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1.
Semina Ci. agr. ; 42(06): 3247-3258, nov.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764924

RESUMO

After the growth-promoting antibiotics prohibition, intestinal health became an increasing concern worldwide in poultry farming. The intestinal histological evaluation is an inexpensive technique that brings relevant information, but in poultry, the immediate process of intestinal post-mortem autolysis interferes directly on the samples quality for histological analysis hindering a precise diagnosis. This study aimed to standardize a technique for broilers' intestines sample collection and fixation for histological analysis. Seven broiler chickens received a standard diet until 23 days of age when they were euthanized. Fragments of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected using three methods: intestine strips, transverse section, and Swiss roll and posteriorly fixed in 10% buffered formalin and bouin solution. Tissue samples were submitted for histological (number of villi and viable villi per field) and morphometrical (villi height, cryptdepth and villi:crypt ratio) evaluations and the results analyzed statistically. A significant high number of villiand viable villi per field in all regions was observed in the Swiss roll method. In the duodenum (p= 0.0066) and jejunum (p= 0.0058) an interaction between the Swiss roll method and the fixative buffered formalin was observed in the viable and number of villi per field, respectively. Regarding the morphometrical analysis significant differences were observed, in the jejunum villi height sampling by the methods Swissroll (1,157.66 ± 148.25 µm, p= 0.0015) that showed the highest mean. Deeper crypt depths were observed in the jejunum (156.59 ± 15.68 µm, p= 0.0002) and ileum (131.13 ± 15.01 µm, p= 0.0006) collect by the Swissroll method. An interaction between the bouin fixative was also observed in the [...].(AU)


Após a proibição da utilização dos antimicrobianos promotores de crescimento, saúde intestinal se tornou uma preocupação crescente na avicultura mundialmente. A avaliação histológica intestinal é uma técnica de baixo custo que traz informações relevantes, porém nas aves, o imediato processo de autólise intestinal post-mortem interfere diretamente na qualidade da amostra para histologia dificultando um diagnóstico preciso. Este estudo objetivou a padronização de uma técnica para coleta e fixação do intestino de frangos de corte para análise histológica. Sete frangos de corte receberam uma dieta padrão até 23 dias de vida, quando foram eutanasiados. Fragmentos de duodeno, jejuno e íleo foram coletados utilizando três métodos: intestino aberto, corte transversal e rocambole, e posteriormente fixados em formalina tamponada10% e solução de bouin. Amostras de tecidos foram submetidas a avaliações histológicas (número de vilosidades e vilosidades viáveis por campo) e morfométricas (altura de vilosidade, profundidade de cripta e relação vilosidade:cripta) e os resultados analisados estatisticamente. Um significativo maior número de vilosidades e vilosidades viáveis por campo foi observado, em todos os segmentos intestinais, no método rocambole. No duodeno (p= 0,0066) e jejuno (p= 0,0058) uma interação entre o método rocambole e o fixador formalina tamponada foi observado para as variáveis vilosidades viáveis e número de vilosidades por campo, respectivamente. Referente a análise morfométrica diferenças significativas foram observadas na altura de vilosidade no jejuno amostrado pelo método rocambole (1.157,66 ± 148,25 µm, p= 0,0015)que apresentou a maior média. Criptas mais profundas foram observadas no jejuno (156,59 ± 15,68 µm, p= 0,0002) e íleo (131,13 ± 15,01 µm, p= 0,0006) coletados pelo método rocambole. Uma interação entre o fixador bouin também foi observado no jejuno (p= 0,0223) para esta variável. Amostragem do [...](AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 299-310, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274421

