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1.
Breast Dis ; 41(1): 1-3, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219707

RESUMO

During the first hit of SARS-COVID pandemic, an important reorganization of Healthcare Services has been done, and new protocols and pathways to protect frail patients like oncological patients were designed. The second hit of pandemic had stressed these new pathways and suggests to health-workers some improvements for safer management of patents.We reported our experience in organizing the clinical pathway of neoadjuvant therapy candidate patients based on the execution of sentinel lympho-node biopsy and the placement of implantable venous access port in the same access to operating room before neoadjuvant chemotherapy suggesting a possible organizational model. In the period October-December 2020 we have included in this new type of path twelve patients and we have not registered any cases of COVID among the patients included. We think this new path, adopted amid the second hit, will be useful for all Breast Units that are facing the challenge of guaranteeing the highest standards of care in a historical moment where the health emergency occupies the efforts of health workers and the economic resources of health systems.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Segurança do Paciente , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateterismo Venoso Central/normas , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Procedimentos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/normas
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 417-424, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiamethoxam is widely used to control pests in Chinese kale, popularly consumed leafy vegetables. The potential risk to the environment and human health has aroused much public concern. Therefore, it is important to investigate the degradation behavior, residue distribution and dietary risk assessment of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale. RESULTS: A sensitive analytical method for determination of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin residue in Chinese kale was established and validated through a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries were 85.4-101.2% for thiamethoxam and 79.5-108.1% for clothianidin, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.9-10.2% and 1.8-6.0%, respectively. For the dissipation kinetics, the data showed that thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was degraded with the half-lives of 4.1 to 4.5 days. In the terminal residue experiments, the residues of thiamethoxam were 0.017-0.357 mg kg-1 after application 2-3 times with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 7 days under the designed dosages. The chronic and acute dietary exposure assessment risk quotient (RQ) values of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale for different Chinese consumers were 0.08-0.19% and 0.05-0.12%, respectively, and those of clothianidin were 0.01-0.04% and 0.02-0.04%, respectively, all of the RQ values were lower than 100%. CONCLUSION: Thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was rapidly degraded following first-order kinetics models. The dietary risk of thiamethoxam and clothianidin through Chinese kale was negligible to consumers. The results from this study are important reference for Chinese governments to developing criteria for the safe and rational use of thiamethoxam, setting maximum residue levels (MRLs), monitoring the quality safety of agricultural products and protecting consumer health. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiametoxam/química , Tiametoxam/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brassica/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151805, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Users of anatomical donors are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. This study evaluated screening algorithms for hepatitis B and C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Treponema pallidum during donor allocation and assessed the impact of postmortem time on hemolysis and how hemolysis affects test results and donor discard rate. METHODS: From 2011 to 2018, demographic data of anatomical donors, time of postmortem blood sampling, presence of sample hemolysis, serological test results (negative; active infection; false reactive screening test; historic infection; inconclusive; technically impracticable) and the actual donor allocation were collected. RESULTS: Donors (n = 537) had a mean age of 77.53 ± 13.67 (24-103) year. Nine (1.68%) had laboratory test results indicative for active infection for hepatitis B (n = 1) and C virus (n = 2), human immunodeficiency virus (n = 5) and T. pallidum (n = 1). Negative screenings ranged from 74.67 to 97.58%, depending on the pathogen. According to the original screening algorithms, 479 (89.20%) donors should have been accepted. In practice, a donor acceptance rate of 91.20% was found. Analysis of potential donor allocation interpretation obstacles resulted in simplification of the in-house laboratory testing algorithms and addition of a nucleic acid test to increase the reliability for identification of active (acute) human immunodeficiency virus infection. Hemolysis was more common when sampling was performed more than 24 h after death (p < 0.001). Hemolytic samples more frequently showed a reactive or indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus test result (p < 0.001). Screening for human immunodeficiency virus and T. pallidum was technically more impracticable when hemolysis was present (p = 0.042 and p = 0.003, respectively). Donors with hemolytic blood samples were more often discarded (46.88%) compared to bodies with non-hemolytic samples (6.32%) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the implementation of donor screening algorithms, a significant number of bodies have an inconsistent allocation. New algorithms, to be evaluated in future research, were suggested. Early postmortem blood sampling is key as hemolysis can influence certain test results and donor allocation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Sífilis , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/diagnóstico
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 335-341, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524695

