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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 250-255, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286718

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Las alteraciones de la bioquímica hepática son frecuentes en los pacientes con infección por VIH, la etiología es variada, la esteatosis hepática es frecuente con una prevalencia estimada del 60% Objetivos: Caracterizar las alteraciones hepáticas en una serie de pacientes con infección por VIH en un centro de investigación de Bogotá Colombia durante el periodo 2009 - 2019. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, observacional de pacientes con infección por VIH que asistieron a un centro de investigación durante los años 2009-2019. Resultados: 94% fueron hombres y 6% mujeres con edad promedio de 44 años, 92,5% de los pacientes presentaba uso de terapia antiretroviral. Las principales hepatopatías fueron la coinfección VIH-Hepatitis C y el hígado graso en iguales porcentajes, 31,3%. El promedio del indice HOMA fue de 2,58. Discusión: Las enfermedades hepáticas son una causa importante de morbimortalidad en pacientes con infección por VIH, las coinfecciones virales y el hígado graso pueden ser muy frecuentes en nuestro medio a diferencia de otros estudios Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio a nivel local en describir las alteraciones hepáticas en pacientes con VIH, las comorbilidades no SIDA, juegan un papel importante dentro de la enfermedad. La hepatitis C continúa siendo una coinfección frecuente en la población VIH.


Abstract Introduction: Alterations in liver biochemistry are frequent in patients with HIV infection, the etiology is varied and includes multiple causes, liver steatosis is one of the most frequent with an estimated prevalence of 60% after the appearance of antiretroviral treatment Objectives: To characterize liver disorders in a series of patients with HIV infection at a research center in Bogotá Colombia during the period 2009-2019. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, retrospective, observational study of patients with HIV infection who attended a disease research center during the years 2009-2019. Results: 67 clinical histories were reviewed, 94% were men and 6% women with an average age of 44 years, 92.5% of the patients had use of anti-retroviral therapy and the diagnosis of HIV was known 11.7 years ago on average. The main liver diseases were HIV-Hepatitis C coinfection and fatty liver in equal percentages, 31.3%. The average HOMA index was 2.58. Discussion: Liver diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Viral coinfections and fatty liver can be very frequent in our setting, unlike other studies. Conclusions: This is the first study locally to describe the liver disorders in patients with HIV, non-AIDS comorbidities, including fatty liver, play an important role in the disease and could behave like the general population. Hepatitis C continues to be a frequent coinfection in the HIV population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por HIV , Hepatopatias , Terapêutica , Prevalência , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Hepatite C , Colômbia , Fígado Gorduroso , Fígado
2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 241-249, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286717

RESUMO

Abstract Infection through the Hepatitis C virus does not have a vaccine and treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin can fail; which is why it may cause chronic infection and, consequently, could develop liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been described that virus-cell recognition occurs between the E2 viral envelope protein and diverse cell receptors, with this interaction being critical in viral infection. which is why the study sought to identify inhibitory peptides of the interaction between viral E2 protein and the CD81 and CD209 receptors. Methodology: Through the RCSB protein database, crystals from the CD81 and CD209 receptors were selected, CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV complexes were carried out by SWISS-MODEL to generate inhibitory peptides of protein interaction through the Rosetta web server, this interaction was validated through ClusPro and finally, determined the theoretical physicochemical and cytotoxic properties of these peptides. Results: two peptides were obtained, without predicted toxicity, with a theoretical capacity of blocking the protein interaction between the E2 protein of the virus and CD81 and CD209.


Resumen La infección por el virus de la hepatitis C, no cuenta con vacuna y el tratamiento con interferón pegilado y ribavirina puede fallar; por lo que puede causar infec ción crónica y como consecuencia podría desarrollarse falla hepática o carcinoma hepatocelular. Se ha descrito que el reconocimiento virus-célula, se da entre la proteína de envoltura viral E2 y diversos receptores celulares, siendo esta interacción crítica en la infección viral. Razón por la cual este estudio buscó identificar péptidos inhibidores de la interacción entre la proteína E2 viral y los receptores CD81 y CD209. Metodología: A través de la base de datos de proteínas RCSB, se seleccionaron cristales de los receptores CD81 y CD209, se realizaron complejos CD81/E2-HCV, CD209/E2-HCV para generar péptidos inhibidores de interacción proteica a través del servidor web Rosetta, esta interacción fue validada a través de ClusPro y finalmente se evaluaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas y citotóxicas teóricas para estos péptidos. Resultados: se obtuvo dos péptidos, sin toxicidad predicha, con capacidad teórica de bloquear la interacción proteica entre la proteína E2 del virus y CD81 y CD209.


