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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 46, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982241

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic fungi like Beauveria bassiana play a crucial role in natural control of arthropod pests which are being used in Integrated Pest Management programs. Assessing the compatibility of biological and chemical counterparts used in IPM programs is essential to achieve successful results in pest management. Behavior of four isolates of B. bassiana (ITCC 913, ARSEF 2860, ARSEF 1166, and ARSEF 3041) was tested in the presence of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin. Spore germination and growth bioassays were conducted to assess the impact of cypermethrin on germination and growth. Though growth was not totally inhibited, there was retardation in the germination of spores and growth of the mycelium. Under this condition, ITCC 913 showed highest tolerance toward cypermethrin. Further analysis of the culture crude extracts by GC-MS revealed degradation of the insecticide by B. bassiana and putative intermediates of the degradation pathway were identified. This study reveals the potential of the entomopathogen B. bassiana in degradation of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin. In conclusion, this potentiality of the studied fungus may help in the IPM strategies and find its role in degradation of such chemical pesticide compounds for utilization as a biodegradation agent further.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Controle Biológico de Vetores
2.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 15, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoids are widely applied in the control of the destructive agricultural pest Bemisia tabaci, and resistance against these chemicals has become a common, severe problem in the control of whiteflies. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying resistance against nenonicotinoids in whiteflies, RNA-seq technology was applied, and the variation in the transcriptomic profiles of susceptible whiteflies and whiteflies selected by imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam treatment was characterized. RESULTS: A total of 90.86 GB of clean sequence data were obtained from the 4 transcriptomes. Among the 16,069 assembled genes, 584, 110 and 147 genes were upregulated in the imidacloprid-selected strain (IMI), acetamiprid-selected strain (ACE), and thiamethoxam (THI)-selected strain, respectively, relative to the susceptible strain. Detoxification-related genes including P450s, cuticle protein genes, GSTs, UGTs and molecular chaperone HSP70s were overexpressed in the selected resistant strains, especially in the IMI strain. Five genes were downregulated in all three selected resistant strains, including 2 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B18-like genes (LOC 109030370 and LOC 109032577). CONCLUSIONS: Ten generations of selection with the three neonicotinoids induced different resistance levels and gene expression profiles, mainly involving cuticle protein and P450 genes, in the three selected resistant whitefly strains. The results provide a reference for research on resistance and cross-resistance against neonicotinoids in B. tabaci.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Hemípteros/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Tiametoxam
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 66, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993647

RESUMO

Insecticides are effective against economic pests, but these pose serious threats to the environment and ecosystem components such as natural enemies. Resistance risk assessment forecasts insecticide resistance development in target pests and non-target biological control agents under special conditions. Field-collected Chrysoperla carnea was selected with two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) viz. cyromazine and methoxyfenozide for 15 generations to determine the resistance development potential of this natural enemy. Selection to cyromazine and methoxyfenozide induced 759.08-fold and 3531.67-fold resistance with realized heritability of 0.37 and 0.62 in C. carnea, respectively, suggesting higher additive genetic variations in first half of selection (h2 = 0.46 for cyromazine and h2 = 0.75 for methoxyfenozide) than in second half (h2 = 0.18 and 0.25, respectively). Estimates of projected rate of resistance development indicate C. carnea will take only 6 to 2 generations at h2 = 0.37, 8 to 2 at h2 = 0.27, and 5 to 2 at h2 = 0.27, at constant slope = 1.81 for a tenfold increase in cyromazine resistance. At h2 = 0.37, 3-1, and 10-8 generations would be needed for this increase in LC50 if slope = 0.82 and 2.82, respectively. Similarly, it may take 3 to 1 generations at h2 = 0.62 and 0.72, but 4 to 1 at h2 = 0.52, at constant slope = 1.62, for a tenfold increase in methoxyfenozide resistance. On the same h2 = 0.62, 1-0, and 5-1 generations would be required for increase if slope = 0.62 and 2.62, respectively. Selection and resistance to both insecticides induced an insignificant difference in the sex ratio of C. carnea. These results confirm that this natural enemy has tremendous potential for resistance development under selection pressure.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrazinas , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Hormônios Juvenis , Larva , Medição de Risco , Triazinas
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2360: 119-138, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495512

