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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248122, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355851

RESUMO

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


Resumo Por ser o vetor do vírus do Nilo Ocidental e da falaríase, o controle de Culex quinquefasciatus Say é provavelmente essencial. O tratamento com inseticida sintético parece ser mais eficaz para o controle dos mosquitos vetores. No entanto, esses produtos são tóxicos para o meio ambiente e organismos não visados. Consequentemente, o controle ecológico dos mosquitos vetores é necessário. Nesse sentido, o inseticida botânico parece mais produtivo. Portanto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia do extrato metanólico e de várias frações, incluindo n-hexano, acetato de etila, clorofórmio e fração aquosa, obtidos do extrato metanólico de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. e Justicia adhatoda L. usando funil de separação contra os estágios larval, pupal e adulto de C. quinquefasciatus. As larvas e pupas de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a várias concentrações (31,25-1000 ppm) de extrato metanólico, e suas frações por 24 horas de período de exposição. Para o bioensaio knock-down (bioensaio de impregnação de papel de filtro), diferentes concentrações do extrato metanólico e suas várias frações (ou seja, 0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1 mg / mL) foram aplicadas por um período de exposição de 1 hora. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando desvio padrão, análise Probit e regressão linear. Os valores de R2 de larvas, pupas e adultos variaram de 0,4 a 0,99. Os valores de LC50 (concentração que causa 50% de mortalidade) para larvas de terceiro estádio tardio após 24 horas de período de exposição variaram de 93-1856,7 ppm, enquanto os valores de LC90 variaram de 424-7635,5ppm. Os valores de LC50 para pupas variaram de 1326,7-6818,4 ppm e os valores de LC90 variaram de 3667,3-17427,9 ppm, respectivamente. O KDT50 variou de 0,30 a 2,8% e os valores de KDT90 variaram de 1,2 a 110,8%, respectivamente. Por fim, a espécie J. adhatoda pôde ser eficaz para controlar populações de mosquitos vetores.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Anopheles , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

RESUMO

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aedes , Fusarium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Paquistão , Solo , Extratos Vegetais , Florestas , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

RESUMO

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Citrus , Aedes , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Frutas , Larva
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247676, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345527

RESUMO

Abstract Development of insecticides resistance mainly hinge with managements techniques for the control of Jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Five insecticides were applied against field collected and laboratory rared jassid populations during the years of 2017 to 2019 to profile their resistance level against field population of jassid through leaf dip method. Very low resistance level was found in jassid against confidor whereas high level of resistance was observed by pyriproxyfen against other test insecticides. Gradual resistance was observed against diafenthiuron. It is concluded that for the management of Jassid repetition of same insecticide should be avoided. The use of confidor may be reduced to overcome resistance against Jassid.


Resumo Desenvolvimento da resistência a inseticidas principalmente em dobradiça com técnicas de manejo para o controle de jassid, Amrasca biguttutla biguttutla. Cinco inseticidas foram aplicados contra populações de jassídeos coletados em campo e em laboratório durante os anos de 2017 a 2019 para traçar o perfil de seu nível de resistência contra populações de jassídeos em campo através do método de imersão nas folhas. Nível de resistência muito baixo foi encontrado em jassid contra confidor, enquanto alto nível de resistência foi observado por piriproxifeno contra outros inseticidas de teste. Resistência gradual foi observada contra o diafenthiuron. Conclui-se que, para o manejo do jassid, a repetição do mesmo inseticida deve ser evitada. O uso de confidor pode ser reduzido para superar a resistência contra jassid.