RESUMO

Fully automated immunoassays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies that are strongly correlated with neutralization antibodies (nAbs) are clinically important because they enable the assessment of humoral immunity after infection and vaccination. Access SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) II antibody tests are semi-quantitative, fully automated immunoassays that detect anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies and might reflect nAb levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies have investigated the clinical utility of these tests in association with nAbs to date. To evaluate the clinical utility of Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests and their correlation with the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) that measures nAbs in patients with COVID-19, we analyzed 54 convalescent serum samples from COVID-19 patients and 89 serum samples from non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of anti-RBD antibodies was detected using Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests, while nAbs were measured by sVNT. The sensitivity and specificity of sVNT were 94.4% and 98.9%, respectively. There were strong positive correlations between the inhibition values of sVNT and the results of the Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM (R = 0.95, R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001) and IgG II antibody tests (R = 0.96, R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). In terms of the presence of nAbs, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.1% and 98.9% in the IgM assay and 100.0% and 100.0% in the IgG II assay, respectively. The Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of nAbs in COVID-19 patients and might be alternatives for measuring nAbs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 173-177, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427924

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine the antibody responses after the two doses of inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccinations in people who were above 65 years old and to evaluate the factors affecting this response. A total of 235 participants aged 65 years and older were included. Blood samples were taken and data about age, gender, comorbid diseases, and presence of side effects after vaccination were noted. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) test kit (catalogue number: EI-2606-9601-10-G, Euroimmun) was used. The mean age was 70.38 ± 4.76. Approximately 120 of 235 participants had at least one comorbid disease. The mean levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody after 4 weeks from the first and second doses of vaccine were 37.70 ± 57.08 IU/ml, and 194.61 ± 174.88 IU/ml, respectively. Additionally, 134 of 235 participants (57.02%) had under 25.6 IU/ml antibody level (negative) after 4 weeks from the first vaccine dose while this rate was 11.48% (n = 27) after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose. The 19 (70.4%) participants who had under had 25.6 IU/ml antibody level after 4 weeks from the first dose of vaccine had at least one comorbid disease including diabetes mellitus, and 8 (29.6%) participants had no comorbid disease (F = 2.352, p = 0.006). Lower rates of antibody response were detected in participants aged 65 years and older and those with comorbidities both in our study and similar studies in the current literature. Further studies should evaluate whether the low antibody titers are really associated with age and comorbidities or not. Finally, prospective studies are needed to determine how long the immunity provided by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will continue.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 178-185, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428312

RESUMO

Many aspects of the humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as its role in protection after natural infection, are still unclear. We evaluated IgA and IgG response to spike subunits 1 and 2 (S1 and S2) and Nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-COV-2 in serum samples of 109 volunteers with viral RNA detected or seroconversion with different clinical evolution (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019), using the ViraChip® Test Kit. We observed that the quantification of antibodies to all antigens had a positive correlation to disease severity, which was strongly associated with the presence of comorbidities. Seroreversion was not uncommon even during the short (median of 77 days) observation, occurring in 15% of mild-asymptomatic cases at a median of 55 days for IgG and 46 days for IgA. The time to reach the maximal antibody response did not differ significantly among recovered and deceased volunteers. Our study illustrated the dynamic of anti-S1, anti-N, and anti-S2 IgA and IgG antibodies, and suggests that high production of IgG and IgA does not guarantee protection to disease severity and that functional responses that have been studied by other groups, such as antibody avidity, need further attention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Soroconversão , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 222-228, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449894