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing and analyses of whole-genome transcripts can be used to identify genes and potential mechanisms that may be responsible for the development of resistance to insecticides. Such genes can be identified by isolating and sequencing high-quality messenger RNA and identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and gene variants from insecticide-treated and untreated colonies of the Green peach aphid (GPA) or resistant and susceptible GPA populations. Datasets generated would reveal a set of genes whose expression may be associated with the insecticide treatment. The DEGs can then be validated using quantitative PCR assays.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Prunus persica , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Prunus persica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus persica/genética
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2360: 187-208, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495516

RESUMO

Identifying genes responsive to insecticide treatment is the first step towards understanding the mechanism(s) of insecticide resistance and the development of effective insecticides against economic insect pests such as the Green peach aphid (GPA). Functional and Reverse Genetics approaches such as the RNA interference (RNAi) technology can be used to assess the possible involvement of genes whose expression is associated with an insecticide treatment. For GPA, this can be done by comparing the behavior and development of the insect following RNAi of a putative gene associated with insecticide treatment and exposure of the RNAi-treated insects to lethal doses of insecticides. In a case where knockdown of a gene or genes increases the susceptibility of RNAi-treated populations compared to controls, the target gene may have a direct role in the development of resistance to the insecticide or the gene may be involved in other metabolic processes that may be required for resilience against the insecticide.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Prunus persica , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Prunus persica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus persica/genética , Interferência de RNA
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150254, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798758

RESUMO

Although the toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides has been demonstrated in several studies, the information on metabolism, behavior, and health risk remains limited and has raised concerns about its potential toxicity. Thus, in this study we assessed the effects of nitenpyram using different sublethal concentrations (one-third and one-tenth of the acute LC50 values) on various developmental and metabolic parameters from gene expression regulation in Drosophila melanogaster (model system used worldwide in ecotoxicological studies). As a result, nitenpyram sublethal concentrations prolonged the developmental time for both pupation and eclosion. Additionally, nitenpyram sublethal concentrations significantly decreased the lifespan, pupation rate, eclosion rate, and production of eggs of D. melanogaster. Moreover, the mRNA expression of genes relevant for development and metabolism was significantly elevated after exposure. Mixed function oxidase enzymes (Cyp12d1), (Cyp9f2), and (Cyp4ae1), hemocyte proliferation (RyR), and immune response (IM4) genes were upregulated, whereas lifespan (Atg7), male mating behavior (Ple), female fertility (Ddc), and lipid metabolism (Sxe2) genes were downregulated. These findings support a solid basis for further research to determine the hazardous effects of nitenpyram on health and the environment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophilidae , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophilidae/metabolismo , Feminino , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Reprodução , Transcriptoma
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 180: 104981, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955174

RESUMO

The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest and causes great damages each year. Afidopyropen is a novel insecticide with high efficacy against even the insecticides resistant M. persicae. However, the sublethal and transgenerational effects of afidopyropen on M. persicae is not clear. In the present paper, sublethal and transgenerational effects of afidopyropen on biological traits of M. persicae were determined based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The afidopyropen was more toxic against M. persicae than other widely used insecticides, with LC50 of 0.086 mg/L. The treatment with LC5, LC15 and LC25 concentrations of afidopyropen remarkably reduced the longevity and fecundity of F0M. persicae by 15.9-64.4% and 24.3-76.7%, respectively, compared with those of the control. The life history traits of F1 generation including the pre-adult development time, mean total longevity, pre-adult survival rate, total pre-oviposition period and fecundity were significantly affected after treatment of the F0 with afidopyropen, and the population parameters, including the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were also remarkably decreased, while the mean generation time (T) was extended by 6.94%. Among four development and reproduction related genes investigated, JHEH was downregulated by 31.8-38.0% in the afidopyropen treated F0 generation, while the EcR and JHAMT were overexpressed and the Vg was significantly downregulated in F1 generation compared to the control group. All these data indicated that the afidopyropen had significant sublethal and transgenerational effects on M. persicae. These results provide insights into comprehensively understanding of the insecticidal effects of afidopyropen on M. persicae as well as the management of resistant M. persicae.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Inseticidas , Lactonas , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Prunus persica
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 180: 104984, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955177