Assuntos
Humanos , Vírus de Hepatite , Peptídeos , Vacinas , Proteínas , Hepatite C , Falência Hepática , Hepacivirus , Infecções
3.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(2): 216-230, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744271

RESUMO

Dental health care workers, particularly dental medicine students (DMS), are at an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on HBV and HCV, estimate needlestick injury (NSI) prevalence and reporting practice in DMS at the University of Zagreb, and analyze how enrolment in obligatory and supplemental courses affects knowledge and NSI reporting practice. The knowledge was assessed by our questionnaires based on the Centers for Disease Control general handouts. Additional information was collected to examine the prevalence and reporting practice of NSI. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis, independent-samples t-test, proportion analyses, and combined factor analyses of categorical and quantitative variables in SPSS and R. In total, 206 students participated in the survey. The overall level of HBV- and HCV-related knowledge was poor, with the mean scores of 61.90% and 51.35%, respectively. Moreover, students enrolled in the first year demonstrated significantly lower levels of knowledge in comparison with their older peers. Of all participants, 18.2% had sustained a NSI and the majority of them (78.95%) had never reported the injury. In conclusion, DMS have low levels of knowledge on important occupational pathogens and poor NSI reporting practice. Moreover, formal education in the current form has failed to significantly improve student competence and theoretical knowledge translates poorly into more conscientious injury reporting practice. We should look for a better way to increase student awareness and level of knowledge on this topic.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1126, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed characteristics of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Burkina Faso are scarce. The main aim of this study was to assess HCV seroprevalence in various settings and populations at risk in Burkina Faso between 1990 and 2020. Secondary objectives included the prevalence of HCV Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the distribution of HCV genotypes. METHODS: A systematic database search, supplemented by a manual search, was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and African Index Medicus. Studies reporting HCV seroprevalence data in low and high-risk populations in Burkina Faso were included, and a random-effects meta-analysis was applied. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs institute checklist. RESULTS: Low-risk populations were examined in 31 studies involving a total of 168,151 subjects, of whom 8330 were positive for HCV antibodies. Six studies included a total of 1484 high-risk persons, and 96 had antibodies to HCV. The pooled seroprevalence in low-risk populations was 3.72% (95% CI: 3.20-4.28) and 4.75% (95% CI: 1.79-8.94) in high-risk groups. A non-significant decreasing trend was observed over the study period. Seven studies tested HCV RNA in a total of 4759 individuals at low risk for HCV infection, and 81 were positive. The meta-analysis of HCV RNA yielded a pooled prevalence of 1.65% (95% CI: 0.74-2.89%) in low-risk populations, which is assumed to be indicative of HCV prevalence in the general population of Burkina Faso and suggests that about 301,174 people are active HCV carriers in the country. Genotypes 2 and 1 were the most frequent, with 60.3% and 25.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HCV seroprevalence is intermediate in Burkina Faso and indicates the need to implement effective control strategies. There is a paucity of data at the national level and for rural and high-risk populations. General population screening and linkage to care are recommended, with special attention to rural and high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 6737-6749, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790004