RESUMO

The current study aimed at characterizing the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigenemia in a cohort of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients and assessing its potential association with plasma levels of biomarkers of clinical severity and mortality. Seventy-three consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years) were recruited. Serial plasma (n = 340) specimens were collected. A lateral flow immunochromatography assay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used for SARS-CoV-2 N protein detection and RNA quantitation and in plasma, respectively. Serum levels of inflammatory and tissue-damage biomarkers in paired specimens were measured. SARS-CoV-RNA N-antigenemia and viral RNAemia were documented in 40.1% and 35.6% of patients, respectively at a median of 9 days since symptoms onset. The level of agreement between the qualitative results returned by the N-antigenemia assay and plasma RT-PCR was moderate (k = 0.57; p < 0.0001). A trend towards higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads was seen in plasma specimens testing positive for N-antigenemia assay than in those yielding negative results (p = 0.083). SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in tracheal aspirates was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the presence of concomitant N-antigenemia than in its absence. Significantly higher serum levels of ferritin, lactose dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer were quantified in paired plasma SARS-CoV-2 N-positive specimens than in those testing negative. Occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia was not associated with increased mortality in univariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-3.34; p = 0.59). In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia detection is relatively common in ICU patients and appears to associate with increased serum levels of inflammation and tissue-damage markers. Whether this virological parameter may behave as a biomarker of poor clinical outcome awaits further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/sangue , Estado Terminal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/sangue , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Traqueia/virologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150222, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520928

RESUMO

Using one-night sleep recordings from 852 subjects all living in Uppsala, Sweden, the present study represents one of the largest polysomnography investigations into the association of the 29.53-day long lunar cycle with sleep among men and women and across a wide age range (22-81 years). Following the day after the new moon until the day of the full moon (also named the waxing period), the moon's illumination increases, and the timing of the meridian of the moon is gradually shifted from noontime toward midnight. In contrast, from the day after the full moon until the day of the new moon (also named the waning period), the moon's illumination decreases, and the timing of the meridian of the moon is gradually shifted from early night hours toward noontime. Thus, we focused on the contrast between the waxing and waning periods. Sleep duration was shorter on nights during the waxing period as compared to waning period (P < 0.001). In addition, a significant interaction effect of participants' sex with the lunar period on sleep was noted (P < 0.05). Men, but not women, exhibited lower sleep efficiency (P < 0.001 and P = 0.748, respectively) and were longer awake after sleep onset (P = 0.010 and P = 0.890, respectively) on nights during the waxing period. All associations were robust to adjustment for confounders (including regular sleep disturbances). Our findings suggest that the effects of the lunar cycle on human sleep are more pronounced among men. Based on the cross-sectional design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the causality of the relations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Lua , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 130-147, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092150

RESUMO

The development of verbal fluency is associated with the maturation of executive function skills, such as the ability to inhibit irrelevant information, shift between tasks, and hold information in working memory. Some evidence suggests that multilinguistic upbringing may underpin disadvantages in verbal fluency and lexical retrieval, but can also afford executive function advantages beyond the language system including possible beneficial effects in older age. This study examined the relationship between verbal fluency and executive function in 324 individuals across the lifespan by assessing the developmental trajectories of English monolingual and multilingual children aged 7-15 years (N = 154) and adults from 18 to 80 years old (N = 170). The childhood data indicated patterns of improvement in verbal fluency and executive function skills as a function of age. Multilingual and monolingual children had comparable developmental trajectories in all linguistic and non-linguistic measures used in the study with the exception of planning, for which monolingual children showed a steeper improvement over the studied age range relative to multilingual children. For adults, monolinguals and multilingual participants had comparable performance on all measures with the exception of nonverbal inhibitory control and response times on the Tower of London task: monolinguals showed a steeper decline associated with age. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that verbal fluency was associated with working memory and fluid intelligence in monolingual participants but not in multilinguals. These findings raise the possibility that early acquisition of an additional language may impact on the development of the functional architecture serving high-level human cognition.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Multilinguismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 372-379, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559436

