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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-7, 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765471

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.(AU)


Staphylococcus aureus é um importante patógeno de origem alimentar associado à intoxicação alimentar e outras infecções múltiplas em seres humanos. Sua presença em alimentos salgados é um problema sério devido ao seu potencial de tolerância ao sal. Um estudo foi realizado para analisar a presença de enterotoxinas produtoras de resistência a drogas S. aureus em peixes salgados do mar de Gwadar. Amostras recém-perseveradas (n = 50) de peixes salgados foram submetidas à análise da presença de S. aureus usando os primers dos genes 16S rRNA e Nuc. Os isolados foram então avaliados quanto à resistência a drogas e potencial de produção de enterotoxinas usando primers específicos para os genes MecA (gene de resistência à meticilina), (SEA) enterotoxina A estafilocócica e (SEB) enterotoxina B estafilocócica genes. Um total de 13/50 (26%) das amostras foi considerado positivas para a presença de S. aureus, confirmadas preliminarmente com perfis bioquímicos e finalmente com a ajuda da presença de genes-alvo. Os isolados foram encontrados com 100% de resistência à meticilina, os quais foram confirmados molecularmente pela presença do gene MecA no genoma. Os isolados 5/13 (38%) foram positivos para SEA e 3/13 (23%) para genes SEB, enquanto 2/13 (15%) foram confirmados tendo os genes SEA e SEB em seu genoma. Também foi verificado que todos os isolados foram capazes de formar biofilme sobre as superfícies de vidro. Concluiu-se que o estudo confirmou a presença de Staphylococcus aurous resistente à meticilina enterotoxigênica (MRSA) em produtos de peixe salgado, o que representa uma grande preocupação para a segurança alimentar. Medidas preventivas e de controle são necessárias para lidar com essa grave preocupação com a segurança alimentar.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Peixes/genética , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle
2.
Hig. aliment ; 36(294): e1083, jan.-jun. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363216

RESUMO

Ao longo do tempo foram desenvolvidos controles sobre os alimentos e seus processos a fim de torná-los seguros para o consumo humano. Os esforços para este fim, porém, não foram suficientes, tendo em vista o crescente número de casos de doenças alimentares. Pesquisadores identificaram e adaptaram conceitos derivados das ciências sociais, utilizando-os na segurança dos alimentos, criando assim diversas concepções de Cultura de Segurança dos Alimentos (CSA). Sabe-se atualmente que a CSA influencia a inocuidade dos alimentos e é considerada um importante fator de risco a ser administrado pelas organizações. O presente estudo teve por objetivo apresentar e analisar conceitos de CSA, seus autores e os elementos/fatores que os compõem. Também abordou os processos de desenvolvimento, avaliação e amadurecimento da CSA em estabelecimentos que manipulam alimentos no Brasil ou em todo o mundo. Foram identificados dezoito trabalhos que apresentaram diferentes fatores de CSA e quatro que aplicaram instrumentos de CSA no Brasil. Constatou-se que a utilização de ferramentas para caracterizar a CSA vem se aprimorando ao longo do tempo. Os autores mais recentes utilizam, frequentemente, abordagem mista de métodos de avaliação para tal finalidade. Concluindo, propõe-se neste trabalho um conceito mais refinado de CSA em relação aos já existentes e um novo elemento/fator para caracterizar a CSA nos estabelecimentos que manipulam alimentos no Brasil.(AU)


Over time, controls on food and its processes have been developed in order to make them safe for human consumption. However, efforts to this end were not sufficient, in view of the growing number of cases of foodborne illnesses. Researchers have identified and adapted concepts derived from the social sciences using them in food safety, thus creating different concepts of Food Safety Culture (FSC). It is currently known that FSC influences food safety and is considered an important risk factor to be managed by organizations. This study aimed to present and analyze FSC concepts, their authors and the elements/factors that compose them. It also addressed FSC development, evaluation and maturation processes in establishments that handle food in Brazil or around the world. Eighteen studies were identified that presented different FSC factors and four that applied FSC instruments in Brazil. It was found that the use of tools to characterize FSC has been improving over time. More recent authors often use a methods mixed approach to assessment for this purpose. In conclusion, this work proposes a more refined concept of FSC in relation to the existing ones and a new element/factor to characterize FSC in establishments that handle food in Brazil.(AU)


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Brasil
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7773259, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528358