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection is associated with fibrosis progression, end-stage liver complications and HCC. Not surprisingly, HCV infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. After sustained virological response (SVR), the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma is not completely eliminated in patients with established cirrhosis or with advanced fibrosis. Therefore, lifelong surveillance is currently recommended. This strategy is likely not universally cost-effective and harmless, considering that not all patients with advanced fibrosis have the same risk of developing HCC. Factors related to the severity of liver disease and its potential to improve after SVR, the molecular and epigenetic changes that occur during infection and other associated comorbidities might account for different risk levels and are likely essential for identifying patients who would benefit from screening programs after SVR. Efforts to develop predictive models and risk calculators, biomarkers and genetic panels and even deep learning models to estimate the individual risk of HCC have been made in the direct-acting antiviral agents era, when thousands of patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis have reached SVR. These tools could help to identify patients with very low HCC risk in whom surveillance might not be justified. In this review, factors affecting the probability of HCC development after SVR, the benefits and risks of surveillance, suggested strategies to estimate individualized HCC risk and the current evidence to recommend lifelong surveillance are discussed.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resposta Viral Sustentada
7.
Br J Nurs ; 30(20): 1158-1164, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's aim to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as a public health threat by 2030 is dependent on testing people. HCV prevalence is higher in prisons, so to increase test uptake an 'opt-out' approach to blood-borne virus testing in English and Welsh prisons was introduced. AIMS: This literature review examines the evidence behind the introduction of this public health policy. METHODS: Four healthcare databases were searched for publications between January 2000 and February 2020 on the opt-out approach to blood-borne virus testing in prisons. FINDINGS: Sixteen studies published between 2009 and 2019 were included. Analysis of their findings showed that an increase in HCV test uptake in prisons occurs when an opt-out approach is used in combination with additional interventions. Contextual differences between UK and US prisons may affect HCV test uptake. CONCLUSION: An opt-out approach to HCV testing in prisons can increase test uptake as part of a complex of interventions.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Prisioneiros , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Políticas , Prisões
8.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(20): 73, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767234
9.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends mandatory serological testing of blood donors for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis. We evaluated the performance of Elecsys® infectious disease immunoassays against commercially available comparator assays. METHODS: Prospective, routine, anonymized patient or donor samples (n = 8,821) were analyzed at three German sites using Elecsys antihepatitis B core antigen (Anti-HBc II), Anti-HCV II, HIV combi PT, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg II), and Syphilis immunoassays (cobas e 411 analyzer) versus ARCHITECT comparator assays. RESULTS: The Elecsys immunoassays demonstrated comparable sensitivity (≤ 1.54% difference) and equivalent specificity (≤ 0.63% difference) to the respective ARCHITECT comparator assays. Overall sensitivity for the Elecsys and ARCHITECT infectious disease panels was 99.78% vs. 99.40%, respectively, and overall specificity was 99.74% vs. 99.80%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Elecsys infectious disease immunoassays demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, which were similar to comparator assays, supporting their suitability for routine laboratory practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Sífilis , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sífilis/diagnóstico
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 30, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733398

RESUMO

Introduction: hepatitis C is a public health problem worldwide, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies and associated factors during a voluntary general population screening program in Benin. Method: we conducted a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study in 4 big cities of 4 different departments in Benin in July 2016. All volunteers of all ages, residing in these targeted cities, who gave their informed consent were included in the study. ImuMed HCV Rapid Diagnostic Test (Healgen Scientific LLC, USA) was used. Logistic regression analysis was also used to identify factors associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Results: a total of 2809 volunteers with an average age of 25.9 ± 16.5 years (ranging from 0 to 86 years) were included in the study; 53.9% (1514/2809) of them were men and 46.1% (1295/2809) were women. More than half of the study population consisted of single (59.1%; 1612/2726); 41.3% (1074/2809) were pupils or students. VHC Seroprevalence was 1.5% (42/2809). In multivariate analysis, the variables significantly associated with anti-HCV carriage were: be 60 years old and older (aOR: 46.9, 95% CI 10.2-216.0; p<0.0001) and a history of alcoholism (aOR: 6.3; 95% CI 95% 3.3-12.1; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: in the general population, the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 1.5%. HCV infection mainly occurred in people aged 60 years and older and in those with a history of alcoholism.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Benin/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(10): 392-400, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623891