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by dysregulated hyperimmune response and steroids have been shown to decrease mortality. However, whether higher dosing of steroids results in better outcomes has been debated. This was a retrospective observation of COVID-19 admissions between March 1, 2020, and March 10, 2021. Adult patients (≥18 years) who received more than 10 mg daily methylprednisolone equivalent dosing (MED) within the first 14 days were included. We excluded patients who were discharged or died within 7 days of admission. We compared the standard dose of steroids (<40 mg MED) versus the high dose of steroids (>40 mg MED). Inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) was used to examine whether higher dose steroids resulted in improved outcomes. The outcomes studied were in-hospital mortality, rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), hospital-associated infections (HAI), and readmissions. Of the 1379 patients meeting study criteria, 506 received less than 40 mg of MED (median dose 30 mg MED) and 873 received more than or equal to 40 mg of MED (median dose 78 mg MED). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was higher in patients who received high-dose corticosteroids (40.7% vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001). On IPWRA, the use of high-dose corticosteroids was associated with higher odds of death (odds ratio [OR] 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-3.14, p < 0.001) but not with the development of HAI, readmissions, or requirement of IMV. High-dose corticosteroids were associated with lower rates of AKI requiring hemodialysis (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.63). In COVID-19, corticosteroids more than or equal to 40 mg MED were associated with higher in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 380-383, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403142

RESUMO

The durability of infection-induced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunity has crucial implications for reinfection and vaccine effectiveness. However, the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and long-term anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level is poorly understood. Here, we measured the longevity of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in survivors who had recovered from COVID-19 1 year previously. In a cohort of 473 survivors with varying disease severity (asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe), we observed a positive correlation between virus-specific IgG antibody titers and COVID-19 severity. In particular, the highest virus-specific IgG antibody titers were observed in patients with severe COVID-19. By contrast, 74.4% of recovered asymptomatic carriers had negative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test results, while many others had very low virus-specific IgG antibody titers. Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG persistence and titer depend on COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/patologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 388-392, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415572

RESUMO

In the current COVID-19 pandemic, a better understanding of the relationship between merely binding and functionally neutralizing antibodies is necessary to characterize protective antiviral immunity following infection or vaccination. This study analyzes the level of correlation between the novel quantitative EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) and a microneutralization assay. A panel of 123 plasma samples from a COVID-19 outbreak study population, preselected by semiquantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing, was used to assess the relationship between the novel quantitative ELISA (IgG) and a microneutralization assay. Binding IgG targeting the S1 antigen was detected in 106 (86.2%) samples using the QuantiVac ELISA, while 89 (72.4%) samples showed neutralizing antibody activity. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated a strong positive relationship between anti-S1 IgG levels and neutralizing antibody titers (rs = 0.819, p < 0.0001). High and low anti-S1 IgG levels were associated with a positive predictive value of 72.0% for high-titer neutralizing antibodies and a negative predictive value of 90.8% for low-titer neutralizing antibodies, respectively. These results substantiate the implementation of the QuantiVac ELISA to assess protective immunity following infection or vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491581

RESUMO

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491594

RESUMO

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Formas Bacterianas Atípicas/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/patologia , Infecções por Chlamydophila/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e57581, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224578

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as características sociodemográficas e de saúde de mulheres e homens com 75 anos ou mais de idade, no baseline e follow-up de quatro anos e verificar para mulheres e homens as mudanças nas condições de saúde. Métodos: estudo longitudinal com 109 idosos de 75 anos ou mais de idade de um município no Triângulo Mineiro. A coleta dos dados, realizada em dois momentos (2014-2018), ocorreu no domicílio com a aplicação de instrumentos validados no Brasil. Procederam-se às análises descritiva e teste t pareado (p<0,05). Os projetos foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa com Seres Humanos. Resultados: verificaram-se, em ambos os sexos, aumento do número de morbidades e diminuição do escore total das atividades instrumentais da vida diária. Entre as mulheres observou-se, ainda, aumento do número de quedas e do escore de fragilidade. Conclusão: ao longo do seguimento houve piora nas condições de saúde dos idosos, sendo mais expressiva entre as mulheres.


