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1.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S251-S253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to determine the effect of ginger honey supplementation on cortisol, glutathione, and estrogen levels. The study was conducted on mice that had not yet experienced conception, and prior stress induction was carried out so that they could be continued for human trials at the preconception stage and subjects who experienced mild stress. METHOD: It was an in vivo study, pretest-posttest control group design. The sample of this study was 2-3 months female Balb/c mice, divided into negative control and ginger honey intervention as much as 28mg/20g BW for 14 days-the ELISA method used to examine cortisol hormone, glutathione levels, and estrogen levels. The mice chosen were those that had never experienced conception, and before the intervention, swimming activities were carried out on the mice until they showed symptoms of stress. RESULTS: Results show 42mg/20g BW of ginger honey administration for 14 days increased 1.892 ng/dl of cortisol (p = 0.165), increased 2.438 ng/dl of glutathione (p=0.002), and also increased 22.754ng/ml estrogen levels in induced stress Balb/c female mice (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Ginger honey did not affect reducing cortisol levels but increasing glutathione and estrogen levels significantly. Ginger honey supplements are the potential to use as complementary therapies.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/sangue , Gengibre , Glutationa/sangue , Mel , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
2.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 393-397, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730308

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the utility of maximum eye temperature measured by infrared thermography (IRT) as a stress indicator compared with plasma cortisol concentration in Thoroughbred and Arabian racehorses. The study included thirty racehorses undergoing standard training for racing. Measurements of maximum eye temperature and blood collection for plasma cortisol concentration were carried out before training (BT), and within 5 (5AT) and 120 minutes (120AT) after the end of the each training session in three repetitions, with a monthly interval. Both parameters were elevated at 5AT compared to BT (p⟨0.001). Compared to BT, at 120AT the maximum eye temperature remained elevated (p⟨0.001) and plasma cortisol concentration decreased (p⟨0.001). The study indicated significant weak correlations (r=0.220; p⟨0.001) between both measurements at all time points. The results support the use of IRT technique to monitor the response of horses to stress, potentially improving animal management and welfare.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Olho , Cavalos/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Cavalos/fisiologia , Esportes , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
Life Sci ; 285: 120016, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614415

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ten percent of pregnancies are affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and evidence suggests that affected neonates have reduced activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolising enzymes. Given that almost all pregnant individuals take medications and additional medications are often required during an IUGR pregnancy, we aimed to determine the impact of IUGR on hepatic CYP activity in sheep fetuses and pregnant ewes. METHODS: Specific probes were used to determine the impact of IUGR on the activity of several CYP isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A) in sheep fetuses and pregnant ewes. Probes were administered intravenously to the ewe at 132 days (d) gestation (term 150 d), followed by blood sampling from the maternal and fetal circulation over 24 h. Maternal and fetal liver tissue was collected at 139-140 d gestation, from which microsomes were isolated and incubated with probes. Metabolite and maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured using Liquid Chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: Maternal plasma cortisol concentration and maternal hepatic CYP1A2 and CYP3A activity was significantly higher in IUGR pregnancies. Maternal hepatic CYP activity was higher than fetal hepatic CYP activity for all CYPs tested, and there was minimal CYP1A2 or CYP3A activity in the late gestation fetus when assessed using in vitro methods. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological changes to the maternal-placental-fetal unit in an IUGR pregnancy have significant effects on maternal drug metabolism, suggesting changes in medications and/or doses may be required to optimise maternal and fetal health.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/enzimologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Gravidez , Ovinos
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596047