RESUMO

The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an important natural enemy of phytophagous mites, and naturally established populations are often found in apple orchards. However, insecticide applications to control pests cause side effects to non-target organisms such as N. californicus. Pirimicarb, a widely used carbamate insecticide in apple orchards, is generally considered a selective aphidicide, however, toxicity to beneficial insects and predatory mites has been reported. Furthermore, the molecular basis for this selectivity, if present in N. californicus, is still largely unknown. In this study, 8 field-collected N. californicus populations were investigated and showed up to 27-fold resistance compared to a susceptible laboratory population. Selection in the laboratory for 5 consecutive generations resulted in a 69-fold pirimicarb resistance. Although there were no significant difference in terms of the acetlycholinesterase (AChE) activity between susceptible and field-collected populations, the selected population exhibited a significantly higher AChE activity. In addition, gene copy number variation of acetylcholinesterase (ace) gene among populations was detected and ranged from 1.6 to 2.1-fold relative to the susceptible population. All field-collected populations, but not the selected population, had a significantly higher ace copy number compared to the susceptible population (t-test, p < 0.05). Molecular analysis of the target-site (AChE) revealed, for the first time, a phenylalanine to tryptophan substition at position 331 in AChE (Torpedo californica numbering), both in field-collected and the selected population, but not in the susceptible population. Last, the selected F5 population consumed significantly more Tetranychusurticae adults than the parental population. Together, the results of this study shed light on the molecular determinants of acaricide selectivity in predatory mites, and will contribute to a better design of an integrated mite management program, including the use of pesticide resistant N. californicus in apple orchards.


Assuntos
Carbamatos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Ácaros , Pirimidinas , Tetranychidae , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Inseticidas , Controle Biológico de Vetores
9.
Food Chem ; 372: 131153, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628119

RESUMO

We searched for five neonicotenoids (namely acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) in 67 samples of fruits, leaves, pollen and honey via HPLC-MS by employing QueChERs for extraction and purification. Clothianidin was never detected, while imidacloprid was identified in apple (9.2 µg/kg) and pollen (18-28 µg/Kg), thiacloprid in peaches (21-35 µg/kg) and acetamiprid was identified in the hazel leaves (1266 µg/kg), honey (13-26 µg /Kg) and pollen (11-24 µg/kg). Since the levels found of acetamiprid in hazel, honey and pollen were concerning, we accomplished a study to identify and characterize the possible transformation products via a laboratory simulation. The methodology exploited the analysis by HPLC-HRMS and its application in all matrices. We identify twelve transformation products, whose formation involved dimerization, hydroxylation, oxidation, demethylation and cleavage of the molecule. Three of them were also detected in hazel leaves.


Assuntos
Mel , Inseticidas , Frutas/química , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Tiametoxam
10.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118317, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634407

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids have been often detected in aquatic environment with high concentrations; however, little is known about their risk and fate to/in fish. This study systematically investigated the bio-uptake, tissue distribution and metabolism of neonicotinoids in zebrafish, taking clothianidin (CLO) as an example. The results revealed the uptake and elimination kinetics of CLO in whole fish and different tissues was very similar, and its bioconcentration factor (<1) indicates the low bioaccumulation potential in zebrafish. The highest accumulative tissues for CLO were found to be intestine and liver. Eight biotransformation products were identified in intestine and liver, and the metabolic pathways were found to be N-demethylation and nitro-reduction. The metabolic kinetics of two products (desmethyl clothianidin and clothianidin urea) revealed the metabolism of CLO mainly occurred in liver and intestine. This suggested that the hepatobiliary system played an important role in the metabolism and elimination of CLO. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the toxicokinetics of CLO in zebrafish, and these results can contribute to its ecological risk assessment.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Animais , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Tiazóis , Distribuição Tecidual , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118334, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637834

