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1.
Gene ; 806: 145935, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478821

RESUMO

Soluble molecules of programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) are known to modulate T-cell depletion, an important mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and liver disease progression. In addition, PD-L1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR can influence PD-L1 expression and have been associated with cancer risk, although not definitively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms and circulating levels of sPD-L1 in HBV infection and live disease progression. In this study, five hundred fifty-one HBV infected patients of the three clinically well-defined subgroups chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 186), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 142) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 223) and 240 healthy individuals (HC) were enrolled. PD-L1 polymorphisms (rs2297136 and rs4143815) were genotyped by in-house validated ARMS assays. Logistic regression models were applied in order to determine the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as with progression of related liver diseases. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were quantified by ELISA assays. The PD-L1 rs2297136 AA genotype was associated with HBV infection susceptibility (HBV vs. HC: OR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0087) and disease progression (LC vs. CHB: OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.9; p = 0.018). Whereas, the rs2297136 GG genotype was a protective factor for HCC development. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were significantly high in HBV patients (p < 0.0001) and higher in the LC followed by CHB and HCC groups. High sPD-L1 levels correlated with increased liver enzymes and with advanced liver disease progression (Child-pugh C > B > A, p < 0.0001) and BCLC classification (BCLC D > C > B > A, p = 0.031). We could, for the first time, conclude that PD-L1 rs2297136 polymorphism and plasma sPD-L1 protein levels associate with HBV infection and HBV-related liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
2.
Gene ; 806: 145922, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454032

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC)-derived cell lines were generally used in basic cancer research and drug screening. However, it is always concerned about the difference between cultured cells and primary tumor by oncologists. To address this question, we compared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in primary cancers, healthy tissues, and cell lines both in vitro and in silico. Seven reported genes with decreased expression in GCs by DNA methylation were analyzed in our cohort studies and experimentally validation. Selected datasets from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), CCLE (The Broad Institute Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia), and GTEx (The Genotype-Tissue Expression project) were used to represent GCs, GC-derived cell lines, and healthy tissues respectively in the in silico analysis. Thirty gastric tissues together with six cell lines were used for validations. Unexpectedly, we experimentally found that reported cancer-related downregulated genes were only found in cancer cell lines but not in biopsies. The unchanged gene expressions in primary GCs were generally consistent with our cohort study, using information from cancerous (TCGA) and healthy tissues (GETx). Substantial differences were also found between DEGs of cancer tissues (TGCA)/ healthy tissues (GTEx) pair and cell lines (CCLE)/ healthy tissues (GTEx) pair, which confirmed the significant differences between primary cancer and cancer cell lines. Moreover, elevated expression of YWHAQ (14-3-3 δ) and THBS1 were observed in the GC biopsies, which might be potential biomarkers for GC diagnosis, considering the increased YWHAQ and THBS1 associated with poor survival rates in gastric cancer patients. In sum, it is suggested that cautions should be taken when using GC cell lines to study genes that show great differences between cell lines and tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Trombospondinas/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Idoso , Atlas como Assunto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilação de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 51-54, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677152

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggers important changes in routine blood tests. In this retrospective case-control study, biochemical, hematological and inflammatory biomarkers between March 10, 2020, and November 30, 2020 from 3969 COVID-19 patients (3746 in the non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) group and 223 in the ICU group) were analyzed by dividing into three groups as spring, summer and autumn. In the non-ICU group, lymphocyte to monocyte ratio was lower in autumn than the other two seasons and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in autumn than the other two seasons. Also, monocyte and platelet were higher in spring than autumn; and eosinophil, hematocrit, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, and red blood cells decreased from spring to autumn. In the non-ICU group, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase gradually increased from spring to autumn, while albumin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, total bilirubin and total protein gradually decreased. Additionally, C-reactive protein was higher in autumn than the other seasons, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher in autumn than summer. The changes in routine blood biomarkers in COVID-19 varied from the emergence of the disease until now. Also, the timely changes of blood biomarkers were mostly more negative, indicating that the disease progresses severely. The study was approved by the Erzincan Binali Yildirim University Non-interventional Clinical Trials Ethic Committee (approval No. 86041) on June 21, 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 67-68, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677155