Assuntos
Animais , Hemípteros , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Laboratórios
6.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267278, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the recent occurrence of locally transmitted Aedes-borne viruses in the continental United States and Europe, and a lack of effective vaccines, new approaches to control Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are needed. In sub-tropical urban settings in the US, Ae. albopictus is a dominant nuisance and arbovirus vector species. Unfortunately, the vector control toolbox against Ae. albopictus is not as well developed as for Ae. aegypti. Here, we evaluate the efficacy, longevity, and range of protectiveness of a novel passive metofluthrin emanator (10% active ingredient in a polyethylene mesh) against Ae. albopictus indoors and outdoors. METHODS: Four studies were conducted comparing the presence of the metofluthrin emanator to a control lacking emanator with interest in quantifying efficacy by human landing counts. Studies evaluated the effect of an emanator at varying distances from one or more human volunteers indoors and outdoors. Efficacy of emanators over time since activation was also evaluated. RESULTS: Mixed-effects models determined that sitting in close proximity to an emanator reduced landings by 89.5% outdoors and by 74.6% indoors. The emanator was determined protective when located immediately next to a human volunteer outdoors but not uniformly protective when located further away. The emanator was protective at all tested distances from the device indoors. Mortality of mosquitoes exposed to metofluthrin emanators was ~2x higher than those who were not exposed in indoor conditions. Finally, a Generalized Additive Model determined that emanators used continuously outdoors lost their effect after 2.5 weeks and stopped inducing paralysis in mosquitoes after 3.8 weeks of use. CONCLUSIONS: We show strong and lasting efficacy of 10% metofluthrin emanators against field Ae. albopictus both in indoor and outdoor conditions. Metofluthrin emanators can protect people from Ae. albopictus bites, representing a viable option for reducing human-mosquito contacts at home and beyond.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclopropanos , Fluorbenzenos , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores
7.
J Insect Sci ; 22(3)2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526103

RESUMO

The control of mosquito populations using insecticides is increasingly threatened by the spread of resistance mechanisms. Dieldrin resistance, conferred by point mutations in the Rdl gene encoding the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, has been reported at high prevalence in mosquito populations in response to selective pressures. In this study, we monitored spatio-temporal dynamics of the resistance-conferring RdlR allele in Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) populations from Reunion Island. Specimens of both mosquito species were sampled over a 12-month period in three cities and in sites located at lower (<61 m) and higher (between 503 and 564 m) altitudes. Mosquitoes were genotyped using a molecular test detecting the alanine to serine substitution (A302S) in the Rdl gene. Overall, the RdlR frequencies were higher in Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. albopictus. For both mosquito species, the RdlR frequencies were significantly influenced by location and altitude with higher RdlR frequencies in the most urbanized areas and at lower altitudes. This study highlights environmental factors that influence the dynamics of insecticide resistance genes, which is critical for the management of insecticide resistance and the implementation of alternative and efficient vector control strategies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Inseticidas , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Culex/genética , Dieldrin , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Reunião
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 163, 2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most devastating diseases globally, and the control of mosquitoes as the vector is mainly dependent on chemical insecticides. Elevated temperatures associated with future warmer climates could affect mosquitoes' metabolic enzyme expression and increase insecticide resistance, making vector control difficult. Understanding how mosquito rearing temperatures influence their susceptibility to insecticide and expression of metabolic enzymes could aid in the development of novel tools and strategies to control mosquitoes in a future warmer climate. This study evaluated the effects of temperature on the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes to pyrethroids and their expression of metabolic enzymes. METHODS: Anopheles gambiae s.l. eggs obtained from laboratory-established colonies were reared under eight temperature regimes (25, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, and 40 °C). Upon adult emergence, 3- to 5-day-old female non-blood-fed mosquitoes were used for susceptibility tests following the World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay protocol. Batches of 20-25 mosquitoes from each temperature regime (25-34 °C) were exposed to two pyrethroid insecticides (0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin). In addition, the levels of four metabolic enzymes (α-esterase, ß-esterase, glutathione S-transferase [GST], and mixed-function oxidase [MFO]) were examined in mosquitoes that were not exposed and those that were exposed to pyrethroids. RESULTS: Mortality in An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin and permethrin decreased at temperatures above 28 °C. In addition, mosquitoes reared at higher temperatures were more resistant and had more elevated enzyme levels than those raised at low temperatures. Overall, mosquitoes that survived after being exposed to pyrethroids had higher levels of metabolic enzymes than those that were not exposed to pyrethroids. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that elevated temperatures decreased An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes' susceptibility to pyrethroids and increased the expression of metabolic enzymes. This evidence suggests that elevated temperatures projected in a future warmer climate could increase mosquitoes' resistance to insecticides and complicate malaria vector control measures. This study therefore provides vital information, and suggests useful areas of future research, on the effects of temperature variability on mosquitoes that could guide vector control measures in a future warmer climate.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Esterases , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Permetrina/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Temperatura
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 156, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The city of Guangzhou has been the epicenter of dengue fever in China since the 1990s, with Aedes albopictus being the primary vector. The main method used to control vectors and prevent dengue fever has been the application of chemical insecticides; however, this control strategy has resulted in the development of resistance to these insecticides in mosquitoes. Here we report our investigation of the patterns of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in 15 field populations of Ae. albopictus collected from 11 districts in Guangzhou. RESULTS: Four mutant alleles (V1016G, F1534S, F1534C, F1534L) were detected in domain II and III of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene. Various allele frequencies of kdr mutations were observed (3.1-25.9% for V1016G, 22.6-85.5% for F1534S, 0-29.0% for F1534L, 0.6-54.2% for F1534C). Seven kdr haplotypes (VF, VS, VL, VC, GF, GC, GS) were identified; the highest frequency of haplotypes was found for the single mutant haplotype VS (50.8%), followed by the wild-type VF haplotype (21.7%) and the single mutant haplotype VC (11.9%). Of the three double mutant haplotypes, GF was the most frequent (8.8%), followed by GC (1.2%) and GS (0.8%). Aedes albopictus showed spatial heterogeneity in deltamethrin resistance in populations collected in Guangzhou. We also observed significant differences in haplotype frequency. The frequency of the VC haplotype was significantly higher in high-risk dengue areas than in low-risk ones. CONCLUSIONS: The kdr allele V1016G was discovered for the first time in Guangzhou. Genetic isolation in mosquito populations and long-term insecticide selection seem to be responsible for the persistent, patchy distribution of kdr mutant alleles. The small-scale spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and frequency of kdr mutations may have important implications for vector control operations and insecticide resistance management strategies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Inseticidas , Aedes/genética , Animais , China , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105088, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430059

