Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 524
Filtrar
1.
J Morphol ; 285(1): e21662, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100743

RESUMO

The Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Krefft 1870), is the sole extant member of the Ceratodontidae within the Dipnoi, a small order of sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes, that is thought to be the earliest branching species of extant lungfishes, having changed little over the last 100 million years. To extend studies on anatomical adaptations associated with the fish-tetrapod transition, the ultrastructure of the cornea and iris is investigated using light and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy to investigate structure-function relationships and compare these to other vertebrate corneas (other fishes and tetrapods). In contrast to previous studies, the cornea is found to have only three main components, comprising an epithelium with its basement membrane, a stroma with a Bowman's layer and an endothelium, and is not split into a dermal (secondary) spectacle and a scleral cornea. The epithelial cells are large, relatively low in density and similar to many species of non-aquatic tetrapods and uniquely possess numerous surface canals that contain and release mucous granules onto the corneal surface to avoid desiccation. A Bowman's layer is present and, in association with extensive branching and anastomosing of the collagen fibrils, may be an adaptation for the inhibition of swelling and/or splitting of the stroma during its amphibious lifestyle. The dorsal region of the stroma possesses aggregations of pigment granules that act as a yellow, short wavelength-absorbing filter during bright light conditions. Desçemet's membrane is absent and replaced by an incomplete basement membrane overlying a monocellular endothelium. The iris is pigmented, well-developed, vascularised and contractile containing reflective crystals anteriorly. Based upon its ultrastructure and functional adaptations, the cornea of N. forsteri is more similar to amphibians than to other bony fishes and is well-adapted for an amphibious lifestyle.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Córnea , Peixes , Iris , Animais , Austrália , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Iris/anatomia & histologia
2.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284079, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37023103

RESUMO

The link between human ocular morphology and attractiveness, especially in the context of its potential adaptive function, is an underexplored area of research. In our study, we examined the association between facial attractiveness and three sexually dimorphic measures of ocular morphology in White Europeans: the sclera size index, width-to-height ratio, and relative iris luminance. Sixty participants (30 women) assessed the attractiveness of the opposite-sex photographs of 50 men and 50 women. Our results show that in both men and women, none of the three measures was linked to the opposite sex ratings of facial attractiveness. We conclude that those ocular morphology measures may play a limited role in human mate preferences.


Assuntos
Beleza , População Europeia , Olho , Face , População Branca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Europeia/psicologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Iris/anatomia & histologia , População Branca/psicologia , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Estética/psicologia , Fotografação , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/psicologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20261, 2022 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424405

RESUMO

Homogeneously depigmented sclerae have long been proposed to be uniquely human-an adaptation to enable cooperative behaviour by facilitating interpersonal coordination through gaze following. However, recent evidence has shown that deeply pigmented sclerae also afford gaze following if surrounding a bright iris. Furthermore, while current scleral depigmentation is clearly adaptive in modern humans, it is less clear how the evolutionarily intermediate stages of scleral pigmentation may have been adaptive. In sum, it is unclear why scleral depigmentation became the norm in humans, while not so in sister species like chimpanzees, or why some extant species display intermediate degrees of pigmentation (as our ancestors presumably did at some point). We created realistic facial images of 20 individually distinct hominins with diverse facial morphologies, each face in the (i) humanlike bright sclera and (ii) generalised apelike dark sclera version. Participants in two online studies rated the bright-sclera hominins as younger, healthier, more attractive and trustworthy, but less aggressive than the dark-sclera hominins. Our results support the idea that the appearance of more depigmented sclerae promoted perceived traits that fostered trust, increasing fitness for those individuals and resulting in depigmentation as a fixed trait in extant humans.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Esclera , Animais , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes , Pigmentação
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17989, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36289312