RESUMO

Fermentation strategy is well documented to improve the nutritional value of agricultural waste by-products such olive cake (OC), which, in turn, provides healthy, safe, and affordable feedstuff. This study assessed the combined impact of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented OC (AFOC) on the growth performance, intestinal morphometry, blood biochemistry, lysozyme activity, gut immune-related genes, and flesh quality of Nile tilapia. We divided 225 fish into five groups and further subdivided into three replicates (n = 15 each) and fed them five diets (Control, AFOC5, AFOC10, AFOC15, AFOC20) to determine AFOC nutritional value and its optimized incorporation level in the diet. The trial continued for 3 months. The crude protein content of OC improved by 7.77% after A. oryzae fermentation, while lipid content decreased by 14.19%. In addition, growth and feed utilization significantly improved at (10.8-11.2) % AFOC dietary level. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly improved, and the serum lysozyme level was significantly higher in the AFOC10 group compared to other groups. Interestingly, gut-related inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) revealed higher relative mRNA expression in the AFOC10 group compared to other groups. The histomorphometric parameters was greatly influenced by the AFOC incorporation level (10%-20%). These findings suggested that A. orzae fermentation modifies the nutritional quality of OC, as seen through its positive impact on the growth performance, local and systemic immunity, and intestinal absorptive capacity of Nile tilapia. The recommended dose for dietary AFOC was around 11.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae , Ciclídeos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Olea , Animais , Bioensaio , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica , Testes Hematológicos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Muramidase/imunologia , Valor Nutritivo
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214090

RESUMO

Although relationships between intestinal morphology between trophic groups in reptiles are widely assumed and represent a cornerstone of ecomorphological narratives, few comparative approaches actually tested this hypothesis on a larger scale. We collected data on lengths of intestinal sections of 205 reptile species for which either body mass (BM), snout-vent-length (SVL) or carapax length (CL) was recorded, transforming SVL or CL into BM if the latter was not given, and analyzed scaling patterns with BM and SVL, accounting for phylogeny, comparing three trophic guilds (faunivores, omnivores, herbivores), and comparing with a mammal dataset. Length-BM relationships in reptiles were stronger for the small than the large intestine, suggesting that for the latter, additional factors might be relevant. Adding trophic level did not consistently improve model fit; only when controlling for phylogeny, models indicated a longer large intestine in herbivores, due to a corresponding pattern in lizards. Trophic level effects were highly susceptible to sample sizes, and not considered strong. Models that linked BM to intestine length had better support than models using SVL, due to the deviating body shape of snakes. At comparable BM, reptiles had shorter intestines than mammals. While the latter finding corresponds to findings of lower tissue masses for the digestive tract and other organs in reptiles as well as our understanding of differences in energetic requirements between the classes, they raise the hitherto unanswered question what it is that reptiles of similar BM have more than mammals. A lesser effect of trophic level on intestine lengths in reptiles compared to mammals may stem from lesser selective pressures on differentiation between trophic guilds, related to the generally lower food intake and different movement patterns of reptiles, which may not similarly escalate evolutionary arms races tuned to optimal agility as between mammalian predators and prey.


Assuntos
Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Carnivoridade , Ingestão de Energia , Herbivoria , Intestino Grosso/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/classificação , Tamanho do Órgão , Répteis/classificação
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 339-349, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153429

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the impacts of dietary supplementation with Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBL) on the growth, intestinal histomorphometry, immunity, antioxidant status, and expression of cytokine genes in Nile tilapia reared in the hapas. A control diet was enriched with different GBL levels (0.0, 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0 g/kg) to form 4 experimental diets and were fed to Nile tilapia for 8 weeks. The findings illustrated that dietary GBL significantly enhanced the growth and feed utilization indices compared to those reared in the control group. A dose-dependent increase of hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities alongside a decline of hepatic malondialdehyde levels were recorded in GBL groups compared with the control. Serum lysozyme activity, complement C3, and immunoglobulin M levels were significantly increased in GBL groups compared with the control group. Moreover, dietary GBL maintained the normal intestinal and hepatopancreatic histological structures with a significant increase of some histomorphometric measurements of proximal, middle, and distal intestinal parts of the treated fish. Interestingly, dietary GBL supplementation significantly increased the mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) genes in the splenic tissues of treated fish over the control group. To conclude, it could be recommended to use GBL as a functional phytogenic feed additive to improve the growth, hepatic and intestinal health status, hepatic antioxidant status, and immunity of treated Nile tilapia. Besides, the second order polynomial regression revealed that 7.50 g GBL/kg diet is the optimal inclusion level to improve growth with no negative impacts on the overall health condition of treated Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(6): 482-497, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872568

