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2.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(S2): 51-57, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sale of single cigarettes (also known as singles or loosies) is a key driver for early initiation of smoking and is a leading contributor to the smoking epidemic in India. Sale of singles additionally deter implementation of tobacco control strategies of pictorial health warnings including plain packaging and defeat effective taxation and promote illicit trade. We review India's tobacco control policy responses towards banning singles and other products sold as loose tobacco and identify opportunities for future policy intervention especially in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Existing national and sub-national policy documents were analyzed for their content since the inception of the tobacco control laws in the country. RESULTS: There are no effective provisions at national level to ban loose tobacco products in India. However, the implementation of multiple legislative and regulatory measures (Acts/circulars/letters/notifications/orders/court judgements) in 16 Indian states and jurisdictions provide sufficient legal framework to substantiate its complete ban pan India. While the majority of state governments have adopted state level measures, Rajasthan had issued specific directive to all the 33 districts banning loose cigarettes and other tobacco products. Himachal Pradesh introduced the most unique and comprehensive legislation, for banning the sale of cigarettes and beedis (Dated November 7, 2016). The most recent notification in the state of Maharashtra (September 24, 2020) is the first to leverage powers using a mix of national and state legislations including the legislation addressing the rapidly emerging challenge of managing COVID-19. CONCLUSION: A robust national policy which supports strong provision to deter tobacco companies, their distribution network and vendors from selling singles or loose tobacco products is urgently needed. Such policy should be backed by cautionary messaging for consumers as well. Eliminating singles and loose tobacco sale will help in blunting tobacco use prevalence besides curbing spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Governo Estadual , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
Health Syst Reform ; 7(1): e1969721, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606415

RESUMO

This paper describes a case study of the adoption and implementation of the sugar-sweetened beverage tax in South Africa, termed the Health Promotion Levy. Qualitative data extraction and analysis of institutional documents, such as policy proposals and parliamentary debate records, stakeholder submissions to Parliament and media reports, were guided by the Kingdon Multiple Streams Theory as adapted to study agenda setting, policy adoption, and implementation. We present the following key findings: First, consistent messaging from policy entrepreneurs, consisting of advocacy groups, health organizations, and research entities, was key to ensuring that a tax policy solution was proposed and passed. Second, the continuity of certain key policymakers contributed to the relatively expedient passage of the tax policy. Third, the use of an excise tax was, amongst others, an appealing policy solution because of its revenue-raising potential; however, uncertainty regarding the purpose of the tax negatively impacted public attitudes toward it. Fourth, industry arguments, relating to unemployment, were effective in restructuring the tax in favor of industry actors. Finally, regulatory action by sectors outside of finance and health impacted stakeholder perceptions of the tax and possibly obstructed regular annual adjustments for inflation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Humanos , Políticas , Formulação de Políticas , África do Sul , Impostos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: California Proposition 56 increased cigarette excise tax by $2 per pack with equivalent increases on non-cigarette tobacco products. We estimated the changes in cigarette price, cigarette use, and non-cigarette use following the implementation of Proposition 56 in California in 2017. METHODS: Seven waves of Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2011-2019 data were used to obtain state-level aggregate self-reported outcomes, including cigarette price per pack, current and daily cigarette use, cigarette consumption per day, and current and daily use of non-cigarette tobacco products (hookah, pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco). A modified version of a synthetic control method was used to create a "synthetic" California that best resembled pre-policy sociodemographic characteristics and outcome trends in California while correcting time-invariant pre-policy differences. Various sensitivity analyses were also conducted. RESULTS: The implementation of Proposition 56 was associated with an increase in self-reported cigarette price per pack in California ($1.844, 95%CI: $0.153, $3.534; p = 0.032). No evidence suggested that Proposition 56 was associated with the changes in the prevalence of current or daily cigarette use, cigarette consumption per day, or the prevalence of current or daily use of non-cigarette tobacco products. CONCLUSION: Most of the cigarette tax increase following Proposition 56 in California was passed on to consumers. There is a lack of evidence that the implementation of Proposition 56 was associated with the changes in the use of cigarettes and other tobacco products such as hookah, pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Impostos/economia , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/economia
6.
Health Soc Work ; 46(4): 247-249, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624078
7.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(10): 315-318, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668686