RESUMO

The negative influence of agrochemicals (pesticides: insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide) on biodiversity is a major ecological concern. In recent decades, many insect species are reported to have rapidly declined worldwide, and pesticides, including neonicotinoids and fipronil, are suspected to be partially responsible. In Japan, application of systemic insecticides to nursery boxes in rice paddies is considered to have caused rapid declines in Sympetrum (Odonata: Libellulidae) and other dragonfly and damselfly populations since the 1990s. In addition to the direct lethal effects of pesticides, agrochemicals indirectly affect Odonata populations through reductions in macrophytes, which provide a habitat, and prey organisms. Due to technical restrictions, most previous studies first selected target chemicals and then analyzed their influence on focal organisms at various levels, from the laboratory to the field. However, in natural and agricultural environments, various chemicals co-occur and can act synergistically. Under such circumstances, targeted analyses might lead to spurious correlations between a target chemical and the abundance of organisms. To address such problems, in this study we adopted a novel technique, "Comprehensive Target Analysis with an Automated Identification and Quantification System (CTA-AIQS)" to detect wide range of agrochemicals in water environment. The relationships between a wide range of pesticides and lentic Odonata communities were surveyed in agricultural and non-agricultural areas in Saga Plain, Kyushu, Japan. We detected significant negative relationships between several insecticides, i.e., acephate, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flubendiamide, pymetrozine, and thiametoxam (marginal for benthic odonates) and the abundance of lentic Epiprocta and benthic Odonates. In contrast, the herbicides we detected were not significantly related to the abundance of aquatic macrophytes, suggesting a lower impact of herbicides on aquatic vegetation at the field level. These results highlight the need for further assessments of the influence of non-neonicotinoid insecticides on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Odonatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agroquímicos , Animais , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Japão , Neonicotinoides , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118335, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637835

RESUMO

Sown seeds are a key component of many farmland birds' diets due to natural food shortages in autumn and winter. Because these seeds are often treated with pesticides, their ingestion by birds can result in toxic effects. For risk assessment, data on treated seed toxicity should be combined with information about exposure risk for wild birds and the factors that modulate it. We characterized the exposure of red-legged partridges to pesticide-treated seeds through the analysis of digestive contents of birds shot by hunters (n = 194) in an agricultural region in central Spain. We measured the contribution of sown seeds to the partridges' diet and how it related to pesticide exposure. Moreover, we evaluated the influence of landscape composition on the intake of sown seeds and pesticides by partridges. During peak sowing time, seeds constituted half (50.7%) of the fresh biomass ingested by partridges, which consumed mostly winter cereal seeds (42.3% of biomass). Residues of seven fungicides and one insecticide (active ingredients) were detected in 33.0% of birds. The presence of pesticides in digestive contents was linked to the ingestion of cereal sown seeds. Moreover, dietary exposure of birds to pesticides was modulated by landscape characteristics, being lower in areas with heterogeneous landscapes, greater habitat mosaic and more natural vegetation. The estimated dietary intake of pesticides resulting from our field observations, in combination with experimental data on pesticide toxicity, raise concerns about the risks that pesticide-treated cereal seeds pose to granivorous bird populations. Our results highlight the importance of farming landscape composition and diversification, which should be considered as a priority in the agricultural policy to mitigate pesticide risks to farmland birds through the consumption of treated seeds.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Galliformes , Inseticidas , Animais , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Espanha
13.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131926, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435577