RESUMO

The majority of patients with Crohn's disease and a proportion of patients with ulcerative colitis will ultimately require surgical treatment despite advances in diagnosis, therapy, and endoscopic interventions. The surgical procedures that are most commonly done include bowel resection with anastomosis, strictureplasty, faecal diversion, and ileal pouch. These surgical treatment modalities result in substantial alterations in bowel anatomy. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, endoscopy plays a key role in the assessment of disease activity, disease recurrence, treatment response, dysplasia surveillance, and delivery of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic evaluation and management of surgically altered bowel can be challenging. This consensus guideline delineates anatomical landmarks and endoscopic assessment of these landmarks in diseased and surgically altered bowel.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Intestinos/patologia , Adulto , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Bolsas Cólicas/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Humanos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/métodos , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111415, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761619

RESUMO

Aging alters body composition to induce sarcopenia, particularly in women, but the mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that silk peptide(SP) intake could prevent an age-related decrease in muscle mass and strength in middle-aged female rats and explored the action mechanism. After the acute intake of SP and defatted soybean peptides, serum concentrations of amino acids were measured in ten middle-aged rats in each group. Forty 12-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks including 0.5 g casein/kg body weight(BW)/day(Aged), 0.15 g SP plus 0.35 g casein/kg BW/day(Low-SP), 0.5 g SP/kg BW/day(High-SP), or 40 mg metformin plus 0.5 g casein/kg BW/day(Metformin). Ten rats aged 7-week old(Young) had the same treatment as the Aged-group. The body composition, grip strength, glucose metabolism, intestinal tissue morphology, and gut microbiota were also determined. After an acute consumption, total amino acids were more quickly absorbed and maintained at higher levels in SP than soybean peptides. Lean body mass(LBM) and grip strength were lower in the Aged-group than the Young and Low-SP groups, and the High-SP regimen increased these parameters as much as the Young-group. Serum concentrations and mRNA expression of TNF-α in the gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles were higher in the Aged-group than the Young-group, whereas SP intake reduced their serum levels and skeletal muscles. Glucose and insulin tolerance indicated that insulin resistance was elevated in the Aged-group compared to the Young-group, while Low-SP and High-SP alleviated them as much as the Young-group. High-SP increased serum propionate and butyrate concentrations compared to the Aged-group. SP intake increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Prevotella and decreased Blautia and Clostridium in the feces. In conclusion, SP intake protects against a decrease in lean body mass and grip strength in middle-aged female rats. The protection was partly related to maintaining higher serum concentrations of total amino acids after SP consumption and decreasing inflammation and insulin resistance through gut microbiota modulation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Seda/química , Envelhecimento , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Butiratos/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Força da Mão , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Soja/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 869-880, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770301

RESUMO

The trials of finding non-conventional and alternative aquafeed ingredients are increasing. In this sense, this study evaluated the influence of coconut oil on the growth, feed utilization, immune, and antioxidative responses of Nile tilapia. Five test diets were formulated by mixing coconut oil with the other ingredients at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% of the total ration and presented for tilapia for 60 successive days. The final weight, SGR, weight gain (WG), and feed intake were superior in fish delivered 2% of coconut oil (P < 0.05). Concurrently, fish that received 2% coconut oil had lower FCR and higher PER than fish of the control and 4% groups (P < 0.05). Higher lipase activity was observed in fish of 2% and 3% levels than the remaining groups (P < 0.05). Besides, the amylase and protease activities of fish in 1%, 2%, and 3% groups were higher than the 0% level (P < 0.05). The total blood cholesterol, RBCs, and PCV showed higher values in Nile tilapia fed 2% and 3% coconut oil (P < 0.05). The lysozyme and phagocytic activities were higher in fish fed 2% and 3% levels than the control (P < 0.05), while the phagocytic index in 2% and 3% levels was higher than 0% and 4% levels. Furthermore, SOD and CAT were higher in fish fed 1%, 2%, and 3% than fish fed 0% and 4% levels while GSH was higher in fish of 1%, 2%, and 3% than fish fed 0% level (P < 0.05). However, the MDA level was markedly lower in fish fed 25, 3%, and 4% coconut oil than the 0% level (P < 0.05). The intestine's histological structure in all groups appeared normal, forming of intestinal villi projecting from the intestinal wall. Also, the structure of the hepatopancreas had a normal architecture in all groups. To sum up, the inclusion of coconut oil at 2 to 3% is recommended as a replacer for fish oil in Nile tilapia diets.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes , Aquicultura/métodos , Ciclídeos/anatomia & histologia , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagossomos/fisiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670431

