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1.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(2): 216-230, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744271

RESUMO

Dental health care workers, particularly dental medicine students (DMS), are at an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on HBV and HCV, estimate needlestick injury (NSI) prevalence and reporting practice in DMS at the University of Zagreb, and analyze how enrolment in obligatory and supplemental courses affects knowledge and NSI reporting practice. The knowledge was assessed by our questionnaires based on the Centers for Disease Control general handouts. Additional information was collected to examine the prevalence and reporting practice of NSI. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis, independent-samples t-test, proportion analyses, and combined factor analyses of categorical and quantitative variables in SPSS and R. In total, 206 students participated in the survey. The overall level of HBV- and HCV-related knowledge was poor, with the mean scores of 61.90% and 51.35%, respectively. Moreover, students enrolled in the first year demonstrated significantly lower levels of knowledge in comparison with their older peers. Of all participants, 18.2% had sustained a NSI and the majority of them (78.95%) had never reported the injury. In conclusion, DMS have low levels of knowledge on important occupational pathogens and poor NSI reporting practice. Moreover, formal education in the current form has failed to significantly improve student competence and theoretical knowledge translates poorly into more conscientious injury reporting practice. We should look for a better way to increase student awareness and level of knowledge on this topic.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(36): 6025-6038, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629817

RESUMO

Elimination of viral hepatitis in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030 is an ambitious feat. However, as stated by the World Health Organization, there are unprecedented opportunities to act and make significant contributions to the elimination target. With 60 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) of whom 38800 are at risk of developing highly fatal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) every year, sub-Saharan Africa faces one of the greatest battles towards elimination of viral hepatitis. There is a need to examine progress in controlling the disproportionate burden of HBV-associated HCC in sub-Saharan Africa within the context of this elimination target. By scaling-up coverage of hepatitis B birth dose and early childhood vaccination, we can significantly reduce new cases of HCC by as much as 50% within the next three to five decades. Given the substantial reservoir of chronic HBV carriers however, projections show that HCC incidence and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa will double by 2040. This warrants urgent public health attention. The trends in the burden of HCC over the next two decades, will be determined to a large extent by progress in achieving early diagnosis and appropriate linkage to care for high-risk chronic HBV infected persons.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Hepatite Viral Humana , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e048463, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to explore the association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among people with diabetes. DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparative study. SETTING: Six township hospitals in Gansu Province, China in October 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 408 patients with diabetes were systematically recruited, and based on their characteristics 408 people without diabetes were randomly matched 1:1. INTERVENTIONS: Venous blood was collected for HBV serological testing and blood glucose testing. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was comparison of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive rates between the two groups. The secondary outcome was the relationship between frequency of SMBG and HBsAg positivity. RESULTS: HBsAg positive rate in people without diabetes was 2.0% and in those with diabetes was 4.2%. Whether in people without diabetes or patients with diabetes, higher frequency of SMBG was associated with higher HBsAg positive rate. Increases in the duration of diabetes were correlated with increasing rates of HBsAg. Compared with people without diabetes, logistic regression identified an association between diabetes and HBV infection (OR=2.8; 95% CI 1.0 to 7.6), but impaired fasting glucose was not (OR=2.3; 95% CI 0.5 to 9.9). CONCLUSION: Routine blood glucose monitoring at home was associated with HBV infection, which meant people with diabetes may be at high risk of HBV infection. China is a country with high prevalence of both HBsAg and diabetes, and the increased risk of HBV infection in populations with diabetes needs more attention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hepatite B , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1028, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tanzania ranks as the fourth country in the world with respect to the number of sickle cell disease (SCD) births; it is also endemic to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study was done to determine the prevalence of HIV and HBV infections among SCD patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: A multicenter hospital-based descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among participants aged ≥ 16 years with a proven diagnosis of SCD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Blood samples were drawn for HIV and HBV diagnosis. All categorical variables were summarized into frequencies. RESULTS: There were 185/325 (56.9 %) females. The mean age (SD) was 23.0 ± 7.5 years. The prevalence of HIV was 1.8 %; the prevalence of HBV was 1.2 %. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of both HIV and HBV in SCD patients is no greater than in the general population of Dar es Salaam or Tanzania. For associations, a large study would be needed. From a detailed blood transfusion history of SCD patients we found no evidence that HIV or HBV infection was transmitted through blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 897-902, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605453