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection carries substantial risk for all-cause mortality and liver-related morbidity and mortality, yet many persons coinfected with HIV/HCV remain untreated for HCV. We explored demographic, clinical, and sociodemographic factors among participants in routine HIV care associated with prescription of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of persons with HIV in care at participating clinics since 1993. There are currently eight study sites in six US cities. We analyzed medical records data of HOPS participants diagnosed with HCV since June 2010. Sustained virological response (SVR) was documented with first undetectable HCV viral load (VL). We assessed factors associated with being prescribed DAAs by multi-variable logistic regression and described the cumulative rate of SVR. Among 306 eligible participants, 131 (43%) were prescribed DAA therapy. Factors associated with greater odds of being prescribed DAA were older age, private health insurance, higher CD4 cell count, being a person who injects drugs, and receiving care at publicly funded sites (p < 0.05). Of 127 (97%) participants with at least 1 follow-up HCV VL, 110 (87%) achieved SVR at 12 weeks. Of the total 131 participants, 123 (94%) eventually achieved SVR. Less than half of HIV/HCV coinfected patients in HOPS have been prescribed DAAs. Interventions are needed to address deficits in DAA prescription, including among patients with public or no health insurance, younger age, and lower CD4 cell count.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek ; 27(1): 13-17, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Analysis of changes in a group of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with a special focus on risk factors for transmission. Evaluation of cooperation with organizations working with people who inject drugs (PWID) including the impact of outreach testing. METHODS: A retrospective analysis and interannual comparison of CHC patients treated with DAAs at the Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic between 2018 and 2020. RESULTS: A total of 291 (101 in the year 2018, 111 in 2019 and 79 in 2020) patients with CHC have been treated. Comparison of results from the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 demonstrated a significant rise in the proportion of PWID (46.5 %, 64.9 % and 65.8 %, respectively). Also the proportion of genotype 3a infection (23.8 %, 30.6 % and 35.4 %) increased at the expense of genotype 1b infection (52.5 %, 46.9 % and 38.0 %). By contrast, the median age (43, 40 and 38 years) and the proportion of patients with liver cirrhosis decreased (20.8 %, 15.3 % and 12.7 %). The percentage of patients started on DAA therapy within one year of diagnosis increased (47.5 %, 53.2 % and 62.0 %). And so did the proportion of patients receiving therapy as a result of cooperation with organizations and facilities working with PWID (5.9 %, 25.2 % and 25.3 %). The downside was high numbers of patients lost to follow-up (19.8 %, 23.4 % and 22.3 %). Those were mostly patients who completed their therapy as planned and were only lost to after receiving the final dose of DAAs. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that PWID have gradually become the dominant group of CHC patients is accompanied by a younger age of treated patients, a higher proportion of those with genotype 3a and less advanced liver damage. The changing spectrum of CHC patients makes medical professionals change their approach. Outreach testing and cooperation with organizations working with PWID have proved an effective way of improving the diagnosis and treatment of CHC.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(10): e25817, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People who inject drugs (PWID) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, have a high prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). While needle and syringe programmes (NSP), opioid agonist therapy (OAT) and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are available in Tanzania, their coverage is sub-optimal. We assess the impact of existing and scaled up harm reduction (HR) interventions on HIV and HCV transmission among PWID in Dar es Salaam. METHODS: An HIV and HCV transmission model among PWID in Tanzania was calibrated to data over 2006-2018 on HIV (∼30% and ∼67% prevalence in males and females in 2011) and HCV prevalence (∼16% in 2017), numbers on HR interventions (5254 ever on OAT in 2018, 766-1479 accessing NSP in 2017) and ART coverage (63.1% in 2015). We