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases encompass a large group of conditions that are clinically and pathologically diverse yet are linked by a shared pathology of misfolded proteins. The accumulation of insoluble aggregates is accompanied by a progressive loss of vulnerable neurons. For some patients, the symptoms are motor focused (ataxias), while others experience cognitive and psychiatric symptoms (dementias). Among the shared symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases is a disruption of the sleep/wake cycle that occurs early in the trajectory of the disease and may be a risk factor for disease development. In many cases, the disruption in the timing of sleep and other rhythmic physiological markers immediately raises the possibility of neurodegeneration-driven disruption of the circadian timing system. The aim of this Review is to summarize the evidence supporting the hypothesis that circadian disruption is a core symptom within neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and to discuss the latest progress in this field. The Review discusses evidence that neurodegenerative processes may disrupt the structure and function of the circadian system and describes circadian-based interventions as well as timed drug treatments that may improve a wide range of symptoms associated with neurodegenerative disorders. It also identifies key gaps in our knowledge.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cronobiológicos/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Camundongos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Dobramento de Proteína , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/patologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiopatologia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(39): e27319, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morning cortisol levels have been reported to be elevated among patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We perform a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to assess morning central or peripheral cortisol levels in AD patients as compared with cognitively normal individuals. METHODS: Studies were identified through systematic searches in August 2021 with no restrictions on date and time, language, and publication status using the following bibliographic databases: Embase, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were identified using search terms related to cortisol, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment. The study quality of included papers was evaluated using the "National Institutes of Health (NIH) quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies." Statistical analyses were performed using Stata (version 14, StataCorp, College Station, TX). RESULTS: The findings of this study will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication. CONCLUSION: Morning cortisol was elevated in AD patients and may have diagnostic and prognostic values for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 67, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Various nutritional strategies are adopted for athletes to maintain and to improve performance during the competition season. Betaine may enhance performance during a competitive season by increasing the testosterone to cortisol ratio and reducing systemic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on the bio-motor abilities in young professional soccer players. METHODS: Twenty-nine young professional soccer players (age, 15.5±0.3 years) were matched by position and randomly assigned to one of two groups for 14 weeks: betaine (BG, 2 g/day; n=14) or placebo (PG n=15). Diet was standardized by a nutritionist, and measures of muscular power (countermovement jump: CMJ), change of direction: modified 5-0-5), acceleration (10 m sprint), sprint performance (30 m sprint time: SpT), muscular strength (leg press and bench press one repetition maximum: 1-RM), repeated sprint ability (running-based anaerobic sprint test: RAST), and aerobic capacity (30-15 intermittent fitness test) were assessed in the pre (P1), mid (P2) and post (P3) season over the course of 5 days. All subjects participated in one soccer match and five training sessions per week. RESULTS: Significant (p < 0.05) group x time interactions were found for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), anaerobic peak power, and muscular strength favoring BG at P2 and P3 compared to P1. There were meaningful (p < 0.05) group x time interactions for CMJ, SpT, and peak power during the RAST that favored the BG. CONCLUSIONS: 14-week of betaine supplementation increased predicted 1-RM, VO2max, and repeated sprint ability performance in youth professional soccer players. Betaine supplementation seems to be a useful nutritional strategy to improve and to maintain performance during a competitive soccer season.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Betaína/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adolescente , Comportamento Competitivo , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Força Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Corrida/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 711612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675878

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced a change in the way we provide medical treatment. Endocrinology in the era of COVID-19 had to transform and reduce its vast potential to the absolute necessities. Medical professionals needed to update their clinical practice to provide their patients as much support and as little harm as possible in these increasingly difficult times. International expert statements were published to offer guidance regarding proper care. It was suggested to simplify the diagnostic scheme of hypercortisolemia and to modify the approach to treatment. Hypercortisolemic patients with COVID-19 and iatrogenic hypercortisolemia due to glucocorticoid use are important clinical scenarios - we aimed to provide a cohesive summary of issues to consider.