RESUMO

A reduction in daily caloric or nutrient intake has been observed to promote health benefits in mammals and other vertebrates. Feed Restriction (FR), whereby the overall food intake of the organism is reduced, has been explored as a method to improve metabolic and immune health, as well as to optimize productivity in farming. However, less is known regarding the molecular and physiological consequences of FR. Using the model organism, Danio rerio, we investigated the impact of a short-term (month-long) FR on growth, gut morphology and gene expression. Our data suggest that FR has minimal effects on the average growth rates, but it may affect weight and size heterogeneity in a sex-dependent manner. In the gut, we observed a significant reduction in gut circumference and generally lower mucosal heights, whereas other parameters remained unchanged. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis identified numerous metabolic, reproductive, and immune response pathways that were affected by FR. These results broaden our understanding of FR and contribute towards growing knowledge of its effects on vertebrate health.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Animais , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 68, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of safflower oil and vitamin C (Vit. C) inclusion in broiler chicken diets on the growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility coefficient "AID%" of amino acids, intestinal histology, behavior, carcass traits, fatty acid composition of the breast muscle, antioxidant and immune status for a 35-day feeding period were evaluated. A total of 300 three-day-old Ross chicks (58.25 g ± 0.19) were randomly allotted in a 2 × 3 factorial design consisting of two levels of vitamin C (0 and 400 mg/kg diet) and three levels of safflower oil (0, 5, and 10 g/kg diet). RESULTS: An increase in the final body weight, total body weight gain, total feed intake, and the relative growth rate (P <  0.05) were reported by safflower oil and vitamin C inclusion. Dietary supplementation of safflower oil and vitamin C had a positive effect (P <  0.05) on the ingestive, resting, and feather preening behavior. Vitamin C supplementation increased (P <  0.05) the AID% of lysine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, and valine. Safflower inclusion (10 g/kg) increased (P <  0.05) the AID% of methionine and isoleucine. Safflower oil inclusion increased (P <  0.05) the levels of stearic acid, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) in the breast muscle. In contrast, the supplementation of only 10 g of safflower oil/kg diet increased (P = 0.01) the omega-3/omega-6 (ω-3/ω-6) fatty acids ratio. Vit. C supplementation increased (P <  0.05) the CAT serum levels, SOD, and GSH enzymes. Dietary supplementation of safflower oil and vitamin C improved the intestinal histology. They increased the villous height and width, crypt depth, villous height/crypt depth ratio, mucosal thickness, goblet cell count, and intra-epithelium lymphocytic lick cell infiltrations. The serum levels of IgA and complement C3 were increased (P <  0.01) by Vit. C supplementation and prominent in the 400 vit. C +  10 safflower Oil group. CONCLUSION: A dietary combination of safflower oil and vitamin C resulted in improved growth rate, amino acids AID%, intestinal histology, welfare, immune and antioxidant status of birds, and obtaining ω-3 and linoleic acid-enriched breast muscles. The best inclusion level was 400 vit. C +  10 safflower Oil.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Óleo de Cártamo/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/química
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 835-843, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518137

RESUMO

Magnolol is a multifunctional plant polyphenol. To evaluate the effects of magnolol on laying hens in the late laying period, 360 (50-week-old) laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: a non-supplemented control diet (C), and control diets supplemented with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of magnolol (M100, M200, and M300), respectively. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens per replicate. Results showed that dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg of magnolol increased the laying rate and the M200 group had a lower feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). Magnolol supplementation (200 and 300 mg/kg) could linearly increase albumen height and Haugh unit of fresh eggs in the late phase of the laying cycle (P < 0.01). And magnolol linearly alleviated the decline of the albumen height and Haugh unit of eggs stored for 14 d (P < 0.01). The total superoxide dismutase activity in the ovaries of M100 group was greater than that in the other treatments (P < 0.05). As dietary magnolol levels increased, villus height of jejunum and ileum linearly increased (P < 0.01). M200 and M300 groups had higher expression level of occludin in the ileum compared with group C (P < 0.01). The level of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the ileum of M200 group were lower than that in the C group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg magnolol can improve hen performance, albumen quality of fresh and storage eggs, and hepatic lipid metabolism in the late laying cycle. Also, magnolol has a good effect on increasing villi and improving the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier function.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovos/normas , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Bifenilo/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Óvulo
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 738-745, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518127