RESUMO

Dealing with food safety issues in time through online public opinion incidents can reduce the impact of incidents and protect human health effectively. Therefore, by the smart technology of extracting the entity relationship of public opinion events in the food field, the knowledge graph of the food safety field is constructed to discover the relationship between food safety issues. To solve the problem of multi-entity relationships in food safety incident sentences for few-shot learning, this paper adopts the pipeline-type extraction method. Entity relationship is extracted from Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformers (BERTs) joined Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BLSTM), namely, the BERT-BLSTM network model. Based on the entity relationship types extracted from the BERT-BLSTM model and the introduction of Chinese character features, an entity pair extraction model based on the BERT-BLSTM-conditional random field (CRF) is established. In this paper, several common deep neural network models are compared with the BERT-BLSTM-CRF model with a food public opinion events dataset. Experimental results show that the precision of the entity relationship extraction model based on BERT-BLSTM-CRF is 3.29%∼23.25% higher than that of other models in the food public opinion events dataset, which verifies the validity and rationality of the model proposed in this paper.


Assuntos
Idioma , Redes Neurais de Computação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Memória de Longo Prazo
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 410, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532857

RESUMO

A great amount of iron ore tailings from the collapse of the Fundão dam in Southeast Brazil was deposited in an extensive agricultural area. The presence of this material creates insecurity for the resumption of agricultural activities, especially the cultivation of vegetables, which can accumulate metals at potentially toxic levels. In this study, two vegetables consumed in the affected area, arugula and radish, were cultivated in tailings and in soil. Productivity, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic performance, metal accumulation, and the possible risk to food safety were analyzed. The productivity of both vegetables, arugula and radish, did not differ between cultivation in tailings and in soil. There were no differences in pigment content nor substantial differences in the photosynthetic parameters of plants grown in the two substrates. Plants grown in tailings had higher Fe, Mn, and Na contents than those grown in soil, reflecting the higher levels of these elements in the former. There were no visual signs of metal toxicity for plants grown in the tailings. The levels of metals potentially ingested through estimated consumption of arugula and radish grown in the tailings were below the maximum allowable limits for human consumption. In addition, calculated risk indices suggest a low potential for harm to the health of consumers of cultivated vegetables in the tailings. The results presented here suggest that agricultural cultivation in the tailings is viable and contribute to the resumption of vegetable cultivation in the region affected by the tailings released with the collapse of the Fundão dam.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Colapso Estrutural , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Metais , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409739

RESUMO

Dietary supplements are health-promoting products. The legal categorization of dietary supplements as foods does not raise concerns, but a general understanding of how they work in the human body seems to deviate from the official definition. Thus, it is necessary to establish effective methods of market control related to dietary supplements. This research aims at assessing the impact of recommendations by various food safety authorities on ingredients used in newly registered products. It probes how the proportions of utilized product ingredients were modified after the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Chief Sanitary Inspector in Poland (GIS) published their recommendations. Research data on the composition of products comes from the Polish national register of dietary supplements and covers the period from 2012 to 28 November 2021. Note that 103,102 products were analysed for the presence of thirty-seven ingredients, and the joinpoint regression method was applied to assess changing trends related to the use of ingredients. As our research points out, most often, changes in the trend appeared in product ingredients for which the European Food Safety Authority and Chief Sanitary Inspector in Poland issued the recommendation of having the safest level of consumption. However, these changes seem to emerge randomly and should not be unquestionably considered as the result of the published recommendations.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Polônia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410002

RESUMO

Food businesses, such as food trucks (FTs) and family producers have grown rapidly and become popular with people in Saudi Arabia. As foodborne diseases are still a public health concern in the country, consumers should be aware of the safety of foods sold by food trucks. Since there is a dearth of literature, this study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of consumers of food from FTs owned by family producers regarding food safety and foodborne disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 921 consumers of food from FTs from two cities in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected using an online questionnaire from September to November 2021. Finally, multiple linear regression and a logistic regression model were used to identify the predictors of knowledge and attitude regarding food safety and foodborne illness, respectively. Overall, respondents had moderate knowledge and higher positive attitudes regarding food safety and foodborne illness. Respondents' knowledge about the potential harm and attitudes towards the safety of foods sold by FTs were significantly associated with marital status, education level, and monthly family income. The findings of this study highlight the need to improve the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of Saudi consumers of food from FTs owned by family producers on food safety and foodborne illness through intervention programs, particularly targeting consumers with lower educational attainments and income status, to control foodborne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408414