RESUMO

The redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, was introduced to Martinique Island for aquaculture purposes at the beginning of the 21st century, in an attempt to revitalize the freshwater crustacean aquaculture sector. Mainly due to its high economical value, it was intentionally released in the wild and was caught and sold by fishermen. Martinican rivers are polluted by chlordecone, considered as one of the worst Persistant Organic Pollutants (POP). Despite its dangerousness, it was used until 1993 in the French West Indies against a banana pest and was always found in the ecosystems. This study aimed to investigate the level of contamination in the muscle of crayfish caught in the wild, as well as the potential of bioconcentration and depuration in the C. quadricarinatus muscle. This study could allow us to quantify the risk for consumers but also, to evaluate a depuration process to reduce the risk related to its consumption. Using both in-vitro and in-situ experiments, results highlighted the importance of the chlordecone concentration in the water and the time of exposure to the pollutant. The bioconcentration seems to be very quick and continuous in crayfish muscle, as chlordecone can be detectable as early as 6 h of exposure, whatever the concentration tested. Finally, it appears that, even after 20 days of depuration in chlordecone-free water, chlordecone concentrations remained higher to the residual maximum limit (i.e. 20 ng/g wet weight), concluding that the decontamination of the muscle seems not very efficient, and the risk for the Martinican people could be serious.


Assuntos
Clordecona , Inseticidas , Animais , Astacoidea , Bioacumulação , Clordecona/análise , Ecossistema , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Martinica
14.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132461, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624342

RESUMO

In recent years, the importance of bee's biodiversity in the Neotropical region has been evidencing the relevance of including native bees in risk assessments. Therefore, the sublethal effects of the insecticide thiamethoxam on the survival and morphological parameters of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris were investigated in the present study. Cells from both non-target organs (Malpighian tubules and midgut) and target organs (brain) were analyzed for morphological alterations using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The findings showed that when M. scutellaris foragers were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam (LC50/100 = 0.000543 ng a. i./µL), longevity was not reduced but brain function was affected, even with the non-target organs attempting to detoxify. The cellular damage in all the organs was mostly reflected in irregular nuclei shape and condensed chromatin, indicating cell death. The most frequent impairments in the Malpighian tubules were loss of microvilli, disorganization of the basal labyrinth, and cytoplasmic loss. These characteristics are related to an attempt by the cells to increase the excretion process, probably because of the high number of toxic molecules that reach the Malpighian tubules and need to be secreted. In general, damages that compromise the absorption of nutrients, excretion, memory, and learning processes, which are essential for the survival of M. scutellaris, were found. The present results also fill in gaps on how these bees respond to thiamethoxam exposure and will be useful in future risk assessments for the conservation of bee biodiversity.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Animais , Abelhas , Sistema Digestório , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Longevidade , Tiametoxam
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150863, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626633

RESUMO

Enantioselective metabolism of chiral pesticide in plants is very important. In vitro system has become an effective means to study the metabolism of pesticides in plants, but the study on the metabolism of chiral pesticides has not been reported. This work compared the enantiomer metabolic behavior of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos between tea cell suspensions and excised tea stem with leaves. (±)-Acephate could be absorbed and transferred well to top leaves by the cut end of excised stem after 24 h. (±)-Methamidophos was derived from the metabolism of (±)-acephate in tea plants at 3-5% in leaves and 2-3% in stems at 216 h. The content of (+)-methamidophos was 1.5 times higher than that of (-)-methamidophos in excised leaves. Though both (±)-acephate and (±)-methamidophos could be metabolized well by cell suspension, (±)-acephate and (±)-methamidophos was non-enantioselectively metabolized in cell suspension. It was shown that using the excised tea stem with leaves for chiral pesticide metabolism studies was much closer to intact plant than cell suspensions. This result also established an effective and easily available in vitro metabolic model for the study of enantioselective metabolism of chiral contaminants from environment.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Inseticidas , Inseticidas/análise , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Fosforamidas , Folhas de Planta/química , Estereoisomerismo , Suspensões , Chá
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150517, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794910