RESUMO

The association between pricing and cigarette consumption is long-established. However, the effects of taxation alone can be diminished if relative income increases. Therefore, affordability is seen as a key determinant of demand for cigarettes, as it combines the impact of changing prices with economic growth or wage increases. This brief analysis employs methods used by the World Health Organization in examining cigarette affordability, and explores the trend in affordability across Canadian provinces over a 10-year period, from 2009 to 2019. The discussion illustrates how monitoring affordability over time can help policy makers in Canadian provinces design tobacco taxation for maximum impact.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Canadá/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Renda , Impostos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1941, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702248

RESUMO

Over 45 jurisdictions globally have implemented sweetened beverage taxes. Researchers and policymakers need to assess whether and how these taxes change beverage demand and supply, their intended and unanticipated health, economic and equity impacts. Lessons from such evaluations can maximise the policies' success and impact on non-communicable disease prevention globally. We discuss key theoretical, design and methodological considerations to help policymakers, funders and researchers commission and conduct rigorous evaluations of these policies and related disease prevention efforts. We encourage involving the perspectives of various stakeholders on what evaluations are needed given the specific context, what data and methods are appropriate, readily available or can be collected within time and budget constraints. A logic model /conceptual system map of anticipated implications across sectors and scales should help identify optimal study design, analytical techniques and measures. These models should be updated when synthesising findings across diverse methods and integrating findings across subpopulations using similar methods.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas , Humanos , Política Pública , Impostos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639676

RESUMO

In July 2020, the Executive Power submitted Bill no. 3887-2020 as the first step towards a wide reform of the Brazilian tax system. It will replace the current PIS/COFINS (charged on turnover of companies) by the CBS (a tax on goods and services), which includes a special regime for cigarettes. The novelty is that the specific cigarette tax will be charged on the highest retail price per cigarette brand across the country. This research simulates three scenarios that differ according to the price-setting strategy of the tobacco industry in reaction to the proposed tax reform. In all simulations, the tax reform would result in considerably higher cigarette prices, lower cigarette consumption, higher tax collection, and an implicit minimum price that is far above the current official price floor. Furthermore, the price dispersion and cross-border shopping across states would be reduced because prices and tax burden per brand would tend to be the same across the country due to the dominant price-setting strategy in the cigarette industry.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Comércio , Impostos , Tabaco
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053114, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While the trend in smoking prevalence is decreasing worldwide, the number of male tobacco smokers is growing in Africa. This study compares the cigarette market in eight sub-Saharan African countries. This includes examining cigarette prices, pricing differentials, pack sizes and affordability at national and subnational levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional data analysis using data from the Data on Alcohol and Tobacco in Africa (DATA) Project. The DATA Project was centrally coordinated by project supervisors following a standardised protocol. University students were recruited to conduct data collection and a total of 22 347 retail cigarette price data points collected between June and August 2018 were analysed (including Botswana, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Prices were converted to US$ and standardised to the price of a 20-cigarette pack. RESULTS: This research found large price differentials within provinces/states, with the gap between medium and minimum prices per 20-cigarette pack exceeding 50% of the medium price in 18 out of 24 provinces/states. Single cigarettes were widely available, especially in Lesotho and Ethiopia. Results of multivariable regression suggest prices (per 20-cigarette pack) were lower for cigarettes sold in packs than single sticks (-US$0.27, 95% CI: -US$0.39 to -US$0.23) and lower in less populated areas (-US$0.28 in rural compared with urban settings, 95% CI: -US$0.41 to -US$0.15). Availability of cheaper single cigarettes (lower per unit price than packed cigarettes) were identified for Lesotho and South Africa. CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify a varied picture in cigarette pricing in studied countries and suggest measures to tackle pricing differentials and availability of single sticks are warranted. These measures should counteract the potential health consequences of the increasing penetration of tobacco industry in these sub-Saharan African countries.