RESUMO

The addition prebiotics in broiler diets can benefit digestion and nutrient abortion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of moringa leaf powder and agave inulin on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and slaughter traits of broiler chickens over 40 d of grow-out. A total of 280 broilers (Ross 308) aged 1 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, with 7 replicates each and 10 chicks per replicate: T1 = control diet, T2 = control diet with 15 g/kg of moringa leaf powder, T3 = control diet with 15 g/kg of agave inulin, and T4 = control diet with 15 g/kg of moringa leaf powder and 15 g/kg of agave inulin. The results showed that analysis of treatments at time were not different (P > 0.05) for broiler weights, feed and water intake, and weight gain. Treatment was significant (P < 0.05) for feed efficiency at 22 to 40 d; the T4 group presented higher (P < 0.05) values, and the T1 group presented lower (P < 0.05) values. However, the villus lengths of intestinal sections were different (P < 0.05) among treatments. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, villus lengths were highest (P < 0.05) in the T2 group and lowest (P < 0.05) in the T3 and T4 groups. Villus widths in the duodenum and ileum were highest (P < 0.05) in the T2 group, but the T1 group showed highest (P < 0.05) values in the jejunum sections. The T3 and T4 groups showed lowest (P < 0.05) values in villus width in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Thigh yield was highest (P < 0.05) in the T2 group and lowest (P < 0.05) in the T4 group. The T1 group exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) piece yields for leg, wing, and hip-back. The T4 group showed lowest (P < 0.05) leg and wing yields. Moringa leaf powder and agave inulin at a concentration of 15 g/kg in diets did not affect broiler performance, whereas moringa leaf powder improved intestinal morphology and thigh yield, and agave inulin improved leg yield. The results demonstrated benefits of these 2 feed additives to improve intestine health and meat yield in broilers over a 40-day grow-out.


Assuntos
Agave , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Inulina/fisiologia , Carne , Moringa , Agave/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Carne/normas , Moringa/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Pós , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443193

RESUMO

Drosophila melanogaster females experience a large shift in energy homeostasis after mating to compensate for nutrient investment in egg production. To cope with this change in metabolism, mated females undergo widespread physiological and behavioral changes, including increased food intake and altered digestive processes. The mechanisms by which the female digestive system responds to mating remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the seminal fluid protein Sex Peptide (SP) is a key modulator of female post-mating midgut growth and gene expression. SP is both necessary and sufficient to trigger post-mating midgut growth in females under normal nutrient conditions, and likely acting via its receptor, Sex Peptide Receptor (SPR). Moreover, SP is responsible for almost the totality of midgut transcriptomic changes following mating, including up-regulation of protein and lipid metabolism genes and down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism genes. These changes in metabolism may help supply the female with the nutrients required to sustain egg production. Thus, we report a role for SP in altering female physiology to enhance reproductive output: Namely, SP triggers the switch from virgin to mated midgut state.


Assuntos
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Copulação , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Digestório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Ontologia Genética , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Reprodução/genética , Sêmen/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
13.
Evolution ; 75(3): 688-705, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491179

RESUMO

Convergent evolution is often interpreted as evidence of natural selection favoring an optimal phenotype during adaptation. Morphological convergence is frequently found among lineages that converge on diet, but most studies have focused on morphological traits that relate exclusively to food handling and processing. In vertebrates, there is a strong inverse relationship between intestine length and trophic level. However, little is known about whether adaptation to a low trophic level influences the evolution of abdominal cavities that can accommodate larger intestines. Here, I reconstruct the evolutionary history of trophic ecology and examine abdominal cavity shape across 157 species of the fish order Characiformes to determine whether adaptation to an herbivorous-detritivorous diet drives convergent evolution of large abdominal cavities. Herbivorous-detritivorous species evolved significantly larger abdominal cavities than other trophic groups and repeatedly converged on a similar abdominal cavity morphology. Other trophic groups evolved abdominal cavity morphologies either stochastically or by selective pressures from an untested ecological character. These findings demonstrate that the selective demands of a larger intestinal tract promote the repeated convergence of a large abdominal cavity within herbivorous-detritivorous characiform fishes, while allowing other lineages to evolve randomly or adapt in response to other selection pressures, contributing to the overall body shape diversity of the order.