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease. Hepatitis B Virus may present with varying degree of severity. In older children, 5-10% cases leading to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This descriptive cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus infection among hospitalized children with liver disease in pediatric department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from December 2015 to October 2016. All the children of both sexes having age between six months to twelve years admitted in the pediatric ward with acute or chronic liver disease were included in this study by purposive sampling. A written consent was obtained from legal guardian of children before inclusion. Ethical clearance was obtained from competent authority. A detailed history was taken from parents in each case according to pre-designed questionnaire about demography of the patients and the risk factors of the liver disease. A thorough clinical examination and available relevant investigations like serological testing for HBV infection was done in all patients. We had figure out the seropositivity of HBV among patients having liver disease by doing HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Progress of the patient was monitored by daily clinical examinations and by investigating HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Finally data analysis was done by SPSS version 21.0. Among total 100 patients most (44%) patients were in 7-10 years old and most (62%) of the participants were male. Acute liver disease was 58% cases and chronic liver disease was 42% cases. HBsAg was positive in 1 case among acute liver disease and 5 cases among chronic cases. Total 6 (six) patients were found positive for HBsAg. Anti HBc IgM was positive in 4 patients among acute liver disease. Among these Anti HBc IgM positive (4) patients only one had both HBsAg and Anti HBc IgM positive. So, four patients were confirming suffered from acute viral hepatitis because they had anti HBc IgM positive. On the contrary 5 patients suffered from chronic hepatitis by hepatitis B because they were only HBsAg positive. So, in this study 9 patients (9%) were confirming suffered from HBV infection. Possible transmission factors of hepatitis B were history of (H/O) blood transfusion/trauma/parenteral injection, H/O umbilical sepsis, H/O maternal illness/infection during pregnancy. HBV still is a major cause of morbidity. All the children with liver disease should be routinely tested for HBV.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1120, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an infectious disease of global significance, causing a significant health burden in Africa due to complications associated with infection, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Nigeria, which is considered a high prevalence country, estimates of HBV cases are inconsistent, and therefore additional clarity is required to manage HBV-associated public health challenges. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature (via PubMed, Advanced Google Scholar, African Index Medicus) was conducted to retrieve primary studies published between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019, with a random-effects model based on proportions used to estimate the population-based prevalence of HBV in the Nigerian population. RESULTS: The final analyses included 47 studies with 21,702 participants that revealed a pooled prevalence of 9.5%. A prevalence estimate above 8% in a population is classified as high. Sub-group analyses revealed the highest HBV prevalence in rural settings (10.7%). The North West region had the highest prevalence (12.1%) among Nigeria's six geopolitical zones/regions. The estimate of total variation between studies indicated substantial heterogeneity. These variations could be explained by setting and geographical region. The statistical test for Egger's regression showed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.879). CONCLUSIONS: We present an up-to-date review on the prevalence of HBV in Nigeria, which will provide critical data to optimise and assess the impact of current prevention and control strategies, including disease surveillance and diagnoses, vaccination policies and management for those infected.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(42): e27378, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678864

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article was to investigate risk factors influencing liver cancer prognosis after hepatectomy.Patients undergoing hepatectomy after being diagnosed with liver cancer in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University were collected in the retrospective cohort study between January 2012 and December 2017, and divided into disease progression and non-progression groups based on their prognostic status. Univariate analysis was performed on the patients' baseline and laboratory test data, with multivariate logistic regression further conducted to investigate the independent risk factors for liver cancer progression after hepatectomy.Among the 288 subjects, 159 had adverse outcomes (death or cancer recurrence). Hepatitis B and high levels of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin, and total bilirubin as well as low level of lymphocyte (LYM) were found to be associated with disease progression in the univariate analysis, and were introduced into the multivariate logistic regression. The results indicated that patients with high ALP level (odds ratio [OR] = 1.004, 95%CI: 1.002-1.007, P = .003) and with a history of hepatitis B (OR = 2.182, 95%CI: 1.165-4.086, P = .015) had a higher risk of liver cancer progression compared with those of lower ALP level and those without hepatitis B respectively, whereas the elevated level of LYM (OR = 0.710, 95%CI: 0.516-0.978, P = .034) had favorable progression.The elevated ALP level and a history of hepatitis B may increase the risk of death or cancer recurrence, whereas high LYM level may decrease poor progression among liver cancer patients after hepatectomy. More importance should be attached to the improvement of the liver function and treatment of hepatitis B to enable a better outcome for the patients.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 80(1): 1986975, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668463