Objective: to describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics of women and men aged 75 or over, at baseline and after four years of follow-up, and to ascertain changes in their health status. Methods: in this longitudinal study of 109 elderly people aged 75 or over from a city in the Triângulo Mineiro, data were collected at two points (2014 and 2018), at home, by applying instruments validated for use in Brazil. Descriptive analysis and paired t-tests were performed (p < 0.05). The projects were approved by the human research ethics committee. Results: in both genders, the number of morbidities increased and the total score for instrumental activities of daily living decreased. Among women, the number of falls and frailty score also increased. Conclusion: the older people's health status worsened over the course of follow-up, more so among the women.


Objetivo: describir las características sociodemográficas y de salud de mujeres y hombres de 75 años o más, en la base de referencia y el seguimiento durante cuatro años, y verificar los cambios en las condiciones de salud de mujeres y hombres. Métodos: estudio longitudinal con 109 personas mayores, de 75 años o más, de un municipio del Triângulo Mineiro. La recolección de datos, realizada en dos momentos (2014-2018), se realizó en sus domicilios aplicando instrumentos validados en Brasil. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y prueba t pareada (p <0.05). Los proyectos fueron aprobados por el Comité de Ética en Investigación con Humanos. Resultados: en ambos os sexos, hubo un aumento en el número de morbilidades y una disminución en la puntuación total de las actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria. Entre las mujeres, se observó asimismo un aumento en el número de caídas y la puntuación de fragilidad. Conclusión: a lo largo del seguimiento, las condiciones de salud de las personas mayores empeoraron, más expresivamente entre las mujeres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Idoso , Seguimentos , Estudos Longitudinais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
16.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e53642, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224513

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever os cuidados domiciliares prestados por parteiras tradicionais durante a assistência ao parto. Método: estudo qualitativo conduzido por meio do método da História Oral Temática, realizado com 16 parteiras em nove municípios do Cariri cearense. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre julho e dezembro de 2015 por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, os relatos foram transcritos, textualizados e transcriados. Resultados: as parteiras prestavam cuidados familiares, assistência ao parto vaginal, cuidados com o recém-nascido e no puerpério imediato. Usavam chás e orações como adjuvantes do seu ofício. Conclusão: o cuidado das parteiras na assistência ao parto centralizava-se nas necessidades da mulher e da família, sendo, em alguns casos, extensivo à casa. As parteiras conheciam os sinais e sintomas do trabalho de parto e agiam nas possíveis intercorrências.


Objective: to describe home care provided by traditional midwives during childbirth care. Method: this qualitative study, using the Thematic Oral History method, was conducted with 16 midwives from nine municipalities in Cariri, Ceará. Data were collected from July to December 2015 through semi-structured interviews, the reports were transcribed, textualized and transcreated. Results: midwives provided family care, vaginal delivery care, newborn care and immediate postpartum care. They used teas and prayers as an adjuncts to their craft. Conclusion: childbirth care by midwives centered on the women's and families' needs and, in some cases, extended to the home. Midwives knew the signs and symptoms of labor and acted on possible complications.