Assuntos
Cavidade Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Caraciformes/anatomia & histologia , Caraciformes/classificação , Animais , Herbivoria , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia
14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(1): 49-58, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099718

RESUMO

The present study aims to delineate the effect of exogenous enzyme supplementation of fermented or non-fermented de-oiled rice bran (DORB) on haematology, histology and expression of IGF I gene expression of Labeo rohita. Four test diets, namely, T1 (DORB), T2 (fermented DORB), T3 (DORB+exogenous enzyme) and T4 (fermented DORB+exogenous enzyme) were formulated and fed to the L. rohita for a period of 60 days. The test diets T3 and T4 were supplemented with 0.1 g kg-1 xylanase (16,000 U kg-1) and 0.1 g kg-1 phytase (500 U kg-1) enzymes. A total of 120 juveniles of L. rohita (average weight 5.01 ± 0.02 g) were stocked in 12 rectangular tanks with 10 fish per tank in triplicates. At the end of the experiment, haematology, histology and IGF I gene expression of the different groups were analysed. The haemoglobin (Hb) content, RBC count and WBC count of L. rohita varied significantly (p < 0.05) among different groups. T3 diet-fed group had the highest Hb content, RBC count and WBC count as compared to the other groups. The MCV content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in T3 group. The DORB type, exogenous enzyme supplementation and their interaction have no significant (p > 0.05) effect on MCH, MCHC and lymphocyte content of the cultured fish. The group which were fed T3 diet had significantly (p < 0.05) higher IGF-I gene expression as compared to other groups. The histological examination of liver revealed no pathological alteration of this organ. Similarly, there were no pathological changes observed in intestinal tissue in any dietary treatment group. Based on the findings of the present study, it is concluded that exogenous enzyme supplementation of DORB-based diets improves the physiological status and growth performances of Labeo rohita.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/farmacologia , Cyprinidae , Suplementos Nutricionais , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Cyprinidae/sangue , Cyprinidae/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica , Testes Hematológicos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/anatomia & histologia
15.
Br J Nutr ; 125(12): 1331-1343, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943117

RESUMO

Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of soyabean meal replacement by maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for pacu juveniles. Five diets were formulated with 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 g of DDGS/kg diet replacing up to total dietary soyabean meal. In trial 1, the experimental diets were fed to five groups of fish to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC). In trial 2, four groups of fish were fed each experimental diet for 100 d to evaluate the effects of these diets on digestive enzyme activity, intestine oxidative stress and intestine morphology. The ADC of DM and energy was reduced with dietary DDGS inclusion, while the ADC of lipids was increased, and no differences were observed for the ADC of protein. Independent of dietary treatment, pH increased from anterior to the distal intestine with dietary DDGS inclusion. Digestive enzyme activities were higher on anterior than the distal intestine. Dietary DDGS decreased lipase, amylase, chymotrypsin and trypsin activities, while no differences were observed for total protease activity. Intestine glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was reduced in fish fed the DDGS diets, while catalase activity increased. Lipid peroxidation was lower in fish fed DDGS diets than the control. Intestine histomorphology improved with dietary DDGS inclusion. Overall, the negative effects of soyabean meal could be decreased by dietary replacement with maize DDGS which may have a prebiotic effect, improving intestine health.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Digestão , Grão Comestível , Peixes/fisiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Soja , Zea mays
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 75(1): 31-47, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317350