Assuntos
Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/induzido quimicamente , Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Pandemias , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/complicações , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/terapia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258653, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: A fraction of children with obesity have increased serum cortisol levels. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics of obese children and adolescents with elevated morning serum cortisol levels and the relationship between the cortisol levels and components of the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review study of children aged 4 to 18 years with overweight or obesity seen for obesity management in the Pediatric Obesity Clinic of the UZ Brussel between 2013 and 2015. RESULTS: A total of 234 children (99 boys and 135 girls) with overweight (BMI z-score > 1.3) without underlying endocrine or genetic conditions were included. Mean (SD) age was 10.1 (2.8) years, BMI SD-score 2.5 (0.6), and body fat percentage 37% (7.9). Serum fasting cortisol levels were elevated (>180 µg/L) in 49 children, normal (62-180 µg/L) in 168, and decreased (<62 µg/L) in 12. Serum fasting cortisol was not significantly correlated with gender, age, or degree of adiposity. But correlated significantly with fasting glucose (Rs = 0.193; p < 0.005), triglycerides (Rs = 0. 143; p < 0.05), fibrinogen (Rs = 0.144; p < 0.05) and leptin levels (Rs = 0.145; p < 0.05). After adjustment for serum insulin and leptin, the correlation between serum cortisol and fasting glucose remained significant. CONCLUSION: Elevated morning serum cortisol levels were found in 20% of overweight or obese children and adolescents, irrespective of the degree of adiposity, and were associated with higher fasting glucose, irrespective of underlying insulin resistance. The long-term cardiometabolic consequences of hypercortisolemia in childhood obesity needs further study.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Jejum/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(3): 446-451, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Performing indoor and outdoor work in cold environments may result in various adverse effects on human health and may lead to increased risk of respiratory infection. The aim of this study was to determine the relation of vitamin D status to secretory immunoglobulin A concentration, leucocyte counts, cytokine concentrations and incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) episodes in young active men during an autumn-winter period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effect of work in a cold microclimate was studied among 23 young active male ice hockey players during a 19-week study period. Blood and saliva samples were collected 7 times during the study period. Incidence of URTI was evaluated using WURSS 21. White blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts, concentrations of 25(OH)D, C-reactive protein, cortisol, IL-1ra, IL-10, IL-1ß and immunoglobulins A, M and G, were determined in the blood. Secretory immunoglobulin A, A1 and A2 and cortisol were analysed in saliva. Spearman's correlations were used to evaluate relationships between initial or final 25(OH)D concentration and URTI incidence, as well as the immune and endocrine markers. Differences in URTI episodes, immune and endocrine parameters between sufficient ( ≥20 ng·ml -1) and deficient (<20 ng ·ml -1) vitamin D status groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant correlations between mucosal and blood markers or URTI incidence and initial and final 25(OH)D concentrations. Immune, endocrine and URTI variables did not differ between deficient and sufficient vitamin D status groups. CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D concentration has no impact on mucosal and systemic immunity, nor on URTI episodes.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/sangue , Incidência , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Saliva/química , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578807

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the changes in endurance performance and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory markers induced by endurance stress (marathon race) in a combined strategy of training and dietary protein supplementation. The study was designed as a randomised controlled trial consisting of regular endurance training without and with a daily intake of a soy protein-based supplement over a three-month period in 2 × 15 (10 males and 5 females per group) endurance-trained adults. Body composition (body mass, BMI, and fat mass) was determined, and physical fitness was measured by treadmill ergometry at baseline and after 3 months of intervention; changes in exercise-induced stress and inflammatory markers (CK, myoglobin, interleukin-6, cortisol, and leukocytes) were also determined before and after a marathon competition; eating behaviour was documented before and after intervention by a three-day diet diary. Although no significant influence on endurance performance was observed, the protein supplementation regime reduced the exercise-induced muscle stress response. Furthermore, a protein intake of ≥20% of total energy intake led to a lower-level stress reaction after the marathon race. In conclusion, supplementary protein intake may influence exercise-induced muscle stress reactions by changing cellular metabolism and inflammatory pathways.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Corrida de Maratona , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Atletas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioglobina/sangue , Resistência Física , Aptidão Física
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16813, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413386

RESUMO

Mlph plays a crucial role in regulating skin pigmentation through the melanosome transport process. Although Mlph is a major component involved in melanosome transport, the mechanism that regulates the expression of the Mlph gene has not been identified. In this study, we demonstrate that Mlph expression is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Alteration of GR activity using a specific GR agonist or antagonist only regulated the expression of Mlph among the 3 key melanosome transport proteins. Translocation of GR from the cytosol into the nucleus following Dex treatment was confirmed by separating the cytosol and nuclear fractions and by immunofluorescence staining. In ChIP assays, Dex induced GR binding to the Mlph promoter and we determined that Dex induced the GR binding motif on the Mlph promoter. Our findings contribute to understanding the regulation of Mlph expression and to the novel role of GR in Mlph gene expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Melanossomas/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/agonistas , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26757, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397819