RESUMO

Beta-cypermethrin (ß-CYP), a widely-used pyrethroid pesticide, is considered to have anti-androgenic effects and could impair male reproduction. To ascertain whether MAPK pathways, DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), and miRNAs played pleiotropic roles in ß-CYP-mediated testicular dysfunction, Sprague-Dawley rats and Leydig cells were employed in this study. Results showed that plasma testosterone levels were declined, testicular histomorphology and ultrastructures were abnormally altered, and Leydig cell functions were damaged after ß-CYP exposure. JNK and p38/MAPK pathways were inactivated, accompanied by the decrease in c-Jun and Sp1 expressions. Specific activators/inhibitors of MAPK pathways and Co-IP demonstrated that DNMT3α was synergistically regulated by JNK/p38 pathways. The activity, mRNA and protein expressions of DNMT3α were all reduced by ß-CYP. ß-CYP induced expressions of intronic miR-140-5p and its host gene Wwp2, and then overexpressed miR-140-5p suppressed steroidogenic StAR, P450scc, and 3ß-HSD by directly targeting SF-1. SF-1 silencing/overexpression, ChIP, and qPCR indicated that SF-1 modulated positively StAR, P450scc, and 3ß-HSD expressions by directly binding to their promoter regions. Intriguingly, 5α-reductase expressions were downregulated after ß-CYP exposure. Collectively, ß-CYP has the anti-androgenic feature and the DNMT3α/miR-140-5p/SF-1 cascade co-regulated by JNK/p38 functions critically in ß-CYP-caused testosterone declines. The downregulation of 5α-reductases may be a potential compensatory mechanism of the organism.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , MicroRNAs , Piretrinas , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/deficiência , Animais , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Chemosphere ; 289: 133238, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896427

RESUMO

Fipronil (FP) is an emerging insecticide which could induce reproductive toxicity in male rats at very low dosage, but the occurrence of FP and its transformation products (FPs) in human seminal plasma and their impacts on human semen quality have not been documented. In this study, FPs including FP, fipronil desulfinyl (FP-DES), fipronil sulfone (FP-SFO), fipronil amide (FP-AM), and fipronil sulfide (FP-SFI), were measured in seminal plasma samples (n = 200), which were collected from Shijiazhuang, north China. The cumulative concentration of FPs (ΣFPs), in the seminal plasma samples ranged from 0.003 to 0.180 ng/mL (median: 0.043 ng/mL). FP-SFO was the major target analyte (median: 0.040 ng/mL), accounting for approximately 42.3-100.0% of the ΣFPs. Significantly higher exposure levels of FPs were found in the overweight or obese group (≥25 kg/m2) vs. the normal BMI group (18.5-25 kg/m2) (ΣFPs: 0.047 vs. 0.033 ng/mL), never smoking group vs. current smoking group (ΣFPs: 0.057 vs. 0.037 ng/mL), and low sexual frequency group (<1 time/week) vs. high sexual frequency group (≥3 times/week) (ΣFPs: 0.048 vs. 0.030 ng/mL). No significant association between FPs and impaired semen quality parameter was found in this study. This is the first time to report FPs' occurrence in human seminal plasma and variations in their concentrations among people with different demographic and behavioral characteristics. Further studies on adverse effects of exposure to FPs on reproductive function are needed.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Sêmen , Animais , China , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Pirazóis , Ratos , Sêmen/química , Análise do Sêmen
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113090, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929500