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of compound enzymes (CE) (containing per g 375 U amylase, 2500 U protease, 4000 U xylanase and 150 U ß-glucanase) on performance, nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant status, immunoglobulins, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acids contents and microbiota community in weaned pigs. Seventy-two pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, weaned at d 28) with an average body weight of 8.49 ± 0.87 kg were allotted into two treatments with six replicate pens per treatment (three barrows and three gilts per pen) according to sex and body weight in a randomised complete block design. The treatments contained a corn-soybean meal-barley basal diet (CON) or a basal diet supplemented with 1000 mg CE/kg (CE). The study was divided into phase 1 (d 1 to 14) and 2 (d 15 to 35). The average daily gain was increased (p < 0.05) in pigs fed CE in phase 2 and overall (d 1 to 35) compared with CON. These pigs had greater (p ≤ 0.05) serum IgA, IgG, superoxide dismutase and catalase contents, as well as tended to increase serum IgM content and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of organic matter in phase 1 compared with CON. In phase 2, pigs supplemented with CE showed greater (p < 0.01) ATTD of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and gross energy compared with CON. These pigs also had increased (p < 0.05) IgA, IgG, IgM, superoxide dismutase contents, and decreased (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde content in serum compared with CON. Moreover, pigs fed CE had higher (p < 0.05) villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in ileum, and tended to increased acetic acid content in colon compared with CON. Furthermore, pigs fed CE had increased (p < 0.05) relative abundance of Firmicutes at phylum level, Lactobacillales at order level, Lactobacillaceae at family level, Bacilli at class level, Lactobacillus at genus level in caecum and colon, as well as lower (p < 0.05) relative abundance of Bacteroidetes at phylum level, Bacteroidales at the order level, Bacteroidia at class level, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_6 at genus level in colon compared with CON. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of compound enzymes could effectively improve nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant status, immunoglobulin, gut morphology, microbiota community, and therefore improve performance in weaned pigs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestão , Enzimas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enzimas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Soro/química , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 64-72, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357708

RESUMO

Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) infection induces serious immunosuppression and intestinal injury in Muscovy ducklings with a high morbidity and mortality, and Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) pretreatment could efficiently protect ducklings from MDRV infection, although the underlying immunoregulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of APS on the intestinal mucosal immunity in MDRV-infected Muscovy ducklings. A total of 190 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 50): normal control group, APS pretreatment for MDRV-infected group, and cohabitation infection group, then pretreated with 0.6 g/L APS or only drinking water followed by MDRV cohabitation infection with the remaining 40 artificially infected ducklings, respectively. At the 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 d after cohabitation infection, the intestinal samples were prepared to measure intestinal parameters including villus length, villus length/crypt depth (V/C) ratio, and wall thickness, together with counts of intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and goblet cell (GC) by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Meanwhile, ileal secretory IgA (sIgA) and duodenal cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon gamma were detected by the ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The results showed that APS significantly improved intestinal injuries of villi length, V/C ratio, and wall thickness of the small intestine infected with MDRV, effectively inhibited the reduction of IEL and GC caused by MDRV infection, subsequently increased sIgA and all the cytokine secretions at most time points, suggesting that APS pretreatment can effectively stimulate mucosal immune function by improving intestinal morphology and repair MDRV caused injures of small intestinal mucosal immune barrier in infected ducklings. Our findings lay the foundation for further application of APS in prevention and treatment of MDRV infection.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta) , Patos , Intestinos , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos , Infecções por Reoviridae , Animais , Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reoviridae , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária
18.
Ci. Rural ; 51(11): 1-7, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-764644

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of the three inulin levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%) supplemented as a substitute for an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP, zinc bacitracin) and control in guinea pigs raised for human consumption. Fifty 14-day-old male guinea pigs were used. Productive parameters (weight gain, total dry matter intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR)) and intestinal morphology of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at slaughter (70 days of age) were evaluated. An inverse relationship was observed between inulin levels and FCR (linear effect; P = 0.006). There was no statistically significant effect of the treatments on total dry matter intake and weight gain (P > 0.05). A linear effect of the inulin level on the villis length (VL), villis width (VW), and length/depth ratio (VL/DC) in the duodenum; VW in the jejunum; and VL in the ileum (P <0 .05) was reported. In conclusion, a linear effect of the increasing doses of inulin was found on the FCR and the morphological parameters of the duodenums integrity, and no differences in the effects of the inulin added to the diet and the treatment with AGP were found.(AU)