RESUMO

Unsafe food is estimated to cause 600 million cases of foodborne disease, annually. Thus, the development of methods that could assist in the prevention of foodborne diseases is of high interest. This review summarizes the recent progress toward rapid microbial assessment through (i) spectroscopic techniques, (ii) spectral imaging techniques, (iii) biosensors and (iv) sensors designed to mimic human senses. These methods often produce complex and high-dimensional data that cannot be analyzed with conventional statistical methods. Multivariate statistics and machine learning approaches seemed to be valuable for these methods so as to "translate" measurements to microbial estimations. However, a great proportion of the models reported in the literature misuse these approaches, which may lead to models with low predictive power under generic conditions. Overall, all the methods showed great potential for rapid microbial assessment. Biosensors are closer to wide-scale implementation followed by spectroscopic techniques and then by spectral imaging techniques and sensors designed to mimic human senses.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 276: 121251, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancement in coordination chemistry has achieved an impressive development of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as the supramolecular hybrid materials, comprising harmonized metal nodes with organic ligands. Scope and approach: MOFs offer the unique properties of easy synthesis, nanoscale structure, adjustable size and morphology, high porosity, large surface area, supreme chemical tunability and stability, and biocompatibility. The features provide an exceptional opportunity for the widely usage of MOFs in the different scientific fields, e.g. biomedicine, electrocatalysis, food safety, energy storage, environmental surveillance, and biosensing platforms. The synergistic incorporation of the aptamer advantages and the superiorities of MOFs attains the novel MOF-based aptasensors. The excellent selectivity and sensitivity of the MOF-based aptasensors nominate them as efficient lab-on-chip tools for cost-effective, label-free, portable, and real-time monitoring of diverse targets. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Here, we review the achievements in the sensor design by cooperation of MOF motifs and aptamers with the conspicuous potential of determining the targets. Finally, some results are expressed that provide a valuable viewpoint for developing the novel MOF-based test strips in the future.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Ligantes , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Metais/química , Porosidade
10.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111064, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400442

RESUMO

Food safety (FS) culture has been recognised as a phenomenon that can shape food safety behaviour. Specific educational actions can improve food safety behaviour. This study aimed to build a roadmap to guide the development of educational actions based on the assessment of the prevailing FS-culture. The study was conducted in an institutional food service in the Brazilian air force. A previously-developed mixed-methods and data triangulation approach was used to assess the FS-culture based on eight elements (leadership, communication, knowledge, commitment, risk perception, work pressure and normative beliefs, work environment, and management systems, styles, and process). The roadmap was designed based on a combination of the FS-culture element score (1-reactive, 2-active, and 3-proactive) and priority levels (highest, moderate, lowest, and no priority) of proposed topics to be included in educational actions. Such topics were based on specific literature about food safety culture and the behaviour of food handlers. The FS-culture diagnosis in the air force food service demonstrated an "active to proactive" FS-culture; the element "work pressure and normative beliefs" showed the highest score (3 - proactive), whereas "risk perception" and "management systems, styles, and process" indicated the lowest scores (1-2 - reactive to active). Based on the weaknesses and strengths in the prevailing FS-culture, the roadmap revealed that the topics showing the lowest scores, "risk perception" and "management systems, styles, and process," had the highest priority to be included in the educational actions. The designed roadmap may support food services in making decisions about food safety education towards a proactive FS-culture.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Gestão da Segurança
11.
Food Res Int ; 155: 111114, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400404

RESUMO

The level of contamination of food produced in commercial restaurants is directly related to the quality of training provided to kitchen workers. Leaders, who are responsible for food safety training, face the obstacle of food safety practices (FSP) daily application. However, noncompliance with FSP permeates both the problematization about training, and other influential elements in the kitchen environments. This study aims to characterize the current training in FSP, discuss the reasons that lead to noncompliance with FSP by kitchen workers in commercial restaurants, and indicate possible ways for improvements in food safety in this field. Twenty-one professionals' interviews were analyzed according to Bardin's content analysis method. The analyzes were carried out from three groups: legislators/entities, teachers and agents of practice (all professionals directly involved in daily food preparation). Sociological concepts described by Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault grounded the exploration of the social aspects. The current training is characterized by the ineffectiveness of the application methods and content offered, the type of approach used by the nutritionist or leader responsible for its effectiveness, and leadership assumptions about the knowledge of FSP by kitchen workers. Forty-seven reasons for noncompliance with sanitary regulations were identified. Unprepared leadership and the perception of an absence of constant surveillance of kitchen workers stood out as the first and second most cited reasons. The multiplicity of factors indicates this theme's complexity and shows that every person involved in commercial restaurants needs to be responsible for FSP. Addressing the challenges using the possible pathways of food safety could potentially improve compliance withfood safety practices.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Restaurantes
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(18): 5477-5498, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471004