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global health threat. The World Health Organization (WHO) established a goal to eliminate HBV infection as a public health threat by 2030, and defined targets for key interventions to achieve that goal. We evaluated HBV burden and relevant national recommendations for progress towards WHO targets in circumpolar countries. Viral hepatitis experts of circumpolar countries were surveyed regarding their country's burden of HBV, achievement of WHO targets and national public health authority recommendations for HBV prevention and control. Eight of nine circumpolar countries responded. All countries continue to see new HBV infections. Data about HBV prevalence and progress in reaching WHO 2030 elimination targets are lacking. No country was able to report data for all seven WHO target measures. All countries have recommendations targeting the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Only the USA and Greenland recommend universal birth dose vaccination. Four countries have recommendations to screen persons at high risk for HBV. Existing recommendations largely address prevention; however, recommendations for universal birth dose vaccination have not been widely introduced. Opportunities remain for the development of trackable targets and national elimination planning to screen and treat for HBV to reduce incidence and mortality.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Feminino , Saúde Global , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Clin Liver Dis ; 25(4): 673-687, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593147

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors including vaccination policies and migration.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Demografia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vacinação
11.
Clin Liver Dis ; 25(4): 711-724, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593149

RESUMO

This article reviews the incidence of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its clinical course, strategies to prevent acute HBV infection in susceptible individuals, and the management of patients with acute HBV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos
12.
Clin Liver Dis ; 25(4): 859-874, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593158

RESUMO

Owing to standard precautions and initiatives for universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in the general population and health care workers, risk of transmission of HBV infection from the patient to a health care worker (and vice versa) is very low. The need for mandatory HBV screening and vaccination in health care workers is less clear than in the past. Health care workers with chronic HBV infection neither require restrictions on professional practice nor disclosure of infection status to a patient. Further study is required to develop effective revaccination strategies to manage health care workers who are vaccine nonresponders.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Pessoal de Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1831, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In July 1984, Taiwan officially began a nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program where only infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers were vaccinated free of charge until June 1986. However, from July 1986, all infants were vaccinated against HBV. The impact of the July 1986 HBV vaccination program on first-time blood donors has not been exhaustively studied. We, therefore, determined the risk of HBV among male and female first-time blood donors born before and after the July 1986 HBV vaccination program in Taiwan. METHODS: Initially, we recruited 857,310 first-time blood donors whose data were collected between 2013 and 2018 from 5 blood donation centers in Taiwan. However, we excluded donors with incomplete and outlying data (n = 12,213) and those born between July 1984 and June 1986 (n = 21,054). The final study participants comprised 9118 HBV positive and 814,925 HBV negative individuals. We divided the participants into two birth cohorts (born before and after July 1986) and assumed that those born before July 1986 were not vaccinated at birth while those born after July 1986 were vaccinated. RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV among those born before and after July 1986 was 4.53 and 0.25%, respectively. Individuals born after July 1986 had a lower risk of HBV than those born before July 1986. The adjusted odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.16, 0.13-0.19. Men had a higher risk of HBV than women (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.34-1.47). The interaction between sex and birth date was significant (p-value = 0.0067). Stratification of participants by birth date revealed a higher risk of HBV in men compared to women in both birth cohorts. The OR, 95% CI was 1.47, 1.40-1.55 for those born before July 1986 but declined to 1.15, 1.02-1.29 for those born after July 1986. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of HBV was lower among those born after than those born before the July 1986 vaccination program. In both cohorts, the risk was high in men relative to women. The seemingly protective effect among those born after July 1986 was higher in women than men.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Doadores de Sangue , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vacinação
15.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(236): 336-341, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection is defined as the presence of the hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid in liver tissues and/or serum in the absence of serum hepatitis B Virus surface antigen. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in end-stage renal disease patients is largely unknown. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in the hemodialysis population starting maintenance hemodialysis. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Internal Medicine of a tertiary care hospital. Convenience sampling method was used; 50 consecutive end-stage renal disease patients, who started maintenance hemodialysis from March 2019 to March 2020, were enrolled in the study. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Committee of the hospital (reference number: 351/2019). Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 50.34±12.65 years, and 42 (84%) were male. About 4 (8%) patients were diagnosed having occult hepatitis B infection, 3 (6%) of them were seropositive and 1 (2%) seronegative. About 41 (82%) patients had no history of hepatitis B vaccination series before starting hemodialysis; 36 (72%) had anti-hepatitis B surface antibody titre <10 mIU/ml. About 44 (88%) patients received a blood transfusion during their hemodialysis sessions and 14 (28%) patients had a history of receiving hemodialysis at other centres. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among end-stage renal disease patients starting hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Falência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Diálise Renal , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 174, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584600