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of cognitive, social and biological factors in the etiology of chronic periodontitis has been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol level and interleukin-1 B level in patients of Chronic periodontitis in smokers and stress and nonsmokers without stress.The design of study randomized, prospective, double-blinded, and prospective study.The total sample size was comprised of 600 subjects between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The sample size was divided into 300 males and 300 females. Out of 600 subjects, 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis with positive depression level with a history of smoking (Group I), 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis without depression and without smoking (Group II), and 200 subjects who were taken as the control group comprised of healthy subjects without chronic periodontitis, without depression level, and no smoking history (Group III). Salivary cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The result showed that there was a positive correlation between morning and evening salivary cortisol level in all the groups with correlation coefficient. There was significant higher value of salivary cortisol in Group I patients when compared with Group II and Group III. However, when the comparison of salivary cortisol levels was done between the Group II and Control group, the result showed nonsignificant P value.It is suggested that stress is positively correlated with the salivary cortisol levels in smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17015, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426626

RESUMO

Almost 50% of the world's esophageal cancer (EC) cases occur in China, and the impact of cancer screening has long been a controversial topic. The study was designed to evaluate the biological correlates of EC screening and subsequent diagnosis in China. Based on the national cohort of esophageal cancer program, a prospective multicenter study in high-risk regions was conducted from 2017 to 2019. 61 participants received twice esophageal endoscopy screening and pathological biopsy successively (with a mean follow-up of 14.03 months). Box-Cox-power transformation and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to evaluate hormone cortisol and immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels in plasma, reflecting their stress, immune function, and biological correlates before screening and after knowing the diagnosis. The median of cortisol, IgA, IgG, and IgM in pre-screening was 15.46 ug/dL, 1.86 g/L, 12.14 g/L, and 0.91 g/L, corresponding value at post-diagnosis was 15.30 ug/dL, 2.00 g/L, 12.79 g/L, and 0.94 g/L, respectively. No significant differences in biological indicators were found between normal and esophagitis and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia before screening and after diagnosis. After normality transformation, cortisol, IgA, IgG and IgM levels were (0.25 ± 0.04) U/mL, (0.72 ± 0.13) (g/L), (2.44 ± 0.22) (g/L) and (0.98 ± 0.25) (g/L) before screening, (0.25 ± 0.05) U/mL, (0.70 ± 0.13) (g/L), (2.48 ± 0.21) (g/L) and (1.00 ± 0.25) (g/L) after diagnosis, respectively. Repeated Measures ANOVA showed that the main effects were significant on IgA levels between pre-screening and post-diagnosis (P = 0.019). No interaction effects on biological levels between pre-post screening and esophageal pathology, anxiety states (all P > 0.05). Little biological correlates were found both before screening and after diagnosis. Cortisol and IgA dropped less significantly, while IgM and IgA were increased slightly after diagnosis. Further multi-round longitudinal studies are needed to validate these results.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esôfago/patologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/sangue
14.
Life Sci ; 284: 119904, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453945

RESUMO

AIM: Alcohol abuse is a significant causative factor of death worldwide. The Notch1 signaling pathway is involved in alcohol tolerance, withdrawal and dependence. Agomelatine is a known antidepressant acting as a melatonin receptor (MT1/2) agonist and a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-2C antagonist. However, its effects on alcohol cravings and alcohol withdrawal symptoms have not been investigated. In this study, we assessed the possibility of using agomelatine for the treatment of these symptoms in a rat model of alcoholism and the possible role of Notch1 signaling. MAIN METHODS: We induced alcoholism in rats using a free-choice drinking model for 60 days. From day 61, free-choice was continued until day 82 for the craving model, whereas only water was offered in the withdrawal model. Meanwhile, the treated groups for both models received agomelatine (50 mg/kg/day) orally from day 61 to 82, followed by behavioral, histopathological and biochemical assessment. KEY FINDINGS: Agomelatine treatment caused significant decrease in alcohol consumption with a positive effect on anxiety-like behavior in the open field, memory in the Morris water maze and immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, agomelatine induced the expression of Notch1 pathway markers, including Notch1, NICD, CREB, CCNE-2, Hes-1, both total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, MMP9, Per2and RGS-2 in the hippocampal formation. By contrast, NMDAR expression was reduced. Furthermore, agomelatine normalized the serum levels of BDNF, cortisol, dopamine and glutamate which were disrupted by alcohol consumption. SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these findings, agomelatine reversed alcohol cravings and withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence by modulating the Notch1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fissura , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurotransmissores/sangue , Teste de Campo Aberto , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444685