RESUMO

Recently, ocular biometrics in unconstrained environments using images obtained at visible wavelength have gained the researchers' attention, especially with images captured by mobile devices. Periocular recognition has been demonstrated to be an alternative when the iris trait is not available due to occlusions or low image resolution. However, the periocular trait does not have the high uniqueness presented in the iris trait. Thus, the use of datasets containing many subjects is essential to assess biometric systems' capacity to extract discriminating information from the periocular region. Also, to address the within-class variability caused by lighting and attributes in the periocular region, it is of paramount importance to use datasets with images of the same subject captured in distinct sessions. As the datasets available in the literature do not present all these factors, in this work, we present a new periocular dataset containing samples from 1122 subjects, acquired in 3 sessions by 196 different mobile devices. The images were captured under unconstrained environments with just a single instruction to the participants: to place their eyes on a region of interest. We also performed an extensive benchmark with several Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures and models that have been employed in state-of-the-art approaches based on Multi-class Classification, Multi-task Learning, Pairwise Filters Network, and Siamese Network. The results achieved in the closed- and open-world protocol, considering the identification and verification tasks, show that this area still needs research and development.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Humanos , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Computadores de Mão
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298074

RESUMO

Biometric recognition technology has been widely used in various fields of society. Iris recognition technology, as a stable and convenient biometric recognition technology, has been widely used in security applications. However, the iris images collected in the actual non-cooperative environment have various noises. Although mainstream iris recognition methods based on deep learning have achieved good recognition accuracy, the intention is to increase the complexity of the model. On the other hand, what the actual optical system collects is the original iris image that is not normalized. The mainstream iris recognition scheme based on deep learning does not consider the iris localization stage. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes an effective iris recognition scheme consisting of the iris localization and iris verification stages. For the iris localization stage, we used the parallel Hough circle to extract the inner circle of the iris and the Daugman algorithm to extract the outer circle of the iris, and for the iris verification stage, we developed a new lightweight convolutional neural network. The architecture consists of a deep residual network module and a residual pooling layer which is introduced to effectively improve the accuracy of iris verification. Iris localization experiments were conducted on 400 iris images collected under a non-cooperative environment. Compared with its processing time on a graphics processing unit with a central processing unit architecture, the experimental results revealed that the speed was increased by 26, 32, 36, and 21 times at 4 different iris datasets, respectively, and the effective iris localization accuracy is achieved. Furthermore, we chose four representative iris datasets collected under a non-cooperative environment for the iris verification experiments. The experimental results demonstrated that the network structure could achieve high-precision iris verification with fewer parameters, and the equal error rates are 1.08%, 1.01%, 1.71%, and 1.11% on 4 test databases, respectively.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Aprendizado Profundo , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Iris/anatomia & histologia
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3514807, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093471

RESUMO

Biometrics is the recognition of a human using biometric characteristics for identification, which may be physiological or behavioral. The physiological biometric features are the face, ear, iris, fingerprint, and handprint; behavioral biometrics are signatures, voice, gait pattern, and keystrokes. Numerous systems have been developed to distinguish biometric traits used in multiple applications, such as forensic investigations and security systems. With the current worldwide pandemic, facial identification has failed due to users wearing masks; however, the human ear has proven more suitable as it is visible. Therefore, the main contribution is to present the results of a CNN developed using EfficientNet. This paper presents the performance achieved in this research and shows the efficiency of EfficientNet on ear recognition. The nine variants of EfficientNets were fine-tuned and implemented on multiple publicly available ear datasets. The experiments showed that EfficientNet variant B8 achieved the best accuracy of 98.45%.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Biometria/métodos , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico
9.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 221: 97-104, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890470