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação na dieta de cobaias com inulina, em níveis crescentes (0,1%, 0,2%, 0,4%) como substituto para um antibiótico promotor de crescimento (AGP, bacitracina de zinco) além do grupo controle (dieta padrão). Foram utilizados 50 porquinhos-da-índia machos com 14 dias de idade. Os parâmetros produtivos foram avaliados do desmame aos 70 dias de idade e os parâmetros morfológicos intestinais foram avaliados no duodeno, jejuno e íleo no momento do abate. Foi encontrado um efeito linear do nível de inulina sobre na taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR; P = 0,006), indicando que em níveis mais elevados de inulina o FCR diminui. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos quando avaliado o efeito dos diferentes tratamentos sobre o consumo de ração e ganho de peso corporal (P > 0,05). Um efeito linear do nível de inulina foi encontrado no comprimento das vilosidades (VL), na largura das vilosidades (VW) e na relação comprimento / profundidade (VL/DC) no duodeno, sobre a VW no jejuno; e no VL no íleo (P < 0,05). Em conclusão, um efeito linear do aumento do nível de inulina foi encontrado na taxa de conversão alimentar e nos parâmetros morfológicos da integridade do duodeno, além disso, não houve diferença entre a adição de inulina na dieta e o tratamento com um antibiótico promotor de crescimento.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Cobaias , Cobaias/anatomia & histologia , Cobaias/metabolismo , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Inulina/efeitos adversos
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5297-5307, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142445

RESUMO

Overfeeding causes severe steatosis but not inflammation in goose liver, suggesting existence of protective components. Previous studies have shown that some intestinal microbes and their metabolites damage intestinal structural integrity and function, thus causing inflammation in the development of human and mouse nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, this study hypothesizes that intestinal structural integrity of goose is maintained during overfeeding, which may provide goose fatty liver a protective mechanism against inflammation. To test this hypothesis, 48 seventy-day-old healthy Landes male geese were overfed (as overfeeding group) or normally fed (as control group). Blood and intestine (jejunum, ileum, and cecum) samples were harvested on the 12th and 24th d of overfeeding. Data showed that goose fatty liver was successfully induced by 24 d of overfeeding. Hematoxylin-eosin staining analysis indicated that the arrangement of villi and crypts in the intestine was orderly, and the intestinal structure was intact with no pathological symptoms in the 2 groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative PCR analysis indicated no significant differences in the expression of tight junction and inflammation-related genes as well as plasma lipopolysaccharide concentration between the groups. Ileal hypertrophy and cecal atrophy were observed in the overfed vs. control geese, probably because of change of sphingolipid metabolism. Activation of apoptotic pathway may help cecum avoid necrosis-induced inflammation. In conclusion, healthy and intact intestine provides a layer of protection for goose fatty liver against inflammation. Sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of ileum and cecum to overfeeding. The hypertrophy of ileum makes it an important contributor to the development of goose fatty liver. The atrophy and decline in the function of cecum may be caused by apoptosis induced by overfeeding.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Gansos , Intestinos , Animais , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5883-5895, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142506

RESUMO

The gut microbiota play an important role in the growth and intestinal health of broilers. The present study was to investigate the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and intestinal morphology of broilers at different ages. A total of 320 one-day-old male broilers were raised in 8 replicates and fed the same corn-soybean diets for 42 D. The duodenal, jejunal, and ileal segments and their and cecal microbiota were collected on day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 42, respectively. The villous height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and their ratio of VH:CD in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum all increased (P < 0.05) with age. Caecal acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate increased (P < 0.01), but isobutyrate decreased (P < 0.001) with age. The cecum had the greatest (P < 0.001) alpha diversity of bacterial community in broilers at different ages. Beta diversities showed distinct differences in gut microbial compositions among different ages (R = 0.55, P < 0.002) and different intestinal segments (R = 0.53, P < 0.002). Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus in the duodenum (36∼97%), jejunum (39∼72%), and ileum (24∼96%) at all ages, and in the ileum, it was positively correlated with VH (R = 0.559, P < 0.03), VH:CD (R = 0.55, P < 0.03), and acetate contents (R = 0.541, P < 0.04) but negatively correlated (R = -0.50, P < 0.05) with isobutyrate contents. Escherichia-Shigella and Salmonella dominated in the cecum of newly hatched broilers, and then the Bacteroides dominated in the cecum on day 42. In the cecum, Escherichia-Shigella was positively correlated (R = 0.577∼0.662, P < 0.05) with isobutyrate contents and Salmonella negatively correlated (R = -0.539∼-0.843, P < 0.05) with isovalerate, butyrate, and acetate contents. These aforementioned results indicated that the most abundant Lactobacillus from the small intestine and the most diversity of microflora community and short-chain fatty acids in the cecum might contribute to the development of intestinal structure in the whole growing period of broilers.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino
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