Assuntos
Impostos , Produtos do Tabaco , Botsuana , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , África do Sul
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1921, 2021 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Northern Territory (NT) has the highest levels of alcohol consumption and harms in Australia. Since the creation of the NT Liquor Act 1978, which came into effect in 1979, numerous legislated alcohol policies have been introduced to attempt to address these harms. We present a narrative historical overview of alcohol policies implemented in the NT from 1979 to 2021. METHODS: Using scoping review methodology, databases were searched from 1979 to 2021. Of 506 articles screened, 34 met inclusion criteria. Reference lists of all included articles were searched, resulting in the inclusion of another 41 articles and reports, totalling 75 final documents. Policies were organised using Babor and colleagues (2010) established framework: 1. pricing/ taxation; 2. regulating physical availability; 3. modifying drinking environments; 4. drink-driving countermeasures; 5. restrictions on marketing; 6. education/persuasion; 7. treatment/early intervention. RESULTS: Two pricing/taxation policies have been implemented, Living With Alcohol (LWA) and Minimum Unit Price, both demonstrating evidence of positive effects on health and consumption outcomes. Eight policies approaches have focused on regulating physical availability, implemented at both individual and local area levels. Several of these policies have varied by location and been amended over time. There is some evidence demonstrating reduction in harms attributable to Liquor Supply Plans, localised restrictions, and General Restricted Areas, although these have been site specific. Of the three policies which targeted modifying the drinking environment; one was evaluated, finding a relocation of social harms, rather than a reduction. The literature outlines a range of controversies, particularly regarding policies in domain 2-3, including racial discrimination and a lack of policy stability. No policies relating to restricting marketing or education/persuasion programs were found. The only drink-driving legislated policy was considered to have contributed to the success of the LWA program. Three policies relating to treatment were described; two were not evaluated and evidence showed no ongoing benefits of Alcohol Mandatory Treatment. DISCUSSION: The NT has implemented a large number of alcohol policies, several of which have evidence of positive effects. However, these policies have often existed in a context of clear politicisation of alcohol policy, frequently with an implicit focus on Aboriginal people's consumption.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Impostos
14.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(3): e00527, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to measure the efficiency and productivity of tobacco control policies across 16 selected Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 2008 to 2014. STUDY DESIGN: A panel-data study. METHODS: Data envelopment analysis was used in this study. Taxation on tobacco products and pictorial warning labels were chosen as the inputs. Percentage of the population of daily smokers above 15 years old and the number of cigarettes used per smoker per day were output variables. Additionally, the Malmquist total factor productivity (TFP) was used to analyze the panel data and measure productivity change and technical efficiency changes over time. RESULTS: The highest technical efficiency score (1.05) was attributed to Norway, while the lowest (0.91) belonged to the UK. Technological change with a total mean of 1.06 implied that the technology and creativity have increased, while countries have been able to promote their creativity over the studied period. Norway with the TFP score of 1.15 was the most productive country, while the UK and Turkey with TFP scores of 0.95 and 0.98, respectively, were the least productive countries in terms of the implementation of the tobacco control policies. CONCLUSION: Most OECD countries have productively implemented tax and pictorial warning policies to reduce tobacco use. To achieve the optimum outcome of the tobacco control policies and overcome the challenges of smoking use, countries need to tackle the difficult underlying factors, i.e. tobacco industry opposition and lobbyists, smuggling, and low socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Adolescente , Comércio , Humanos , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Impostos , Uso de Tabaco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682445

RESUMO

Facing the increasingly severe environmental problems, the development of a green and sustainable low-carbon economy has become an international trend. In China, the core issue of low-carbon economic development is effectively resolving the contradiction between the exploitation and utilization of fossil energy and greenhouse gas emissions (mainly carbon emissions). Based on the SAM matrix, we established a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the impact of carbon tax policies on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and macroeconomics variables under 10, 20, and 30% emission reductions. Meanwhile, we analyze the impact of different carbon tax recycling mechanisms under the principle of tax neutrality. We find that the carbon tax effectively reduces carbon emissions, but it will negatively impact economic development and social welfare. A reasonable carbon tax recycling system based on the principle of tax neutrality can reduce the negative impact of carbon tax implementation. Among the four simulated scenarios of carbon tax cycle, the scenario of reducing residents' personal income tax is most conducive to realizing the "double dividend" of carbon tax.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Políticas , Impostos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682673

RESUMO

In February 2020, the paper "Sugar-Sweetened and Diet Beverage Consumption in Philadelphia One Year after the Beverage Tax" was published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [...].