Objetivo: describir los cuidados domiciliarios brindados por parteras tradicionales durante la atención al parto. Método: estudio cualitativo conducido mediante el método de Historia Oral Temática, realizado con 16 parteras en nueve municipios de Cariri en Ceará. La recolección de datos se realizó entre julio y diciembre de 2015 a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas; los relatos fueron transcritos, textualizados y transcreados. Resultados: las parteras brindaron atención familiar, asistencia en el parto vaginal, cuidados al recién nacido y en el puerperio inmediato. Usaban tés y oraciones como complemento de su oficio. Conclusión: el cuidado de las parteras en la atención al parto se centraba en las necesidades de la mujer y de la familia, extendiéndose, en algunos casos, al hogar. Las parteras conocían los signos y síntomas del trabajo de parto y actuaban sobre las posibles complicaciones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Perinatal , Parto Domiciliar , Assistência Domiciliar , Tocologia , Trabalho de Parto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Período Pós-Parto
17.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56924, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224444

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a incidência de complicações em feridas operatórias de mastectomia e identificar fatores associados. Método: estudo retrospectivo desenvolvido em uma coorte hospitalar de 545 mulheres mastectomizadas por câncer de mama no ano 2018 em um centro de assistência de alta complexidade em oncologia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, após aprovação por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Os dados foram coletados a partir dos prontuários, permitindo cálculos da taxa de incidência e da razão da taxa de incidência para cada complicação. Resultados: a complicação que apresentou maior taxa de incidência foi o sangramento (57,14/100 mastectomias-dia), tendo como fatores associados a raça/cor da pele não branca (Razão da Taxa de Incidência: 3,11) e a diabetes mellitus (Razão da Taxa de Incidência: 0,48). Conclusão: os fatores associados ao sangramento da ferida operatória apontam para a necessidade de novas práticas no cuidado ao pós-operatório de mulheres mastectomizadas.


Objective: to describe the incidence of complications in mastectomy surgical wounds and to identify associated factors. Method: this retrospective study was conducted in a hospital cohort of 545 women mastectomized for breast cancer in 2018 at a high-complexity cancer care center Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, after approval by the research ethics committee. Data were collected from medical records, allowing incidence rate and incidence rate ratio to be calculated for each complication. Results: the complication with the highest incidence rate was bleeding (57.14/100 mastectomies-day), associated factors being non-white race/skin color (incidence rate ratio 3.11) and diabetes mellitus (incidence rate ratio 0.48). Conclusion: the factors associated with bleeding from the surgical wound point to the need for new practices in post-operative care for women with mastectomies.


Objetivo: describir la incidencia de complicaciones en heridas quirúrgicas de mastectomía e identificar factores asociados. Método: estudio retrospectivo desarrollado en una cohorte hospitalaria de 545 mujeres mastectomizadas por cáncer de mama en 2018 en un centro de atención de alta complejidad en oncología de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, previa aprobación del Comité de Ética en Investigación. Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas, lo que permitió calcular la tasa de incidencia y el cociente de la tasa de incidencia para cada complicación. Resultados: la complicación que presentó mayor tasa de incidencia fue el sangrado (57,14 / 100 mastectomías-día), con factores asociados a la raza / color de piel no blanca (índice de tasa de incidencia: 3,11) y diabetes mellitus (índice de tasa de incidencia: 0,48). Conclusión: los factores asociados al sangrado de la herida quirúrgica apuntan a la necesidad de nuevas prácticas en el cuidado al postoperatorio de las mujeres con mastectomía.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia
18.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(2): 118-131, jul.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1340817

RESUMO

RESUMO Este artigo se dedica a apresentar um relato de experiência profissional com um grupo de mulheres idosas, participantes de um projeto de extensão universitária, em uma universidade pública de uma cidade no interior do estado de São Paulo. O referencial teórico que amparou tal atividade foi o grupo operativo de Pichon-Rivière, que nos serviu como ferramenta para reflexões acerca das dificuldades e possibilidades de envelhecer, por meio das trocas de experiências no nível grupal. Como principais resultados identificamos que o envelhecimento feminino é composto por muitas nuances que perpassam algumas dificuldades exclusivas ao gênero, tais como a desigualdade salarial, a obrigação e desvalorização do trabalho doméstico, o ambiente ainda clandestino da sexualidade e os padrões de beleza.