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria are primarily kinds of detrimental agents that cause mankind illness via contaminated food with traits of multiple types, universality, and low content. In view of the detection demands for rapidity, aptamer recognition factors emerged as a substitution for antibodies, which are short single strands of nucleic acid selected via in vitro. They display certain superiorities over antibodies, such as preferable stability, liable modification, and cost-efficiency. Taking advantage of the situation, numerous aptamers against pathogenic bacteria have been successfully selected and applied, yet there are still restrictions on commercial availability. In this review, the strategies/approaches to key sections in pathogen aptamers SELEX and post-SELEX are summarized and sorted out. Recently, optical, electrochemical, and piezoelectric aptamer-based assays or sensors dedicated to pathogen detection have been critically reviewed. Ultimately, the existing challenges and future trends in this field are proposed to further promote development prospects.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Bactérias/genética , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(18): 5463-5476, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471937

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been identified as a fundamental surface-sensitive technique that boosts Raman scattering by adsorbing target molecules on specific surfaces. The application of SERS highly relies on the development of smart SERS substrates, and thus the fabrication of SERS substrates has been constantly improved. Herein, we investigate the impacts of different substrates on SERS technology including plasmonic metal nanoparticles, semiconductors, and hybrid systems in quantitative food safety and quality analysis. We first discuss the fundamentals, substrate designs, and applications of SERS. We then provide a critical review of the recent progress of SERS in its usage for screening and detecting chemical and biological contaminants including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, hazardous colorants, and biohazards in food samples to assess the analytical capabilities of this technology. Finally, we investigate the future trends and provide practical techniques that could be used to fulfill the requirements for rapid analysis of food at a low cost.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Semicondutores , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
14.
J Food Prot ; 85(5): 755-772, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259246

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This multiagency report developed by the Interagency Collaboration for Genomics for Food and Feed Safety provides an overview of the use of and transition to whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology for detection and characterization of pathogens transmitted commonly by food and for identification of their sources. We describe foodborne pathogen analysis, investigation, and harmonization efforts among the following federal agencies: National Institutes of Health; Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Agricultural Research Service, and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. We describe single nucleotide polymorphism, core-genome, and whole genome multilocus sequence typing data analysis methods as used in the PulseNet (CDC) and GenomeTrakr (FDA) networks, underscoring the complementary nature of the results for linking genetically related foodborne pathogens during outbreak investigations while allowing flexibility to meet the specific needs of Interagency Collaboration partners. We highlight how we apply WGS to pathogen characterization (virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles) and source attribution efforts and increase transparency by making the sequences and other data publicly available through the National Center for Biotechnology Information. We also highlight the impact of current trends in the use of culture-independent diagnostic tests for human diagnostic testing on analytical approaches related to food safety and what is next for the use of WGS in the area of food safety.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Genômica , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 368: 109612, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278797

RESUMO

The control of bacterial contaminants on chicken meat is a key area of interest in the broiler industry. Microbes that pose a significant food safety risk on chicken include Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. In addition, microbes including Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactic Acid Bacteria must be controlled to ensure product quality and maintain shelf-life. Poultry meat processing challenges including cold and chemical exposure are employed to control the microbiota of the end-product, as well as to maintain environment hygiene. Exposure to these stresses can also induce adaptive shifts in the transcriptome and proteome of foodborne bacteria. This review will explore the complex interactions at play in the poultry processing environment and explain how bacteria exposed to such stresses behave in this environmental niche through the production of heat and cold-shock proteins, the expression of efflux pumps, sporulation, and the formation of mono- and mixed-species biofilms within the production environment.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Galinhas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4230, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273330

RESUMO

Inspections are an important tool for food control. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how inspection history, interval between inspections, and pre-announcement of the inspection affect compliance with food safety legislation in food production establishments. We used register-based meat, fish, and dairy establishment food control inspection data (5550 inspections from 757 establishments) from Finland in 2016-2019 to study compliance in relation to these factors. Hypothesis was that there is an association between inspection grades and (1) inspection history, (2) interval, and (3) pre-announcement. Results indicate that minor non-compliances that do not impair food safety often precede future more severe non-compliances (5.3% non-compliance rate if full compliance at previous inspection compared to 16.8% non-compliance rate if minor non-compliances at previous inspection [Fisher's exact test, p < 0.0001]), and that longer inspection intervals are associated with a decrease in inspection grades (5.9% difference in inspection intervals for inspection with full compliance compared to inspections with severe non-compliances [Generalized estimating equations, p = 0.02]). In addition, pre-announcement of the inspection affects the inspection grades, severe non-compliances were 2.4 times more common at unannounced inspections compared to pre-announced inspections. To conclude, there is an association between inspection grades and inspection history, inspection interval, and inspection announcement.