evaluated the impact of existing interventions in 2019 and impact by 2030 of scaling-up the coverage of OAT (to 50% of PWID), NSP (75%, both combined termed "full HR") and ART (81% with 90% virally suppressed) from 2019, reducing sexual HIV transmission by 50%, and/or HCV-treating 10% of PWID infected with HCV annually. RESULTS: The model projects HIV and HCV prevalence of 19.0% (95% credibility interval: 16.4-21.2%) and 41.0% (24.4-49.0%) in 2019, respectively. For HIV, 24.6% (13.6-32.6%) and 70.3% (59.3-77.1%) of incident infections among male and female PWID are sexually transmitted, respectively. Due to their low coverage (22.8% for OAT, 16.3% for NSP in 2019), OAT and NSP averted 20.4% (12.9-24.7%) of HIV infections and 21.7% (17.0-25.2%) of HCV infections in 2019. Existing ART (68.5% coverage by 2019) averted 48.1% (29.7-64.3%) of HIV infections in 2019. Scaling up to full HR will reduce HIV and HCV incidence by 62.6% (52.5-74.0%) and 81.4% (56.7-81.4%), respectively, over 2019-2030; scaled up ART alongside full HR will decrease HIV incidence by 66.8% (55.6-77.5%), increasing to 81.5% (73.7-87.5%) when sexual risk is also reduced. HCV-treatment alongside full HR will decrease HCV incidence by 92.4% (80.7-95.8%) by 2030. CONCLUSIONS: Combination interventions, including sexual risk reduction and HCV treatment, are needed to eliminate HCV and HIV among PWID in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(37): 6277-6289, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the engagement in hepatitis C virus (HCV) care and completion of HCV treatment in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) who have HCV coinfection in the Asia-Pacific region. Examining the HCV care cascade can identify barriers to the completion of HCV treatment and facilitate achievement of HCV micro-elimination in PLWH. AIM: To investigate the care cascade of incident HCV infections among PLWH in Taiwan. METHODS: PLWH with incident HCV infections, defined as HCV seroconversion, were retrospectively identified by sequential anti-HCV testing of all archived blood samples at National Taiwan University Hospital between 2011 and 2018. All PLWH with incident HCV infections were followed until December 31, 2019. The care cascade of HCV examined included all incident HCV-infected patients, the percentages of anti-HCV antibodies detected by HIV-treating physicians in clinical care, plasma HCV RNA load tested, HCV RNA positivity diagnosed, referral to treatment assessment made, anti-HCV treatment initiated, and sustained virologic response achieved. Those who had HCV seroconversion during the interferon (IFN) era (2011-2016) and the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era (2017-2018) were analyzed separately. The duration of HCV viremia-from the date of seroconversion to viral clearance by treatments or until the end of observation-and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during the HCV viremic period were estimated. RESULTS: During the study period, 287 of 3495 (8.2%) PLWH (92.3% being men who have sex with men) who were HCV-seronegative at baseline developed HCV seroconversion by retrospective testing of all archived blood samples. Of the 287 incident HCV infections, 277 (96.5%) had anti-HCV antibodies detected by HIV-treating physicians, 270 (94.1%) had plasma HCV RNA determined and 251 (87.5%) tested positive for HCV RNA. Of those with HCV viremia, 226 (78.7%) were referred to treatment assessment, 215 (74.9%) initiated anti-HCV treatment, and 202 (70.4%) achieved viral clearance. Compared with that in the IFN era, the median interval from HCV seroconversion by retrospective testing to detection of HCV seropositivity by HIV-treating physicians was significantly shorter in the DAA era {179 d [interquartile range (IQR) 87-434] vs 92 d (IQR 57-173); P < 0.001}. The incidence rate of STIs in the DAA vs the IFN era was 50.5 per 100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) and 38.5 per 100 PYFU, respectively, with an incidence rate ratio of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 0.96-1.77), while the duration of HCV viremia was 380 d (IQR 274-554) and 735 d (IQR 391-1447) (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: While anti-HCV therapies are effective in achieving viral clearance, our study suggests more efforts are needed to expedite the linkage of PLWH diagnosed with incident HCV infections to HCV treatment.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
15.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 58(3): 399-401, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705978