RESUMO

Time-Restricted Eating is an eating pattern based on the circadian rhythm which limits daily food intake (usually to ≤12 h/day), unique in that no overt restriction is imposed on the quality, nor quantity, of food intake. This paper aimed to examine the effects of two patterns of TRE, traditional TRE, and Ramadan fasting, on two markers of circadian rhythm, cortisol and melatonin. PubMed and Web of Science were searched up to December 2020 for studies examining the effects of time restricted eating on cortisol and melatonin. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. All Ramadan papers found statistically significant decrease in melatonin (p < 0.05) during Ramadan. Two out of the three Ramadan papers noted an abolishing of the circadian rhythm of cortisol (p < 0.05). The non-Ramadan TRE papers did not examine melatonin, and cortisol changes were mixed. In studies comparing TRE to control diets, Stratton et al. found increased cortisol levels in the non-TRE fasting group (p = 0.0018) and McAllister et al. noted no difference. Dinner-skipping resulted in significantly reduced evening cortisol and non-significantly raised morning cortisol. Conversely, breakfast skipping resulted in significantly reduced morning cortisol. This blunting indicates a dysfunctional HPA axis, and may be associated with poor cardio-metabolic outcomes. There is a paucity of research examining the effects of TRE on cortisol and melatonin. The contrasting effect of dinner and breakfast-skipping should be further examined to ascertain whether timing the feeding window indeed has an impact on circadian rhythmicity.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Jejum/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Melatonina/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Adulto , Desjejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(5): 1349-1357, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365636

RESUMO

Participants of clinical trials who receive a placebo treatment often report a variety of adverse events, sometimes called nocebo effects. The reason why these adverse events occur is not clear, and understanding the underlying mechanisms represents a challenge that is likely to improve the interpretation of clinical trials as well as medical practice. Here, we studied 192 healthy subjects who received placebo oxygen through a mask after reading (READ) or not reading (NO-READ) a list of possible adverse events of oxygen breathing: headache, chest pain, abdominal pain, and cough. The whole hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was assessed just before and right after placebo breathing by measuring the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and adrenal cortisol (COR). In addition, both state and trait anxiety were assessed. We found that 64.5% of the NO-READ group reported no adverse events, 30.2% had one, and only 5.2% had two adverse events. In contrast, only 20.8% of the READ group reported no adverse events, whereas 1, 2, 3, and 4 adverse events were reported with a frequency of 21.8%, 19.8%, 19.8%, and 17.7%, respectively. In addition, when the READ group reported three and four adverse events, CRH, ACTH, and COR were significantly increased compared to the NO-READ group, along with an increase in state anxiety scores. These data indicate that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity and state anxiety are increased in those subjects who report many adverse events after reading a list of adverse events, thus highlighting a possible neuroendocrine mechanism after placebo administration.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Efeito Placebo , Administração por Inalação , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/sangue , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200643

RESUMO

In this study, we developed the portable chemiluminescence (CL)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) platform for the detection of cortisol in human serum. Cortisol is well-known as a stress hormone due to its high relevancy for human mental and physical health, such as hypertension or depression. To date, a number of optical devices have provided the sensitive determination of levels of analytes. However, this modality type still requires costly optical modules. The developed CL platform is simply composed of two detection modules along with a loading part for the LFA strip. The LFA membrane contains gold nanoparticle probes conjugated with antibodies against cortisol and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which can also efficiently increase the luminescent signal by providing many areas for anti-cortisol antibody and HRP. The measured voltage signals coming from the photodiode in a CL reader were compared with a standard microplate reader for the evaluation of accuracy. The linear range observed for cortisol was measured to be 0.78-12.5 µg/dL (R2 = 0.99) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.342 µg/dL. In addition, the CL-LFA reader showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.96) with the standard cortisol console (COBAS 8000, Roche), suggesting that our developed CL-based LFA platform can be usable in situ.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Anticorpos , Ouro , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Aplicativos Móveis , Testes Imediatos
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0249323, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329295