RESUMO

The bird-cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, is a serious agricultural pest of Triticeae crops, and pyrethroids are the most widely used chemical pesticides for the control of the aphid. Our previous studies found that some R. padi field populations have developed resistance against pyrethroids; an M918L target-site mutation of the voltage gated sodium channel was present in the pyrethroid resistant individuals, while the high-level resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin revealed the presence of other mechanisms in the pest. Here, we conducted genome-wide transcriptional analysis for the lambda-cyhalothrin susceptible (SS) and resistant (LC-RR) strains of R. padi. Results indicated that 2457 genes were differently expressed between the SS and LC-RR strains. In the LC-RR, a total of 1265 and 1192 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively. KEGG analysis implicated enrichment of P450 involved in insecticide metabolic pathways in the resistant transcriptome. qRT-PCR results confirmed that two P450 genes (CYP6DC1 and CYP380C47) were significantly overexpressed in the LC-RR individuals. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) of CYP6DC1 or CYP380C47 significantly increased mortality of R. padi exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. These results suggest that the overexpression of CYP6DC1 and CYP380C47 contributed to the lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in the pest. This study provides knowledge for further analyzing the molecular mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids in R. padi.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrilas , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , Transcriptoma
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105060, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430063

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification plays an important role in the development of insecticide resistance. Previous studies have shown that cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 was induced by fenvalerate and involved in fenvalerate detoxification in Helicoverpa armigera. However, the transcriptional regulation of CYP6B7 induced by fenvalerate remains unclear. Here, a series of progressive 5' deletions of CYP6B7 promoter reporter genes were constructed, and the relative luciferase activities were detected. The results revealed that the relative luciferase activity of plasmid p (-655/-1) was significantly induced by fenvalerate. Further deletion of the region between -655 and -486 bp showed that the highest luciferase activity induced by fenvalerate was observed in plasmid p (-528/-1), while p (-485/-1) had the lowest fenvalerate-induced luciferase activity. Moreover, internal deletion and mutation in the region between -508 and -486 bp resulted in a significant reduction in fenvalerate-induced CYP6B7 promoter activity, suggesting that the cis-acting element responsible for fenvalerate in the CYP6B7 promoter was located between -508 and -486 bp. These results promote an understanding of the expression regulation mechanism of P450 genes that conferring resistance to insecticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Piretrinas , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Luciferases , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Nitrilas , Piretrinas/farmacologia
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105061, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430064