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy of toric intraocular lens (IOL) alignment and visual outcomes using femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy marking (CM) versus conventional slit lamp-assisted manual marking (MM). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 57 patients who required cataract surgery and toric IOL implantation (Acrysof SN6AT3-T8) were assigned to the CM group (26 eyes) or the MM group (31 eyes). Uncorrected distant visual acuity (UCDVA), best-corrected distant visual acuity (BCDVA), residual astigmatism (RA), IOL misalignment, and modulation transfer function (area ratio [AR] value) were measured 1 and 3 months after surgery. RESULTS: Postoperative UCDVA (logarithm of minimal angle of resolution [logMAR]) was significantly lower in the CM group than that in the MM group (P < .05). Postoperative RA and IOL misalignment were significantly lower in the CM group than that in the MM group (both P < .05). No significant difference between the groups was observed for BCDVA or AR value (both P > .05). UCDVA (logMAR) was positively correlated with RA (r = 0.339; P < .05) and IOL misalignment (r = 0.317; P < .05) and negatively correlated with the the AR value (r = -0.272; P < .05); RA was positively correlated with IOL misalignment (r = 0.405; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of the axis alignment was significantly higher in the CM group, which resulted in lower residual astigmatism and better visual outcomes.


Assuntos
Marcadores Fiduciais , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Capsulotomia Posterior/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudofacia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
10.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 21(5): 685-694, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580639

RESUMO

Experts keep a steady final fixation at a specific location just before final movement initiation, the so-called "quiet eye" (QE). However, the eyes are rarely "quiet", and small eye movements occur during visual fixation. The current research investigated the subtle eye movements and underlying mechanisms immediately prior to and during QE. The gaze behaviour of 8 intermediate-level goalkeepers was recorded as they moved (either left or right) in an attempt to predict the future direction of the ball during a soccer penalty kick. Goalkeepers were more likely to predict the direction of the penalty, which was coupled with delaying movement initiation. The temporal sequence of microsaccade rates dropped ∼1000 ms before goalkeepers' final movement initiation. Saccade rates increased, reaching a peak ∼500 ms before final movement initiation, concomitant with microsaccades reduction. Microsaccades predicted the goalkeepers' direction, oriented to the right when goalkeepers moved to the right, and conversely to the left when they moved to the left. Microsaccades may be modulated by attention and appear functionally related to saccadic intrusions. Pupil-size increased proportionally with the lead up to the instance of the penalty being kicked, reaching a plateau at final movement initiation. In conclusion, microsaccades and small saccades could improve the perception of the soccer penalty kick, helping athletes during the period that precedes the critical movement initiation, shifting from covert to overt attention for identifying the useful cues necessary to guide the action.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998469

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma (UM) is a global disease which especially occurs in elderly people. Its incidence varies widely between populations, with the highest incidence among Caucasians, and a South-to-North increase in Europe. As northern Europeans often have blond hair and light eyes, we wondered whether iris colour may be a predisposing factor for UM and if so, why. We compared the distribution of iris colour between Dutch UM patients and healthy Dutch controls, using data from the Rotterdam Study (RS), and reviewed the literature regarding iris colour. We describe molecular mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. When comparing a group of Dutch UM patients with controls, we observed that individuals from Caucasian ancestry with a green/hazel iris colour (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.64, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.57-5.14) and individuals with a blue/grey iris colour (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.82) had a significantly higher crude risk of UM than those with brown eyes. According to the literature, this may be due to a difference in the function of pheomelanin (associated with a light iris colour) and eumelanin (associated with a brown iris colour). The combination of light-induced stress and aging may affect pheomelanin-carrying melanocytes in a different way than eumelanin-carrying melanocytes, increasing the risk of developing a malignancy.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Iris/efeitos da radiação , Melaninas/efeitos da radiação , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Uveais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Cor de Olho/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Iris/metabolismo , Luz/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/etnologia , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Uveais/etnologia , Neoplasias Uveais/etiologia , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia , População Branca
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(19)2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992524