RESUMO

The combination of crop planting and animal rearing in the same area is popular. However, if the methods of planting and rearing are not appropriate, it will result in losses and the disruption of pest management. The toxicities of 17 insecticides to Plutella xylostella, Eriocheir sinensis, and Procambarus clarkii were tested. The recommended maximum field doses were used in 2 d and 4 d bioassays, and the levels of resistance of P. xylostella to insecticides were determined. Of five insecticides that had relatively low toxicity to E. sinensis and P. clarkii, spinetoram and MbNPV showed the best control efficacy of P. xylostella, followed by tetrachlorantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, and avermectin. P. xylostella had relatively little resistance to spinetoram, MbNPV, chlorantraniliprole, and avermectin. Therefore, we concluded that the best insecticides suitable for combination planting and rearing fields (cauliflower-crab or cauliflower-crayfish) were spinetoram and MbNPV, followed by chlorantraniliprole and avermectin. Other insecticides, such as emamectin benzoate, indoxacarb, and chlorfenapyr were effective at controlling P. xylostella, but they were not suitable for use in combination planting and rearing fields because of their high toxicity to crabs and crayfish.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Animais , Crustáceos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150026, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500277

RESUMO

Pesticides are extensively used to control pests, diseases, and weeds in order to increase agricultural production. Usage of indiscriminate doses and persistent pesticides has not only caused resistance issues in insect pests but has also had deleterious effects on non-target organisms (beneficial insects, fish, and wildlife) and caused environmental contamination (soil, water, and air) through leaching, overflow, and insecticide spray drift. Exposure from eating food and drinking water contaminated to pesticide residues is also affecting human health. This study was conducted to obtain information to reduce pesticide resistance and environmental pollution. A cotton dusky bug (Oxycarenus hyalinipennis) population was collected from a farmer's field and exposed to fipronil for 18 generations. In comparison to an unselected strain (XYZ-FS) and a field population (Field-Popn), the fipronil-selected strain of O. hyalinipennis (XYZ-FR) developed a 2631.50-fold level of resistance and a 202.42-fold resistance level respectively. Significantly higher fecundity was observed in the XYZ-FS (24.93) compared to that of Hybrid2 (XYZ-FR ♀ XYZ-FS ♂) (17.60), Hybrid1 (XYZ-FR ♂ × XYZ-FS ♀) (17.13), and XYZ-FR (12.6). The intrinsic rate of natural increase, relative fitness and biotic potential were highest in XYZ-FS, followed by Hybrid2, Hybrid1, and XYZ-FR. The XYZ-FR strain of O. hyalinipennis had very low cross-resistance to profenofos (1.15-2.83-fold), and emamectin benzoate (1.09-2.86-fold) and moderate resistance to bifenthrin (5.49-24.54-fold) when selection progressed from G4 to G19. The proper use of this pesticide, along with rotation and a high-dose strategy may helpful to reduce the risk of resistance development and also its negative impacts on the environment and humans.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis , Medição de Risco
20.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132089, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509765

RESUMO

Plant essential oil-based insecticides, with special reference to those that may be obtained from largely available biomasses, represent a valuable tool for Integrated Pest Management. However, the sublethal effects and the potential effects on aggressive insect traits of these green insecticides are understudied. Herein, the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the carlina oxide, constituting more than 97% of the whole Carlina acaulis (Asteraceae) root essential oil (EO), were determined against an invasive polyphagous tephritid pest, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). The carlina oxide was formulated in a mucilaginous solution containing carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, sucrose, and hydrolysed proteins, showing high ingestion toxicity on medfly adults. The behavioural effects of carlina oxide at LC10 and LC30 were evaluated on the medfly aggressive traits, which are crucial for securing reproductive success in both sexes. Insecticide exposure affected the directionality of aggressive actions, but not the aggression escalation intensity and duration. The EO safety to mammals was investigated by studying its acute toxicity on the stomach, liver, and kidney of rats after oral administration. Only the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) of the EO caused modest neurological signs and moderate effects on the stomach, liver, and kidney. The other doses, which are closer to the practical use of the EO when formulated in protein baits, did not cause side effects. Overall, C. acaulis-based products are effective and safe to non-target mammals, deserving further consideration for eco-friendly pesticide formulations.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Ceratitis capitata , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mamíferos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Ratos
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