RESUMO

Pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus presents an obstacle to malaria elimination in the Americas. Here, An. albimanus CYP6P5 (the most overexpressed P450 in a Peruvian population) was functionally characterized. Recombinant CYP6P5 metabolized the type II pyrethroids, deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin with comparable affinities (KM of 3.3 µM ± 0.4 and 3.6 µM ± 0.5, respectively), but exhibited a 2.7-fold higher catalytic rate for α-cypermethrin (kcat of 6.02 min-1 ± 0.2) versus deltamethrin (2.68 min-1 ± 0.09). Time-course assays revealed progressive depletion of the above pyrethroids with production of four HPLC-detectable metabolites. Low depletion was obtained with type I pyrethroid, permethrin. Transgenic expression in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated that overexpression of CYP6P5 alone conferred type II pyrethroid resistance, with only 16% and 55.3% mortalities in flies exposed to 0.25% α-cypermethrin and 0.15% deltamethrin, respectively. Synergist bioassays using P450 inhibitor piperonylbutoxide significantly recovered susceptibility (mortality = 73.6%, p < 0.001) in synergized flies exposed to 4% piperonylbutoxide, plus 0.25% α-cypermethrin, compared to non-synergized flies (mortality = 4.9%). Moderate resistance was also observed towards 4% DDT. These findings established the preeminent role of CYP6P5 in metabolic resistance in An. albimanus, highlighting challenges associated with deployment of insecticide-based control tools in the Americas.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacologia
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105080, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430070

RESUMO

Metabolism of insecticides is an energy-consuming process. As an important component of the intracellular energy buffering system, arginine kinase (AK) plays an important role in insect cellular energy homeostasis and environmental stress response, but the involvement of AKs in the response to chemical stressors (insecticides) remains largely unknown. In this study, using Tribolium castaneum as a model organism, we found that deltamethrin treatment significantly upregulated the expression of TcAK1 and TcAK2 and decreased the whole body ATP content. The knockdown of TcAK1 or TcAK2 significantly enhances the deltamethrin-induced ATP depletion and increase the susceptibility of T. castaneum to deltamethrin. In addition, pretreatment with two AK inhibitors, rutin and quercetin, significantly decreased the lifespan of beetles treated with deltamethrin. These results suggest that AKs might be involved in detoxification of insecticides by regulating cellular energy balance.


Assuntos
Arginina Quinase , Inseticidas , Tribolium , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Arginina Quinase/genética , Arginina Quinase/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nitrilas , Piretrinas
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105084, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430074

RESUMO

The insect-specific epsilon class of glutathione S-transferases (GSTEs) plays important roles in insecticide detoxification in insects. In our previous work, five GSTEs were identified in Locusta migratoria, and two recombinant GSTEs, rLmGSTE1 and rLmGSTE4, showed high catalytic activity when 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was used as a substrate. In this work, we further investigated whether these two GSTEs could metabolize three insecticides including malathion, deltamethrin and DDT. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS) method, we found that rLmGSTE4, but not rLmGSTE1, can metabolize malathion and DDT. Malathion bioassays of L.migratoria after the expression of LmGSTE4 was suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) showed increased insect mortality from 33.8% to 68.9%. However, no changes in mortality were observed in deltamethrin- or DDT-treated L.migratoria after the expression of LmGSTE4 was suppressed by RNAi. Our results provided direct evidences that LmGSTE4 participates in malathion detoxification in L.migratoria. These findings are important for understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in L.migratoria and developing new strategies for managing the insect populations in the field.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Locusta migratoria , Animais , DDT/metabolismo , DDT/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Locusta migratoria/genética , Locusta migratoria/metabolismo , Malation/metabolismo , Malation/farmacologia
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 183: 105054, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430077