RESUMO

A 76-year-old female received a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (CoronaVac, Sinovac®, Beijing, China) and subsequently experienced chest discomfort. A computed tomography performed 1 day after vaccination showed multiple infiltrations in both lungs and ground-glass shadows in both lung fields. Her fingertip oxygen saturation was 81% and there was widespread wheezing on physical examination. Based on these findings, the patient was hospitalized with a preliminary diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonitis and acute asthma exacerbation due to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. During her hospitalization, 40 mg/d systemic steroid, 4 times a day salbutamol nebulized, 2 L/min inhaled oxygen therapy and 400 mg/d moxifloxacin intravenous were administered for 5 days. One month later, the thorax computed tomography scan revealed that the previous findings were almost completely regressed.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Vacinas , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103581, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592635

RESUMO

The number of older adults unable to transfer or ambulate independently is increasing. High support chairs enable people experiencing loss of mobility to be mobile, but current chair designs are associated with global functional loss and pressure ulcers. This pilot study compared the functionality of a traditional design high support chair to a new design of motorised high support chair: 1) a motion laboratory study compared joint angles and pressure at the hip, knee, ankle, elbow and spine when pushing each chair, and 2) a pressure mapping study compared the interface pressure when older people with limited mobility used the chairs. Significant reduction in joint angles for the person pushing the chair (degree difference range -3.6 to 14.2) and decreased seated pressure (w/kg difference range -0.2 to 2.1) for the seated user were identified for the motorised chair. Longitudinal investigations are required to determine if the significant differences identified in this pilot study result in less manual handling injuries and pressure areas.


Assuntos
Postura , Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Humanos , Joelho , Articulação do Joelho , Projetos Piloto
6.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103595, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610491

RESUMO

The present study examined whether the non-chronological age factor, engagement in physical exercise, affected responses to multimodal (combinations of visual, auditory, and/or tactile) signals differently between younger and older adults in complex environments. Forty-eight younger and older adults were divided into exercise and non-exercise groups, and rode in a simulated Level 3 autonomous vehicle under four different task conditions (baseline, video watching, headway estimation, and video-headway combination), while being asked to respond to various multimodal warning signals. Overall, bi- and trimodal warnings had faster response times for both age groups across driving conditions, but was more pronounced for older adults. Engagement in physical exercise was associated with smaller maximum braking force for younger participants only, and also corresponded to longer average fixation durations, compared to the non-exercise group. Findings from this research can help to guide decisions about the design of warning and information systems for semi-autonomous vehicles.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Tato
7.
Breast Dis ; 41(1): 1-3, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219707

RESUMO

During the first hit of SARS-COVID pandemic, an important reorganization of Healthcare Services has been done, and new protocols and pathways to protect frail patients like oncological patients were designed. The second hit of pandemic had stressed these new pathways and suggests to health-workers some improvements for safer management of patents.We reported our experience in organizing the clinical pathway of neoadjuvant therapy candidate patients based on the execution of sentinel lympho-node biopsy and the placement of implantable venous access port in the same access to operating room before neoadjuvant chemotherapy suggesting a possible organizational model. In the period October-December 2020 we have included in this new type of path twelve patients and we have not registered any cases of COVID among the patients included. We think this new path, adopted amid the second hit, will be useful for all Breast Units that are facing the challenge of guaranteeing the highest standards of care in a historical moment where the health emergency occupies the efforts of health workers and the economic resources of health systems.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Segurança do Paciente , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Cateterismo Venoso Central/normas , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Procedimentos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/normas
8.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMO

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cachimbos de Água , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210203, 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1339876

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo analisar as características individuais, clínicas e os fatores associados à mortalidade de pacientes com COVID-19, em hospital público do estado do Paraná, Brasil. Métodos estudo seccional, retrospectivo, documental (n= 86), com pacientes adultos internados, de março a junho de 2020. Resultados a mortalidade foi de 12,8%, o grupo de maior risco foi de idosos com comorbidades, especialmente, cardiovasculares. A chance de óbito foi 58 vezes maior em idosos, comparada aos adultos, e oito vezes maior naqueles com comorbidades, comparadas aos hígidos. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou sintomatologia respiratória, febre e mialgia. Tratamento à base de antibióticos, anticoagulantes e antivirais, associado ao suporte ventilatório. As principais complicações foram hipóxia, insuficiência renal aguda e infecção secundária. Conclusão e implicações para a prática idosos com comorbidades cardiovasculares que necessitaram de cuidados intensivos apresentaram maior chance de óbito. Os resultados de um dos centros de referência na pandemia possibilitam discutir medidas epidemiológicas adotadas, com ênfase em conceitos restritivos nos primeiros meses.