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Açúcares , Bebidas , Philadelphia , Saúde Pública , Impostos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682675

RESUMO

Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the recent letter to the editor regarding our paper "Sugar-Sweetened and Diet Beverage Consumption in Philadelphia One Year after the Beverage Tax" [...].


Assuntos
Bebidas Adoçadas Artificialmente , Açúcares , Bebidas , Philadelphia , Saúde Pública , Impostos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113609, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467863

RESUMO

In the contemporary environment, developing countries are more focused on how economic factors can reasonably utilize technological advancement and carbon neutrality target as effective mechanisms in achieving sustainable production and consumption patterns. The effort to attain carbon neutrality target on natural environment in terms of lower carbon emission (CO2), haze pollution, and greenhouse gas (GHG) requires measures like the usage of non-renewable energy, ecological innovation, and environmental taxes. In doing so, this study considers the sustainability of China's natural environment in terms of CO2 emission, haze pollution through PM2.5, and greenhouse gas emission as well as factors like ecological innovation (ECO), environmental taxes (ERT), renewable energy, and globalization as the key determinants. The Quantile ARDL approach was used to examine both long- and short-run relationships between the explanatory and outcome variables. The results confirmed that there is a significant and negative impact of ECO, renewable energy, and ERT on CO2 emission in the region of China under different quantiles. Whereas, the globalization factor was observed as positively and significantly linked with CO2 emission but only for the higher quantiles. The long-run estimation further showed that ECO, renewable energy, and ERT can significantly help to decrease haze pollution in terms of PM2.5 in China. Furthermore, QARDL also confirms the negative and long-run estimation between the ECO, REN, and ERT, whereas globalization is causing more GHG in China, subsequently creating more environmental sustainability issues. Thus, it is concluded that effective innovation, renewable energy consumption, and environmental taxes reduce carbon emission while globalization increases the carbon emission in the country.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Energia Renovável , Impostos
19.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113633, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492439

RESUMO

This study aims to examine the nexus between green growth and carbon neutrality targets in the context of the USA while observing the role of ecological innovation, environmental taxes, and green energy. For this purpose, data were collected from 1970 to 2015 for all the variables of interest. This research utilized the quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) method due to its various benefits, such as depicting the causality patterns based on different quantiles for different variables like green growth, ecological innovation, environmental taxes, and renewable energy. The findings through the QARDL method showed that the error correction coefficient was significant and negative with the expected negative sign for the different quantiles. The findings showed a significant and negative impact of green growth, square of green growth, ecological innovation, and environmental taxes in determining the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the USA's economy under the long-run estimation. Meanwhile, the outcome for the short-term estimation confirmed that the past and lagged values of CO2 emission were significantly and negatively linked with the current and lagged values of CO2 emission. On the other hand, it was found that green growth and square of green growth, ecological innovation, environmental taxes, and renewable energy played their vital role in reducing haze pollution like PM2.5. Besides, this research also covers the limitations and policy implications.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono , Condições Sociais , Impostos
20.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 75, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of health-related food taxes on substitution and complementary purchases within food groups, including from unhealthier to healthier alternatives and between brands. METHODS: We used data from a virtual supermarket experiment with data from 4,259 shopping events linked to varying price sets. Substitution or complementary effects within six frequently purchased food categories were analyzed. Products' own- and cross-price elasticities were analyzed using Almost Ideal Demand System models. RESULTS: Overall, 37.5% of cross-price elasticities were significant (p < 0.05) and included values greater than 0.10. Supplementary and complementary effects were particularly found in the dairy, meats and snacks categories. For example, a 1% increase in the price of high saturated fat dairy was associated with a 0.18% (SE 0.06%) increase in purchases of low saturated fat dairy. For name- and home-brand products, significant substitution effects were found in 50% (n = 3) of cases, but only in one case this was above the 0.10 threshold. CONCLUSIONS/POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Given the relatively low own-price elasticities and the limited substitution and complementary effects, relatively high taxes are needed to substantively increase healthy food purchases at the population level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study included secondary analyses; the original trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000122459 .


Assuntos
Comércio , Preferências Alimentares , Austrália , Humanos , Lanches , Impostos
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