RESUMO

Introduction: sub-Saharan Africa bears a high prevalence for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This analysis aims at elucidating the exposure to HBV across different age groups in Mbeya Region in Tanzania and determines prevalences of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis delta antigen (HDV) infections. Methods: plasma samples from children and adults with defined HIV status were analysed for HBV, HCV and HDV markers.\. Results: hepatitis B (HBs)-antigen positivity was 8.3% (3/36) in the 0 to 5 years age group, 13.3% (8/60) in the 6 to 7 years, 17.2% (10/58) in the 8 to 14 years and 13.3% (8/60) in the 15 to 18 years age groups. In adults 5.0% of samples were HBs-antigen positive. Overall, 17.1% were HIV-1 positive. Adults infected with HIV-1 were significantly more often HBs-antigen positive (7.5%) than HIV-1 negative adults (4.5%; p<0.05). A serological sub-study including 174 adults showed that both total anti-HBs and total anti-HBc positivity increased with age in HBs-antigen negative participants. Across all age groups, HCV antibodies were found in 9 individuals, HDV antibodies in 3 individuals. Conclusion: children presented a high prevalence of HBs-antigen carriers, with lower levels in the younger children. Among adults, the overall prevalence of HBs-antigen was lower than in children, either corresponding to clearance of HBV over time or due to a die-off effect. HBs-antigen positive adults had higher frequencies of anti-HBc- and anti-HBe-antibodies, indicating better immunological control of HBV infection than children. This supports claims that HBV infections in Africa are mostly acquired in childhood and to a large extent cleared again by adulthood. One in 20 adults remains chronically infected, emphasising the importance of HBV vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 175, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584601

RESUMO

Introduction: viral infection caused by hepatitis B virus is the most frequent transfusion-transmitted viral infection. Although the search for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood banks has significantly reduced the risk for transfusion-transmitted virus infection, there is still a residual transfusion risk of transmission from donors with occult hepatitis B. Blood bags containing aHBc with or without aHBs and viral DNA can cause infections and represent a threat to transfusion safety when aHBc levels are undetectable. The purpose of this study is to determine the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) as well as at the St Martin de Porres's Catholic Hospital (SMPCH) in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study among blood donors at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) and the St Martin de Porres's Catholic Hospital. In these subjects the search for aHBc and/or the aHBs was conducted by immunochromatography. HBV DNA test was performed on blood samples tested positive for aHBc and/or aHBs by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique using specific primers. Results: out of a total of 193 blood donors negative for HIV, HBV (HBsAg), HCV serological markers and treponema infections, the overall seroprevalence of aHBc and/or aHBs was 9,84% (19/193). Out of a total of 19 potentially infected donors, HBV DNA was detected in 03 individuals, including 02 aHBc carriers and 01 carrier of both aHBc and aHBs, reflecting a prevalence of occult hepatitis B of 15,79% (3/19) [IC 95% =3,38%-39,58%] and a residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus of 1,55% (3/193) [IC 95% =0,32%-4,48%]. Conclusion: this study shows that the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus is low. However, it is recommended to screan blood donors for aHBc and/or aHBs.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Seleção do Doador/métodos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Segurança do Sangue/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue/normas , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527154