ABSTRACT This article aims to talk about an interventional experience with a group of elderly women, who are participants of a university extension project in a public university in a city countryside of São Paulo State. The theoretical framework that supported such activity was the Pichon-Rivière, which served as a tool for reflection on the difficulties and possibilities of aging through the exchange of experiences at the group level. As main results, we identified that female aging is composed of nuances that go through some difficulties exclusive to gender, such as wage inequality, the obligation and devaluation of domestic work, the environment of sexuality still perceived as clandestine and standards of beauty.


RESUMEN Este artículo está dedicado a presentar un relato de la experiencia profesional con un grupo de mujeres ancianas, participantes de un proyecto de extensión universitaria, en una universidad pública de una ciudad del interior del estado de São Paulo. El marco teórico que apoyó esta actividad fue el grupo operativo de Pichon-Rivière, que sirvió como herramienta de reflexión sobre las dificultades y posibilidades del envejecimiento, a través del intercambio de experiencias a nivel grupal. Como principales resultados identificamos que el envejecimiento femenino se compone de muchos matices que atraviesan algunas dificultades exclusivas de género, como la desigualdad salarial, la obligación y desvalorización del trabajo doméstico, el ambiente aún clandestino de la sexualidad y los estándares de belleza.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Autoajuda , Envelhecimento , Saúde do Idoso
19.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1956-1959, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727801

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in eye healthcare workers (EHCW) in the largest ophthalmology centre in Guatemala and factors associated with antibody positivity. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional sero-survey in all the staff at the largest ophthalmology centre in Guatemala. Serum samples were collected and tested for total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 employing Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoassay. Results were reported as reactive or non-reactive. According to patient exposure the staff were divided into low risk (technicians, domestic and administrative staff) and high risk (nurses, ophthalmologists, anaesthesiologists, and optometrists). Among those with positive antibodies, they were given a survey that included demographic characteristics, COVID-19 exposure, and related symptomatology. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with antibody positivity. RESULTS: On November 25th a total of 94 healthcare workers were sero-surveyed, mean age was 34.15 years (±8.41), most (57.44%) were females. Seroprevalence was 18%, the majority (77%) were in the low-risk group; while 64% at high-risk, tested negative. Those at low exposure, were five times more likely to have antibodies than those at high exposure (OR:5.69; 95% CI 1.69-19.13). Age and gender were not associated to seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: We found a similar seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in EHCW to what has been reported in other healthcare groups. Seropositivity was higher among HCW with fewer patient exposure, hence the probability of community transmission.Key messagesEven though eye healthcare workers are believed to be at higher risk of infection, the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in this group is comparable to what has been reported previously in other healthcare groups.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oftalmologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmologistas/psicologia , Oftalmologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos
20.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 426, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are increasingly recognized and include encephalopathy, although direct infection of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial. We herein report the clinical course and cytokine profiles of a patient with severe SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy presenting aphasia. CASE PRESENTATION: An 81-year-old man developed acute consciousness disturbance and status epileptics several days after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Following treatment with remdesivir and dexamethasone, his consciousness and epileptic seizures improved; however, amnestic aphasia and agraphia remained. Two months after methylprednisolone pulse and intravenous immunoglobulin, his neurological deficits improved. We found increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but not IL-2 and IL-10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the levels of serum IL-6 and MCP-1 were much higher than those in the CSF. The level of IL-8 in the CSF after immunotherapy was four times higher than that before immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: The cytokine profile of our patient was similar to that seen in severe SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy. We demonstrated (i) that the characteristic aphasia can occur as a focal neurological deficit associated with SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy, and (ii) that IL8-mediated central nervous system inflammation follows systemic inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy and can persist and worsen even after immunotherapy. Monitoring IL-8 in CSF, and long-term corticosteroids may be required for treating SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Afasia , Encefalopatias , COVID-19 , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Interleucina-8 , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
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