RESUMO

Liriomyza trifolii, which has been recently prevalent in China, harms more than 300 plant species, especially cowpea in Hainan. This pest also affects the quality and production of vegetables in winter. Indoxacarb is the first commercial oxadiazine pesticide, which is a new efficient insecticide used to control pests of Diptera, including L. trifolii. The unique mechanism of indoxacarb is that indenyl is transformed into N-demethoxycarbonyl metabolite (DCJW) in insects and acts on inactivated sodium channel; DCJW could then destroy the conduction of nerve impulses, which leads to movement disorders, feeding stoppage, paralysis, and eventually the death of pests. The field population of L. trifolii developed resistance by 769 times higher than the sensitive population in Sanya, Hainan. Results revealed the existence of a mutation (i.e., V1848I) in the sixth transmembrane segment of Domain IV of the sodium channel in the field population. The homozygous resistant genotype frequency for the V1848I mutation was 10-15% among the three field-collected populations. This paper reports for the first time the presence of the kdr mutation V1848I in resistant populations of L. trifolii to indoxacarb. The present study will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of indoxacarb resistance and contribute to the development of resistance management practices for winter vegetables in Hainan.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , China , Dípteros/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mutação , Oxazinas/metabolismo , Oxazinas/farmacologia , Canais de Sódio/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267229, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) using a capsule suspension formulation of the organophosphate insecticide, pirimiphos-methyl, has provided substantial malaria control in many communities in Africa. However, only one brand of this product has been recommended by the World Health Organisation for IRS. To help increase the diversity of the portfolio of IRS insecticides and offer suitable options to procurers and malaria vector control programmes, additional product brands of this highly effective and long-lasting insecticide formulation for IRS will be needed. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of Pirikool® 300CS, a new capsule suspension formulation of pirimiphos-methyl developed by Tianjin Yorkool, International Trading, Co., Ltd in standard WHO laboratory bioassays and experimental hut studies. The efficacy of the insecticide applied at 1000mg/m2 was assessed in laboratory bioassays for 6 months on cement, plywood and mud block substrates and for 12 months in cement and mud-walled experimental huts against wild free-flying pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in Covè, Benin. Actellic® 300CS, a WHO-recommended capsule suspension formulation of pirimiphos-methyl was also tested. WHO cylinder tests were performed to determine the frequency of insecticide resistance in the wild vector population during the hut trial. RESULTS: The vector population at the hut station was resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl. Overall mortality rates of wild free-flying pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae (s.l.) entering Pirikool®300CS treated experimental huts during the 12-month trial were 86.7% in cement-walled huts and 88% in mud-walled huts. Mortality of susceptible An. gambiae (Kisumu) and pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.l. (Covè) mosquitoes in monthly wall cone bioassays on Pirikool® 300CS treated hut walls remained over 80% for 10-12 months. The laboratory bioassays corroborated the hut findings with Pirikool® 300CS on mud and wood block substrates but not on cement block substrates. CONCLUSION: Indoor residual spraying with Pirikool® 300CS induced high and prolonged mortality of wild pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors for 10-12 months. Addition of Pirikool®300CS to the current portfolio of IRS insecticides will provide an extra choice of microencapsulated pirimiphos-methyl for IRS.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Benin , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Piretrinas/farmacologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266453, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472211

RESUMO

The intensification of agriculture leads to increased pesticide use and significant transformation from small fields towards large-scale monocultures. This may significantly affect populations of non-target arthropods (NTA). We aimed to assess whether the multigenerational exposure to plant protection products has resulted in the evolution of resistance to insecticides in the ground beetle Poecilus cupreus originating from different agricultural landscapes. Two contrasting landscapes were selected for the study, one dominated by small and another by large fields. Within each landscape the beetles were collected at nine sites representing range of canola coverage and a variety of habitat types. Part of the collected beetles, after acclimation to laboratory conditions, were tested for sensitivity to Proteus 110 OD-the most commonly used insecticide in the studied landscapes. The rest were bred in the laboratory for two consecutive generations, and part of the beetles from each generation were also tested for sensitivity to selected insecticide. We showed that the beetles inhabiting areas with medium and large share of canola located in the landscape dominated by large fields were less sensitive to the studied insecticide. The persistence of reduced sensitivity to Proteus 110 OD for two consecutive generations indicates that either the beetles have developed resistance to the insecticide or the chronic exposure to pesticides has led to the selection of more resistant individuals naturally present in the studied populations. No increased resistance was found in the beetles from more heterogeneous landscape dominated by small fields, in which spatio-temporal diversity of crops and abundance of small, linear off-crop landscape elements may provide shelter that allows NTAs to survive without developing any, presumably costly, resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Besouros , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Melhoramento Vegetal
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(4)2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456432

RESUMO

Metabolic-based resistance to insecticides limit the control of medically important pests, and it is extremely detrimental in the ongoing struggle to control disease vectors. Elucidating the fitness cost of metabolic resistance in major malaria vectors is vital for successful resistance management. We established the fitness cost of the 6.5kb structural variant (6.5kb-sv) between the duplicated CYP6P9a/b P450s using the hybrid strain generated from the crossing between two An. funestus laboratory strains. Furthermore, we assessed the cumulative impact of this marker with the duplicated P450 genes. We established that individuals that were homozygote for the resistant structural variant (SV) presented reduced fecundity and slow development relative to those that were homozygote for the susceptible SV. Furthermore, we observed that 6.5kb act additively with CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b to exacerbate the reduced fecundity and the increased development time of resistant mosquitoes since double/triple homozygote susceptible (SS/SS/SS) significantly laid more eggs and developed faster than other genotypes. Moreover, a restoration of susceptibility was noted over 10 generations in the insecticide-free environment with an increased proportion of susceptible individuals. This study highlights the negative impact of multiple P450-based resistance on the key physiological traits of malaria vectors. Such high fitness costs suggest that in the absence of selection pressure, the resistant individuals will be outcompeted in the field. Therefore, this should encourage future strategies based on the rotation of insecticides to reduce selection pressure and to slow the spread of pyrethroid resistance.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacologia
19.
J Vis Exp ; (181)2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404360

