which have zoonotic potential-among dogs underlying huge public health risk.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Helmintíase Animal , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 869163, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572520

RESUMO

Helminth infection currently affect over 2 billion people worldwide, with those with the most pathologies and morbidities, living in regions with unequal and disproportionate access to effective healthcare solutions. Host genetics and environmental factors play critical roles in modulating and regulating immune responses following exposure to various pathogens and insults. However, the interplay of environment and genetic factors in influencing who gets infected and the establishment, persistence, and clearance of helminth parasites remains unclear. Inbred strains of mice have long been used to investigate the role of host genetic factors on pathogenesis and resistance to helminth infection in a laboratory setting. This review will discuss the use of ecological and environmental mouse models to study helminth infections and how this could be used in combination with host genetic variation to explore the relative contribution of these factors in influencing immune response to helminth infections. Improved understanding of interactions between genetics and the environment to helminth immune responses would be important for efforts to identify and develop new prophylactic and therapeutic options for the management of helminth infections and their pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Parasitos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Humanos , Imunidade , Camundongos
19.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 31: 100732, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569915

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the speed of development of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) eggs to infective larvae (L3) and its migration under effect of meteorological variables: temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, solar radiation to Urochloa (=Brachiaria) decumbens grass pasture during rainy season, from June to September 2019, and dry season, October to March 2020, in Recôncavo baiano region of Bahia state, Brazil. Monthly, fecal samples obtained from goats with recurrent GIN infection were deposited in six plots of one square meter. In +7, +14 and + 21-days post-deposition, lower and upper strata grass (0-15 and > 15 cm, respectively) and remaining feces were collected and submitted to Baermann's technique modified to perform larval count and identification. Meteorological data were obtained from a local weather station database. The log-transformed larval count results were analyzed regarding the collection day effect, stratum effect, comparing the means by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis and correlation of meteorological variables with larval counts was performed. In the rainy season, the largest proportion of recovered L3 was concentrated in +7-days post-deposition in the months of June and July, both in the remaining feces and herbage samples, while in August development took place more slowly, after +14-days post-deposition. During the dry season, L3 development only occurred after the first collection in January and February. Lower strata had higher proportion of recovery than in upper strata. Negative correlation was found for solar radiation. Greater rainfall in the rainy season compared to dry season was a favorable condition for high contamination of grass samples. However, reduced vertical migration to upper strata may have been influenced by low temperatures during the rainy season. Regarding the genera present in the fecal samples used in the experiment were found Haemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. Thus, it is possible to conclude that in the region of the study, during the rainy season, there is a rapid larval development and the L3 are able to migrate more effectively to the grass. On the other hand, in the dry season, larval development tends to be slower, with less migration to the grass. Solar radiation can be useful for predicting months with the highest risk of infection. Therefore, prophylactic measures should be employed in goat herds during the rainy season whilst natural reduced pasture contamination in the dry season may favor animal maintenance for a longer time.


Assuntos
Haemonchus , Helmintos , Nematoides , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cabras , Larva , Poaceae
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 238: 108281, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594932

RESUMO

Copro-microscopic diagnostic methods are the most common approach for screening patients with parasitic infections. However, expertise is required to identify helminthic eggs from fecal specimens. Consequently, new methods are required to support accurate species identification. Novel technologies have recently been developed for the classification of organisms, including geometric morphometric (GM) approaches. In this study, the outline-based GM approach was used to distinguish the eggs of 12 common human parasite species, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, Capillaria philippinensis, Opisthorchis spp., Fasciola spp., Paragonimus spp., Schistosoma mekongi, Taenia spp., Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana. The GM analysis revealed that the size cannot be used as the main variable in the identification of parasite species at the egg stage, producing only 30.18% overall accuracy. However, comparisons of shape based on the Mahalanobis distances between pairs of parasite species showed significant differences in all pairs (p < 0.05). The shape analysis produced 84.29% overall accuracy. This is the first time that outline-based GM has been preliminarily confirmed as a valuable approach to support copro-microscopic analysis, in order to effectively screen helminth eggs. However, further studies with a larger set of helminth eggs and artefacts should be carried out to increase confidence in the identification of parasite species in the absence of local experts.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Parasitos , Taenia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Trichuris
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