RESUMO

Introduction: hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the commonest causes of acute and chronic liver diseases worldwide. HBV can be transmitted by exposure to infected blood and human secretions through sharp injuries and splashes. Health workers are among the most high-risk groups because they regularly interact with patients. A seroprevalence survey conducted in Uganda in 2014 found a higher prevalence of HBV in Gulu Municipality compared to the rest of Uganda. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among health workers in Gulu Regional Hospital. A stratified random sampling was used. Knowledge ratings and Likert scale were used to score knowledge, attitudes and risks of HBV infections in a qualitative assessment. Ethical approval was obtained and SPSS was used for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: one hundred and twenty-six (126) respondents participated; 65 (51.6%) were male, 80 (63.5%) were aged 20-29 years, 74 (58.7%) were not married, 86 (68.3%) had a work experience of 0-9 years, 64 (50.8%) had good knowledge, 90(71.4%) had positive attitude, 114 (90.5%) had high to very high pre-exposure risks, and 75 (59.5%) had moderate to high exposure and post-exposure risks. There was no significant difference in knowledge (X 2= 13.895; p = 0.178) and work experience (X 2= 21.196; p = 0.097) among the health workers. Conclusion: there is a high pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure risks of HBV infection among health workers in Gulu Hospital. There is need to augment awareness on HBV infection and design strategies to strengthen and implement infection control measures including HBV vaccination among health workers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/transmissão , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e08072020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495262

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem; therefore, we aimed to report HBV genotypes in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 103 HBsAg-positive samples were subjected to HBV genotyping and subgenotyping. RESULTS: The following genetic compositions of samples were found: F-54% (F2-83.33%), A-40% (A1-65%), D-6%, C2-1%, E-1%, and G-1%. CONCLUSIONS: Some genotypes are only prevalent in certain parts of the world; however, the State of Ceará is a hub for migration and has one of the most important liver transplantation centers in Brazil, which can explain the prevalence of the F genotype.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia , Hepatite B , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Genótipo , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Prevalência
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 5088-5099, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a country with a high burden of hepatitis B, China has about 86 million cases of hepatitis B virus infection, ranking the first in the world. Currently, there are about 390000 deaths due to hepatitis B-related complications such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer every year. Consequently, how to control portal hypertension, improve liver functional reserve, and reduce the incidence of hepatic failure and liver cancer in such patients is the focus of current clinical attention. Previous clinical study in our center suggested that at 24 mo after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), the liver functional reserve of patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis was better than that of patients with alcohol-induced and immune cirrhosis, which may be related to the effective etiological treatment. AIM: To investigate the clinical efficacy of three first-line antiviral drugs recommended by the guidelines of prevention and treatment for chronic hepatitis B in China (2019) in the treatment of patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis who had received a TIPS. METHODS: The clinical data of 137 patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis with portal hypertension after receiving TIPS at our centre between March 2016 and December 2020 were analysed retrospectively. According to different anti-viral drugs, the patients were divided into entecavir (ETV) (n = 70), tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) (n = 32), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (n = 35) groups. The cumulative incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and hepatocellular carcinoma, survival, and changes in hepatic reserve function and glomerular filtration rate in patients treated with different antiviral drugs within 24 mo after surgery were investigated. RESULTS: At 24 mo after surgery, the Child-Pugh score in the TAF group (6.97 ± 0.86) was lower than that in the TDF (7.49 ± 0.82; t = -2.52, P = 0.014) and ETV groups (7.64 ± 1.17; t = -2.92, P = 0.004). The model for end-stage liver disease score in the TAF group at 24 mo after surgery was 9.72 ± 1.5, which was lower than that in the TDF (10.74 ± 2.33; t = -2.09, P = 0.040) and ETV groups (10.97 ± 2.17; t = -2.93, P = 0.004). At 24 mo after surgery, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the TAF group (104.41 ± 12.54) was higher than that in the TDF (93.54 ± 8.97) and ETV groups (89.96 ± 9.86) (F = 21.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: At 24 mo after surgery, compared with TDF and ETV, TAF has significant advantages in the improvement of liver functional reserve and eGFR.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal , Hepatite B , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Terminal/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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