RESUMEN Objetivo analizar las características individuales, clínicas y los factores asociados a la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 en un hospital público del estado de Paraná. Métodos estudio transversal, retrospectivo, documental (n = 86), con pacientes adultos hospitalizados, de marzo a junio de 2020. Resultados la mortalidad fue del 12,8%, grupo de mayor riesgo para los ancianos con comorbilidades, especialmente enfermedades cardiovasculares. La probabilidad de muerte fue 58 veces mayor en los ancianos en comparación con los adultos y ocho veces mayor en aquellos con comorbilidades en comparación con los sanos. La mayoría de los pacientes presentaban síntomas respiratorios, fiebre y mialgia. Tratamiento a base de antibióticos, anticoagulantes y antivirales, asociado al soporte ventilatorio. Las principales complicaciones fueron hipoxia, insuficiencia renal aguda e infección secundaria. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los ancianos con comorbilidades cardiovasculares que requirieron cuidados intensivos tenían una mayor probabilidad de muerte. Los resultados de uno de los centros de referencia pandémica permiten discutir las medidas epidemiológicas adoptadas, con énfasis en conceptos restrictivos en los primeros meses.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the individual and clinical characteristics and the factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19, in a public hospital in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods a cross-sectional, retrospective, documentary study (n= 86), with adult inpatients, from March to June 2020. Results mortality was 12.8%, the highest risk group was the elderly with comorbidities, especially cardiovascular ones. The chance of death was 58 times higher in the elderly compared to adults, and eight times higher in those with comorbidities compared to the healthy ones. Most patients presented with respiratory symptoms, fever, and myalgia. Treatment was based on antibiotics, anticoagulants and antivirals, associated with ventilatory support. The main complications were hypoxia, acute renal failure, and secondary infection. Conclusion and implications for practice elderly people with cardiovascular comorbidities who required intensive care had a higher chance of death. The results from one of the reference centers in the pandemic make it possible to discuss epidemiological measures adopted, with emphasis on restrictive concepts in the first months.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Perfil de Saúde , Morte , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Comorbidade , Registros Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação
10.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210070, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1346054

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo analisar os estilos e fatores intervenientes na gestão e liderança de enfermeiros em três países, Brasil, Portugal e Espanha, à luz da Burocracia Profissional. Método estudo exploratório e descritivo de abordagem qualitativa realizado em três hospitais universitários localizados em diferentes países: Brasil, Espanha e Portugal. Participaram da pesquisa 30 enfermeiros. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um roteiro de coleta de dados com questões sociodemográficas e entrevistas analisadas com auxílio do software WebQda. Resultados diferentes percepções sobre os elementos integradores da participação foram reveladas nos três países, destacando-se a comunicação em diversas óticas. Verificou-se algumas convergências em relação ao trabalho em equipe, sendo a confiança o elemento que impulsiona e motiva a equipe. Sinaliza-se para uma relação participativa no desenvolvimento do trabalho. Conclusão e implicações para a prática foi possível identificar, nos três países, a importância da comunicação no processo de gestão, bem como dos estilos de gestão e de liderança, como elementos que oportunizam a atuação da equipe. Também foi evidenciada a presença de fatores intervenientes de relevância, tais como escuta, clima organizacional, relação interpessoal, transparência no trabalho e delegação de funções, os quais envolvem a burocracia profissional em que o conhecimento do enfermeiro possibilita o exercício de suas habilidades de forma horizontalizada e participativa.


Resumen Objetivo analizar los estilos y factores implicados en la gestión y el liderazgo de enfermeros en tres países, Brasil, Portugal y España, a la luz de la Burocracia Profesional. Método estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo realizado en tres hospitales universitarios ubicados en diferentes países: Brasil, España y Portugal. Treinta enfermeros participaron en la investigación. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un script de recopilación de datos con preguntas sociodemográficas y entrevistas analizadas con la utilización del software WebQda. Resultados se revelaron diferentes percepciones sobre los elementos integradores de la participación en los tres países, destacando la comunicación desde diferentes perspectivas. Se constataron algunas convergencias en relación al trabajo en equipo, siendo la confianza el elemento que impulsa y motiva al equipo. Se advierte una relación participativa en el desarrollo del trabajo. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica se pudo advertir, en los tres países, la importancia de la comunicación en el proceso de gestión, así como los estilos de gestión y liderazgo, como elementos que permiten mejorar el desempeño del equipo. También se evidenciaron factores intervinientes relevantes, como la escucha, el clima organizacional, la relación interpersonal, la transparencia en el trabajo y la delegación de funciones, que conforman la burocracia profesional en la cual el conocimiento de los enfermos les permite el despliegue de sus competencias de manera horizontal y participativa.