RESUMO

According to the World Health Organization, 71 million people live with chronic hepatitis C. The treatment of this disease requires assistance from specialized physicians and a highly complex health care system. The prison population has been recognized as being at a high risk of acquiring confinement-related infections, including viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a primary cause of death owing to liver disease among liberty-deprived individuals. Generally, prisons do not have adequate isolation wards for persons with communicable diseases, and overcrowding is a risk factor for this population. Besides prison overcrowding, violence, poor sanitary conditions, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, and emotional instability are factors that can lead detainees to adopt unhealthy habits that make them more susceptible to infections, including HCV, and complicate effective treatment. The Criminal Execution Law 7, 210 of July 11, 1984, in Article 14, grants preventive and curative medical, dental, and pharmacological healthcare to detainees. However, adequate hepatitis C treatment is rarely provided at prisons owing to social stigma and lack of knowledge on the severity of this condition or because most detainees are unaware of their condition. Given the multiple limitations imposed by the prison system model, implementing measures to treat diseases effectively is challenging. However, it is possible to eliminate hepatitis C in prisons in the long term through the coordinated action of public health institutions and the prison system.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Prisioneiros , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 12(3): 17-24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703632

RESUMO

Background: When a new health programme is introduced, it is crucial to estimate the costs for rational health policy decision-making. The aim of this study was to determine the costs of implementing two strategies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening in rural Cambodia. Methods: We retrospectively analysed clinical and cost data that were collected routinely for a demonstration project for scaling up HCV screening and testing in Cambodia. The programme data were collected between March and December 2018 in Maung Russey operational district in Battambang Province, Cambodia. Findings: During the study period, 24 230 people were screened; 1194 (5%) were HCV seropositive, of whom 793 (66%) were confirmed to be viraemic. During the study period, 18% of the estimated population of the operational district were screened, of whom 45% were estimated to be seropositive and 41% to be viraemic. With passive screening alone, 8% of the estimated population were screened, of whom 29% were estimated to be seropositive and 28% viraemic. The cost per detected viraemic case was US$ 194 for passive screening alone and US$ 283 for passive and active screening combined. Labour costs (31%) and tests and materials (29%) comprised the largest proportions of the cost. Conclusion: Combined active and passive screening per viraemic case detected was US$ 89 more expensive than passive screening alone but provided a higher yield (41% versus 28%) of viraemic cases. Therefore, adding active screening to passive screening is beneficial. Selective active screening strategies, such as targeting people over 45 years and other higher-risk groups, added value for HCV diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Camboja/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053191, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The main harm reduction interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID) are supervised injection facilities, needle and syringe programmes and opioid agonist treatment. Current evidence supporting their implementation and operation underestimates their usefulness by excluding skin, soft tissue and vascular infections (SSTVIs) and anoxic/toxicity-related brain injury from cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA). Our goal is to conduct a comprehensive CEA of harm reduction interventions in a setting with a large, dispersed, heterogeneous population of PWID, and include prevention of SSTVIs and anoxic/toxicity-related brain injury as measures of benefit in addition to HIV, hepatitis C and overdose morbidity and mortalities averted. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes how we will develop an open, retrospective cohort of adult PWID living in Québec between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2020 using administrative health record data. By complementing this data with non-linkable paramedic dispatch records, regional monthly needle and syringe dispensation counts and repeated cross-sectional biobehavioural surveys, we will estimate the hazards of occurrence and the impact of Montréal's harm reduction interventions on the incidence of drug-use-related injuries, infections and deaths. We will synthesise results from our empirical analyses with published evidence to simulate infections and injuries in a hypothetical population of PWID in Montréal under different intervention scenarios including current levels of use and scale-up, and assess the cost-effectiveness of each intervention from the public healthcare payer's perspective. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by McGill University's Institutional Review Board (Study Number: A08-E53-19B). We will work with community partners to disseminate results to the public and scientific community via scientific conferences, a publicly accessible report, op-ed articles and open access peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(10): 1340-1349, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence after sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with hepatitis C have been reported. However, few validation studies have been performed in the era of direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs). AIMS: To develop a prediction model for HCC occurrence after DAA-mediated SVR and validate its usefulness. METHODS: We analysed 2209 patients with SVR and without a history of HCC who initiated DAA treatment at 24 Japanese hospitals. These patients were divided into a training set (1473 patients) and a validation set (736 patients). RESULTS: In the training set, multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the baseline BMI (≥25.0 kg/m2 , P = 0.024), baseline fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index (≥3.25, P = 0.001), albumin level at SVR (<4.0 g/dL, P = 0.010) and alpha-foetoprotein level at SVR (≥5.0 ng/mL, P = 0.006) were significantly associated with HCC occurrence. We constructed a prediction model for HCC occurrence with these four factors (2 points were added for the FIB-4 index, and 1 point was added for each of the other three factors). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis identified a score of 2 as the optimal cut-off value for the prediction model (divided into 0-1 and 2-5). In the validation set, the sensitivity and negative predictive value for HCC occurrence were 87.5% and 99.7%, respectively, at 2 years and 71.4% and 98.0%, respectively, at 3 years. CONCLUSION: A prediction model combining these four factors contributes to an efficient surveillance strategy for HCC occurrence after DAA-mediated SVR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada
20.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The folate pathway is involved in hepatic carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes related to such processes, including methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] may play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The objective of this study was to evaluate MTHFR and VEGF polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC. METHODS: A total of 119 patients diagnosed with confirmed HCC and HCV were included in the study. SNP genotyping assays were performed using real-time PCR. VEGFA (rs2010963, rs3025039, and rs833061) and MTHFRC677T (rs1801133, rs1801131) polymorphisms were evaluated. RESULTS: The C alleles of MTHFR (rs1801131) and VEGF (rs2010963) were associated with protection against the development of multinodular HCC, while the T allele of MTHFR (rs1801133) was associated with a higher risk of multinodular presentation [p=0.04 OR 1.835 CI (1.022-3.297)]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the GG/GC genotypes of VEGF rs2010963 were independently associated with multinodular tumors at diagnosis (p=0.013; OR 4.78 CI (1.38-16.67)]. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that these polymorphisms may increase the risk of rapid tumor progression in patients with HCV infection. This subgroup of patients with HCC and who present polymorphism is more likely to be diagnosed with multinodular disease and not be amenable to receiving curative treatments. These data must be validated in larger cohorts, and the screening intervals can be customized based on genetic history.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
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