RESUMO

In mammals, including sheep and mice, lactation attenuates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and plasma cortisol concentration. Oxytocin, one neuropeptide present in the blood during lactation, may contribute to such stress attenuation. Providing oxytocin intra-nasally increases plasma oxytocin concentration in cattle and can be used in non-lactating cows to mirror plasma oxytocin concentration of lactating cows. Therefore, our hypothesis was that there would be no difference in plasma cortisol between non-lactating beef cows intra-nasally administered oxytocin and lactating beef cows intra-nasally treated with saline. Twenty Bos taurus cows were randomly allocated by lactational status to one of four treatments, in a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 1) Non-lactating, saline (NL-S; n = 5); 2) Non-lactating, oxytocin (NL-OXT; n = 5); 3) Lactating, saline (L-S; n = 5); and 4) Lactating, oxytocin (L-OXT; n = 5). Two hours pre-treatment, cows were catheterized, moved to their appropriate chute and baseline blood samples were collected at -60, -45, -30, and 0 minutes before treatments were administered. Directly following the 0-minute sample, cows were administered their intra-nasal treatment via a mucosal atomization device. Subsequently, blood was collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 minutes. Non-lactating cows had greater (P = 0.02) plasma cortisol concentration compared with lactating cows. There was no lactation by treatment interactions for either plasma cortisol (P = 0.55) or oxytocin (P = 0.89) concentration. Although a treatment by time interaction was identified for oxytocin (P < 0.0001), there was no main effect of lactation on plasma oxytocin concentration (P = 0.34). Similar oxytocin and dissimilar cortisol concentration in lactating and non-lactating cows indicate that oxytocin alone cannot be responsible for reduced plasma cortisol in lactating ruminants. Further investigations are needed to elucidate alternative mechanisms that may be involved in the stress hypo-responsive condition of lactating mammals.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , Lactação , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Ocitocina/sangue
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13620, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193934

RESUMO

In European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), as in many other fish species, temperature is known to influence the sex of individuals, with more males produced at relatively high temperatures. It is however unclear to what extent growth or stress are involved in such a process, since temperature is known to influence both growth rate and cortisol production. Here, we designed an experiment aiming at reducing stress and affecting early growth rate. We exposed larvae and juveniles originating from both captive and wild parents to three different treatments: low stocking density, food supplemented with tryptophan and a control. Low stocking density and tryptophan treatment respectively increased and decreased early growth rate. Each treatment influenced the stress response depending on the developmental stage, although no clear pattern regarding the whole-body cortisol concentration was found. During sex differentiation, fish in the low-density treatment exhibited lower expression of gr1, gr2, mr, and crf in the hypothalamus when compared to the control group. Fish fed tryptophan displayed lower crf in the hypothalamus and higher level of serotonin in the telencephalon compared to controls. Overall, fish kept at low density produced significantly more females than both control and fish fed tryptophan. Parents that have been selected for growth for three generations also produced significantly more females than parents of wild origin. Our findings did not allow to detect a clear effect of stress at the group level and rather point out a key role of early sexually dimorphic growth rate in sex determination.


Assuntos
Bass/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9983988, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258289

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the effects of sevoflurane inhalation and intravenous anesthesia on hemodynamics, serum myocardial enzymes, and myocardial markers in elderly patients undergoing hysterectomy. Methods: Group A and group B were established randomly regarding a total of 126 elderly patients who underwent an elective hysterectomy. Patients in group A were given full anesthesia with sevoflurane, and patients in group B were given anesthesia with intravenous anesthesia. The operation time, anesthesia time, and recovery time in Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU) were compared; plasma cortisol concentration, hemodynamics, serum myocardial enzymes, and myocardial markers were detected and compared between the two groups of patients before anesthesia (T 0), after anesthesia (T 1), and after surgery (T 2). Results: Group A observed a longer extubation time and recovery time in PACU than group B (P < 0.05). Results show a lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and plasma cortisol concentration of T 1 by comparison with those of T 0 (P < 0.05), but no significant difference remains in terms of intergroup SBP, DBP, and HR (P > 0.05), and there was no interaction effect of groups and time (P > 0.05). The two groups showed no great disparity in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB as a subtype of CK before surgery between the two groups of patients (P > 0.05). After surgery, LDH, AST, CK, and CK-MB levels in both groups were witnessed a surge, in which group A obtained higher levels of LDH, AST, CK, and CK-MB (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: Total intravenous anesthesia will not increase the hemodynamic fluctuation of elderly patients undergoing hysterectomy and can reduce the damage to the myocardium of patients with surgical trauma, which can protect the myocardium of elderly patients to a certain extent, so it can be adopted as the optimal anesthesia protocol for surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Inalação , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Enzimas/sangue , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histerectomia/métodos , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Enfermagem em Pós-Anestésico
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