Abstract Objective to analyze the styles and factors involved in nurses' management and leadership in three countries, Brazil, Portugal and Spain, in the light of Professional Bureaucracy. Method a descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach carried out in three university hospitals located in different countries, namely: Brazil, Spain and Portugal. Thirty nurses participated in the research. Data was collected through a collection script with sociodemographic questions and interviews analyzed using the WebQda software. Results different perceptions about the integrating elements of participation in the three countries were revealed, highlighting communication from different perspectives. Some convergences in relation to teamwork were verified, where trust was the element that drives and motivates the team. It is a participatory relationship in the development of work. Conclusion and implications for the practice in the three countries, it was possible to identify the importance of communication in the management process, as well as the management and leadership styles, as elements that favor performance of the team. Presence of relevant intervening factors was also evidenced, such as choice, organizational climate, interpersonal relationships, transparency in work and delegation of functions, which involves professional bureaucracy in which the nurses' knowledge allows them to exercise their skills in a horizontal and participatory manner.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Gestão em Saúde , Capacidade de Liderança e Governança , Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Portugal/etnologia , Prática Profissional , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Espanha/etnologia , Brasil/etnologia , Autonomia Profissional , Comunicação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Continuada , Integralidade em Saúde , Relações Interprofissionais
11.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 131-140, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403145

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global threat to public health, and it is difficult to predict severe patients and their prognosis. Here, we intended developing effective models for the late identification of patients at disease progression and outcome. METHODS: A total of 197 patients were included with a 20-day median follow-up time. We first developed a nomogram for disease severity discrimination, then created a prognostic nomogram for severe patients. RESULTS: In total, 40.6% of patients were severe and 59.4% were non-severe. The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that IgG, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen were significant factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. Using immune response phenotyping based on NLR and IgG level, the logistic model showed patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype are most likely to have severe disease, especially compared to those with the NLRlo IgGlo phenotype. The C-indices of the two discriminative nomograms were 0.86 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated sufficient discriminative power. As for predicting clinical outcomes for severe patients, IgG, NLR, age, lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, monocytes, and procalcitonin were significant predictors. The prognosis of severe patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype was significantly worse than the NLRlo IgGhi group. The two prognostic nomograms also showed good performance in estimating the risk of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The present nomogram models are useful to identify COVID-19 patients with disease progression based on individual characteristics and immune response-related indicators. Patients at high risk for severe illness and poor outcomes from COVID-19 should be managed with intensive supportive care and appropriate therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Idoso , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 147-153, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411312

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study performed at Toyama University Hospital included consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. RNAemia was detected in 19.6% (11/56) patients on admission, and subsequently in 1.0% (1/25), 50.0% (6/12), and 100.0% (4/4) moderate, severe, and critically ill patients, respectively. Patients with RNAemia required more frequent oxygen supplementation (90.0% vs. 13.3%), ICU admission (81.8% vs. 6.7%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (27.3% vs. 0.0%). Among patients with RNAemia, the median viral loads of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs that were collected around the same time as the serum sample were significantly higher in critically ill (5.4 log10 copies/µl; interquartile range [IQR]: 4.2-6.3) than in moderate-severe cases (2.6 log10 copies/µl; [IQR: 1.1-4.5]; p = 0.030) and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (6.2 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 6.0-6.5]) than in survivors (3.9 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 1.6-4.6]; p = 0.045). This study demonstrated a relatively high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity. Moreover, among the patients with RNAemia, the viral loads of NP swabs were correlated with disease severity and mortality, suggesting the potential utility of combining serum testing with NP tests as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19, with higher quality than each separate test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Viremia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 417-424, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thiamethoxam is widely used to control pests in Chinese kale, popularly consumed leafy vegetables. The potential risk to the environment and human health has aroused much public concern. Therefore, it is important to investigate the degradation behavior, residue distribution and dietary risk assessment of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale. RESULTS: A sensitive analytical method for determination of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin residue in Chinese kale was established and validated through a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The recoveries were 85.4-101.2% for thiamethoxam and 79.5-108.1% for clothianidin, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.9-10.2% and 1.8-6.0%, respectively. For the dissipation kinetics, the data showed that thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was degraded with the half-lives of 4.1 to 4.5 days. In the terminal residue experiments, the residues of thiamethoxam were 0.017-0.357 mg kg-1 after application 2-3 times with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 7 days under the designed dosages. The chronic and acute dietary exposure assessment risk quotient (RQ) values of thiamethoxam in Chinese kale for different Chinese consumers were 0.08-0.19% and 0.05-0.12%, respectively, and those of clothianidin were 0.01-0.04% and 0.02-0.04%, respectively, all of the RQ values were lower than 100%. CONCLUSION: Thiamethoxam in Chinese kale was rapidly degraded following first-order kinetics models. The dietary risk of thiamethoxam and clothianidin through Chinese kale was negligible to consumers. The results from this study are important reference for Chinese governments to developing criteria for the safe and rational use of thiamethoxam, setting maximum residue levels (MRLs), monitoring the quality safety of agricultural products and protecting consumer health. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiametoxam/química , Tiametoxam/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brassica/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 67-75, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634366