RESUMO

Prior to recommending insecticides to treat the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei, it is valuable to know the mortality and repellency of these insecticides against adult insects or their impact on reproductive output. However, currently available methods assess adult mortality only, limiting the selection of novel insecticides with a different mode of action. In this work, different experimental methods were examined to identify the diverse effects on the CBB under laboratory conditions. For this, green coffee fruits (GFs) were collected and disinfected by immersion in sodium hypochlorite solution followed by UV light irradiation. In parallel, CBB adults from a colony were disinfected by immersion in sodium hypochlorite solution. To assess fruit protection (preinfestation), the fruits were placed in plastic boxes, and the insecticides were applied. Then, the CBB adults were released at a rate of two CBBs per GF. The GFs were left under controlled conditions to evaluate CBB infestation and survival after 1, 7, 15, and 21 days. To evaluate insecticide efficacy after CBB infestation (postinfestation), CBB adults were released to the GFs in a 2:1 ratio for 3 h at 21 °C. Infested fruits showing CBB adults with their abdomens partially exposed were selected and placed in 96-well racks, and the CBBs boring into the fruits were treated directly. After 20 days, the fruits were dissected, and the CBB biological stages inside each fruit were recorded. The GFs served as substrates that mimic natural conditions to evaluate toxic, chemical, and biological insecticides against the CBB.


Assuntos
Coffea , Inseticidas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Frutas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 35, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New insecticides with a novel mode of action such as neonicotinoids have recently been recommended for public health by WHO. Resistance monitoring of such novel insecticides requires a robust protocol to monitor the development of resistance in natural populations. In this study, we comparatively used three different solvents to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to neonicotinoids across Africa. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected from May to July 2021 from three agricultural settings in Cameroon (Njombe-Penja, Nkolondom, and Mangoum), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ndjili-Brasserie), Ghana (Obuasi), and Uganda (Mayuge). Using the CDC bottle test, we compared the effect of three different solvents (ethanol, acetone, MERO) on the efficacy of neonicotinoids against Anopheles gambiae s.l. In addition, TaqMan assays were used to genotype key pyrethroid-resistant markers in An. gambiae and odds ratio based on Fisher exact test were used to evaluate potential cross-resistance between pyrethroids and clothianidin. RESULTS: Lower mortality was observed when using absolute ethanol or acetone alone as solvent for clothianidin (11.4‒51.9% mortality in Nkolondom, 31.7‒48.2% in Mangoum, 34.6‒56.1% in Mayuge, 39.4‒45.6% in Obuasi, 83.7‒89.3% in Congo and 71.1‒95.9% in Njombe pendja) compared to acetone + MERO for which 100% mortality were observed for all the populations. Similar observations were done for imidacloprid and acetamiprid. Synergist assays (PBO, DEM and DEF) with clothianidin revealed a significant increase of mortality suggesting that metabolic resistance mechanisms are contributing to the reduced susceptibility. A negative association was observed between the L1014F-kdr mutation and clothianidin resistance with a greater frequency of homozygote resistant mosquitoes among the dead than among survivors (OR = 0.5; P = 0.02). However, the I114T-GSTe2 was in contrast significantly associated with a greater ability to survive clothianidin with a higher frequency of homozygote resistant among survivors than other genotypes (OR = 2.10; P = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a contrasted susceptibility pattern depending on the solvents with ethanol/acetone resulting to lower mortality, thus possibly overestimating resistance, whereas the MERO consistently showed a greater efficacy of neonicotinoids but it could prevent to detect early resistance development. Therefore, we recommend monitoring the susceptibility using both acetone alone and acetone + MERO (4 µg/ml for clothianidin) to capture the accurate resistance profile of the mosquito populations.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Acetona/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Camarões , Etanol/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Solventes/farmacologia
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