Assuntos
Inspeção de Alimentos , Restaurantes , Finlândia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 484, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanisation in Sub-Saharan African cities such as Dakar, Senegal, leads to proliferation of informal braised meat restaurants known as "dibiteries". Dibiteries do not often comply with minimal hygiene and food safety standards. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and cost of a good hygiene practice intervention, identify factors that incentivize hygiene improvement and how that impacts on dibiteries' income. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was carried out in Dakar dibiteries. The 120 random samples of braised meat were collected in three phases: (i) one-month pre-intervention, (ii) 2 months post-intervention, (iii) 10 months post-intervention. The trial comprised four groups of 10 dibiteries each: (a) (control) received no intervention, (b) a standardized training module, (c) a hygiene kit, (d) a training module and hygiene kit. Laboratory analysis of samples determined the total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF), thermotolerant coliforms (TC) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA). A questionnaire-based survey and focus group discussion were used to identify pre-intervention hygiene practices, and socioeconomic determinants of hygiene management in dibiteries post-intervention, respectively. RESULTS: Samples were found to be contaminated with TAMF, TC and SA. In phase 1, 27 and 13% of the samples contained TC and SA, respectively. In phase 2, no significant improvement of contamination rates was seen. In phase 3, microbiological quality of samples was significantly improved, with only 11.5% showing contamination with any of the bacterial species analysed (p < 0.1). Compared to the control group, only samples from dibiteries in group (b) had significantly reduced bacterial load in phase 3. The cost of intervention and hygiene improvement was estimated at 67 FCFA ($ 0.12) and 41 FCFA ($ 0.07) / day respectively and did not significantly impact on dibiterie profitability. Incentives to sustainably implement good hygiene practices were mainly linked to access to secure long-term workspaces. CONCLUSION: This intervention may have worked, but globally the results are mixed and not quite significant. However, continuous training in good hygiene practice and access to secure and sustainable infrastructure for dibiterie restaurants are the incentives necessary to achieve sustainable investments and behavioural change. We recommend further intervention refinement and testing other factors for promoting the adoption of good hygiene practices in the dibiteries in relation to consumers health risk.


Assuntos
Higiene , Motivação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Senegal
18.
Mycotoxin Res ; 38(2): 79-92, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288866

RESUMO

Aflatoxins count to the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a threat to food safety especially in regions with a warm and humid climate. Contaminated food reaches consumers globally due to international trade, leading to stringent regulatory limits of aflatoxins in food. While the formation of aflatoxin (AF) B1 by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus flavus is well investigated, less is known about the formation kinetics of its precursors and further aflatoxins. In this study, autoclaved maize kernels were inoculated with A. flavus and incubated at 25 °C for up to 10 days. Aflatoxins and precursors were analyzed by a validated UHPLC-MS method. Additional to AFB1 and AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2 were detected, confirming the ability of the formation of M-group aflatoxins on cereals by A. flavus. The measured relative levels of AFB2, AFM1, and AFM2 on maize compared to the level of AFB1 (mean of days 5, 7, and 10 of incubation) were 3.3%, 1.5%, and 0.2%, respectively. The occurrence and kinetics of the measured aflatoxins and their precursors sterigmatocystin, O-methylsterigmatocystin, 11-hydroxy-O-methylsterigmatocystin, aspertoxin, and 11-hydroxyaspertoxin (group 1) as well as of dihydrosterigmatocystin and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin (group 2) supported the so far postulated biosynthetic pathway. Remarkable high levels of O-methylsterigmatocystin and aspertoxin (17.4% and 4.9% compared to AFB1) were found, raising the question about the toxicological relevance of these intermediates. In conclusion, based on the study results, the monitoring of O-methylsterigmatocystin and aspertoxin as well as M-group aflatoxins in food is recommended.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Comércio , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Internacionalidade , Zea mays
19.
Vopr Pitan ; 91(1): 37-52, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298103