RESUMO

Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Previous studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was associated with increased blood pressures and the prevalence of HT. This study hypothesized that Cd, regardless of its level, may increase blood pressures/HT. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between a low level of serum Cd concentration and blood pressures/HT among a general population in the Iwaki area, Japan. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the Aomori prefecture with 1144 volunteers aged over 19 years old, who were participants of the Iwaki health check-up in 2014. The study assessed questionnaire survey, body composition, and serum Cd concentrations. Median serum Cd concentration was 0.06 ng/mL (interquartile range 0.05-0.08 ng/mL) among our study population. Compared to the lowest quintile of serum Cd concentration group, the highest quintile of serum Cd concentration group had 4.9 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-8.31, p < 0.01) and 2.4 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (95% CI 0.36-4.34, p < 0.05), compared to the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the highest quintile of serum Cd concentration group had 1.7 times higher prevalence of HT (95% CI 1.10-2.51, p < 0.05) than the lowest quintile group. This study identified that higher serum Cd concentration was significantly, positively, associated with SBP and DBP and HT prevalence. This study provided evidence for the associations between environmental exposure to Cd and blood pressures/HT which should be considered for future preventive measures.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Hipertensão , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 1-11, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801189

RESUMO

Civil Rights legislation and court decisions influenced health care policy, which attempted to provide health care to elderly and low-income populations. Passing Medicaid and Medicare was monumental in increasing access to health insurance. The Affordable Care Act aimed to increase access to and affordability of health care to alleviate some disparities in health care. The Affordable Care Act established the National Institute of Minority and Health Disparity and Offices of Minority Health. However, disparities of access, care, morbidity, and mortality among marginalized populations persist. We in the thoracic community must leverage all means to mitigate the injustice of health disparities.


Assuntos
Medicare , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Idoso , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Medicaid , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132255, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though inconsistent, acute effects of ambient nitrogen oxides on cardiovascular mortality have been reported. Whereas, interactive roles of temperature on their relationships and joint effects of different indicators of nitrogen oxides were less studied. This study aimed to extrapolate the independent roles of ambient nitrogen oxides and temperature interactions on cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: Data on mortality, air pollutants, and meteorological factors in Shenzhen from 2013 to 2019 were collected. Three indicators including nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were studied. Adjusted generalized additive models (GAMs) were applied to analyse their associations with cardiovascular mortality in different groups. RESULTS: The average daily concentrations of NO, NO2, and NOX were 11.7 µg/m3, 30.7 µg/m3, and 53.2 µg/m3, respectively. Significant associations were shown with each indicator. Cumulative effects of nitrogen oxides were more obvious than distributed lag effects. Males, population under 65 years old, and population with stroke-related condition were more susceptible to nitrogen oxides. Adverse effects of nitrogen oxides were more significant at low temperature. Impacts of NO2 on cardiovascular mortality, and NO on stroke mortality were the most robust in the multi-pollutant models, whereas variations were shown in the other relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of nitrogen oxides showed acute and adverse impacts and the interactive roles of temperature on cardiovascular mortality. Cumulative effects were most significant and joint effects of nitrogen oxides required more attention. Population under 65 years old and population with stroke-related health condition were susceptible, especially days at lower temperature.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura
17.
Skeletal Radiol ; 51(1): 89-99, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550397

RESUMO

Five MRI patterns of marrow involvement (diffuse, focal, combined diffuse and focal, variegated, and normal) are observed in patients with a marrow proliferative disorder including MM. The wide range of marrow involvement patterns in monoclonal plasma cell proliferative disorders mirrors that of their natural histories that can vary from indolent to rapidly lethal. MRI of the axial bone marrow contributes to stage these disorders, but it should not be obtained for disease detection and characterization because of its limited specificity and sensitivity. At MRI, diffuse benign hematopoietic marrow hyperplasia and marrow heterogeneities in elderly patients mimic the diffuse and variegated patterns observed in MM patients. Careful analysis of fat- and fluid-sensitive MR images and quantitative marrow assessment by using MRI and FDG-PET can contribute in differentiating these changes from those associated with neoplastic marrow infiltration, with some residual overlapping findings.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
18.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151805, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Users of anatomical donors are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens. This study evaluated screening algorithms for hepatitis B and C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and Treponema pallidum during donor allocation and assessed the impact of postmortem time on hemolysis and how hemolysis affects test results and donor discard rate. METHODS: From 2011 to 2018, demographic data of anatomical donors, time of postmortem blood sampling, presence of sample hemolysis, serological test results (negative; active infection; false reactive screening test; historic infection; inconclusive; technically impracticable) and the actual donor allocation were collected. RESULTS: Donors (n = 537) had a mean age of 77.53 ± 13.67 (24-103) year. Nine (1.68%) had laboratory test results indicative for active infection for hepatitis B (n = 1) and C virus (n = 2), human immunodeficiency virus (n = 5) and T. pallidum (n = 1). Negative screenings ranged from 74.67 to 97.58%, depending on the pathogen. According to the original screening algorithms, 479 (89.20%) donors should have been accepted. In practice, a donor acceptance rate of 91.20% was found. Analysis of potential donor allocation interpretation obstacles resulted in simplification of the in-house laboratory testing algorithms and addition of a nucleic acid test to increase the reliability for identification of active (acute) human immunodeficiency virus infection. Hemolysis was more common when sampling was performed more than 24 h after death (p < 0.001). Hemolytic samples more frequently showed a reactive or indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus test result (p < 0.001). Screening for human immunodeficiency virus and T. pallidum was technically more impracticable when hemolysis was present (p = 0.042 and p = 0.003, respectively). Donors with hemolytic blood samples were more often discarded (46.88%) compared to bodies with non-hemolytic samples (6.32%) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the implementation of donor screening algorithms, a significant number of bodies have an inconsistent allocation. New algorithms, to be evaluated in future research, were suggested. Early postmortem blood sampling is key as hemolysis can influence certain test results and donor allocation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Sífilis , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/diagnóstico
19.
Pain Manag ; 12(1): 45-57, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284613

RESUMO

Aim: HTX-011 (ZYNRELEF™) is an extended-release, dual-acting local anesthetic containing bupivacaine and meloxicam. In bunionectomy and herniorrhaphy studies, HTX-011 resulted in less postoperative pain and less opioid consumption versus bupivacaine HCl. Here we evaluate HTX-011 in patients aged ≥65 years. Materials & methods: Patients received placebo, bupivacaine HCl or HTX-011 following surgery. End points included pain intensity, total opioid consumption, opioid-free patients and safety. Results: HTX-011-treated patients reported lower postoperative pain through 72 h versus bupivacaine HCl and placebo. Elderly patients administered HTX-011 used fewer opioids versus bupivacaine HCl, and a greater proportion remained opioid-free through 72 h. HTX-011 was well tolerated with a safety profile similar to bupivacaine HCl and placebo. Conclusion: HTX-011 maintained effectiveness and was well tolerated in elderly patients. Clinical Trial registration numbers: NCT03295721 and NCT03237481.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Pós-Operatória , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais , Bupivacaína , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Pain Manag ; 12(1): 13-16, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284647

RESUMO

The objective of this clinical case report is to highlight unusual adverse effects brought on by naloxegol therapy in a patient with underlying psychiatric illness. The patient is a 68-year-old female, with a psychiatric history of bipolar disorder, who presented for chronic pain management and opioid-induced constipation. After failing other therapies, she was trialed on naloxegol on three separate occasions. She experienced mood lability with symptoms including agitation, confusion, irritability, hysteria and unprompted crying spells on each occasion. Notably, the drug manufacturer does not describe mood lability, nor the profound psychiatric manifestations outlined in our case report, as side effects of Naloxegol. Clinicians may consider judicious prescription of naloxegol when treating opioid-induced constipation in patients with pre-existing psychiatric co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Constipação Induzida por Opioides , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Morfinanos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Polietilenoglicóis
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