RESUMO

To solve one of the most important tasks of food hygiene - ensuring foodstuff biosafety, the leading place is given to the use of nucleic acid sequencing methods that allow to identify and describe the nucleotide sequences of genomes both in individual microorganisms and metagenomic characteristics of microbial communities in environmental objects, in humans and animals. The purpose of the review was to analyze the main areas of sequencing application in food microbiology, biotechnology and epidemiology. Material and methods. The collection and analysis of scientific and informational materials published in domestic and foreign publications from Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, RSCI databases, official reports of the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and other published sources has been carried out. Results. The review presents generalized characteristics of the most well-known sequencing formats based on different principles of reading and processing genetic information: capillary sequencing by Sanger, pyrosequencing, sequencing by ligation, sequencing by DNA synthesis, semiconductor high-performance sequencing, sequencing of individual DNA molecules. It is shown that multilocus analysis (MLST, MLVA) increases the specificity of genotyping and intraspecific identification of food-borne pathogens. It is used to assess the pathogenic potential and study the mechanisms of evolutionary variability of bacterial pathogens, leading to polymorphism of clonal lines and the appearance of strain-specific differences, to monitor the different genotypes of pathogens in production and other objects of the food chain. Nanopore sequencing is promising for studying bacterial plasmids and localization of resistance genes of MDR bacteria. Genome-wide analysis (WGS) makes it possible to identify detailed characteristics of pathogens of infectious diseases, including uncultivated and previously unknown microorganisms, as well as to study the features of the organization of individual pro- and eukaryotic genomes, gene regulation systems, pathogenicity factors and protein expression. The role of WGS methods for determining the degree of genetic kinship of infectious agents isolated from various sources in the investigation of outbreaks and sporadic food poisoning and infections is shown. The possibilities of metagenomic sequencing in the study of species composition, genetic diversity and metabolic potential of microbial communities are demonstrated. The main advantage of metagenomics is the possibility of direct sequencing of the genomes of microorganisms living in the human body, animals, water, soil and other objects. Metagenomic analysis plays a leading role in the detection of unexplored taxa, uncultivated and difficult-to-cultivate forms of a wide range of microorganisms. The most important direction of metagenomics is the study of the human or animal microbiome, the analysis of the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and metabolism, as well as the formation of the nutritional status of a person. Theoretical and practical aspects of the implementation of high-performance sequencing methods in the system of food biosafety assessment and control are reviewed: safety assessment of genetically modified strains of food producers, development of fundamentally new algorithms for investigating outbreaks of infectious diseases, creation of network systems for early diagnosis and notification of food infections of bacterial and viral etiology. Conclusion. Sequencing should become a standard methodology in the field of food safety for the identification and characterization of food pathogens, including those with resistance to antibiotics and adverse technological effects. The introduction of WGS into the food safety assessment and control system will make it possible to assess real food contamination with new and newly returning pathogens, create electronic databases and scientifically substantiate the most adequate measures for the prevention of food infections and ensuring the health of the population.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e054940, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine women's perception of the risk of food safety and how it relates to diet, health and decision making as part of formative research for a market-based intervention that aims to improve the safety of animal-source foods sold in informal markets. DESIGN: Qualitative study including in-depth personal interviews with 24 caregivers were conducted and complemented with a second follow-up PhotoVoice interview, which allowed the women to photograph their meals and perceptions of food safety and nutrition. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis in MAXQDA. Participants were purposively sampled from a larger Safe Food, Fair Food for Cambodia study, conducted from May to August 2018. SETTING: Urban and periurban neighborhoods of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. PARTICIPANTS: 24 female caregivers (mothers and grandmothers) of children under age 5, each interviewed twice. FINDINGS: A primary food safety concern expressed was that chemicals (pesticides and other agricultural additives) in animal-source foods, fruits and vegetables may impact the health of their families by causing diarrhoea and problems during pregnancy. This fear created a lack of trust in markets, which influenced their food purchasing behaviours and strategies for making the food safer for their families. These mitigation strategies, including food selection and cleaning, vary among the women but are perceived as important to be able to provide their families with what they define as safe meals. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that wish to decrease rates of foodborne illness and increase animal source food consumption should also address the belief that the food system has been compromised by the addition of pesticides and agricultural additives.


Assuntos
Dieta , Praguicidas , Animais , Camboja , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Percepção , Gravidez , Verduras
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