RESUMO

With the increasing demand for information security and security regulations all over the world, biometric recognition technology has been widely used in our everyday life. In this regard, multimodal biometrics technology has gained interest and became popular due to its ability to overcome a number of significant limitations of unimodal biometric systems. In this paper, a new multimodal biometric human identification system is proposed, which is based on a deep learning algorithm for recognizing humans using biometric modalities of iris, face, and finger vein. The structure of the system is based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) which extract features and classify images by softmax classifier. To develop the system, three CNN models were combined; one for iris, one for face, and one for finger vein. In order to build the CNN model, the famous pertained model VGG-16 was used, the Adam optimization method was applied and categorical cross-entropy was used as a loss function. Some techniques to avoid overfitting were applied, such as image augmentation and dropout techniques. For fusing the CNN models, different fusion approaches were employed to explore the influence of fusion approaches on recognition performance, therefore, feature and score level fusion approaches were applied. The performance of the proposed system was empirically evaluated by conducting several experiments on the SDUMLA-HMT dataset, which is a multimodal biometrics dataset. The obtained results demonstrated that using three biometric traits in biometric identification systems obtained better results than using two or one biometric traits. The results also showed that our approach comfortably outperformed other state-of-the-art methods by achieving an accuracy of 99.39%, with a feature level fusion approach and an accuracy of 100% with different methods of score level fusion.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica , Aprendizado Profundo , Face/anatomia & histologia , Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
13.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 121, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pupillary evaluation is a crucial element of physical exams. Noting size, reactivity, and consensual response is critical in assessing for optic nerve dysfunction. We aim to establish normative data for scotopic pupillary size and function in the pediatric population in a clinical setting. METHODS: Pupillometry was obtained prospectively for consecutive, normal patients < 18 years old being evaluated by Lurie Children's Ophthalmology. Quantitative data included maximum (MAX) and minimum (MIN) diameters, constriction percentage (CON), latency (LAT), average (ACV) and maximum (MCV) constriction velocities, average dilation velocity (ADV), and 75% recovery time (T75). Iris color was noted as light, intermediate, or dark. RESULTS: 196 eyes of 101 participants (42.6% male, ages 1-17 years, average age 10.3 years) were analyzed. Mean MAX was 6.6 mm (5.1-8.1 mm 95% CI); MIN was 4.7 mm (3.1-6.1 mm 95% CI); CON was 30% (17-42 95% CI); LAT was 230 milliseconds (160-300 ms 95% CI); ACV was 3.70 mm/sec (2.21-5.18 mm/sec 95% CI); and ADV was 0.88 mm/sec (0.38-1.38 mm/sec 95% CI). Age had a positive correlation with MAX, MIN, and CON. 84.2 and 95.8% of participants showed resting pupil asymmetry of ≤0.5 mm and ≤ 1.0 mm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative pupillometry can be a useful tool for screening pediatric patients. We sought to establish normative data in this group. We found males to have significantly greater MCV and CON than females (p < 0.05). Also, age had a positive correlation with MAX, MIN, and CON.


Assuntos
Iris/anatomia & histologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Cor de Olho/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Luz , Masculino , Visão Noturna/fisiologia , Distribuição Normal , Exame Físico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Vet Ophthalmol ; 23(3): 472-479, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between phylogeny and amount of shade in a species' habitat regarding the presence or absence of an iridal granula iridica (GI) in a large sample of Artiodactyl and Perissodactyl clades and using online resources. METHODS: The Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW) archives were searched for glass slide material from Artiodactyl (even-toed) and Perissodactyl (odd-toed) ungulates. The slides were examined, and the presence or absence of the GI was noted. The phylogenetic tree of the ungulate species was inferred using TimeTree (http://www.timetree.org), and the habitat data are derived from Animal Diversity Web (https://animaldiversity.org/). We assessed the probability of the presence of GI occurring given the amount of shade in a species' environment using phylogenetic logistic regression. RESULTS: Forty-eight artiodactyl species were able to be evaluated and tabulated. Nine perissodactyl species were able to be evaluated. The phylogenetic logistic regression showed that the probability of GI presence was lower in artiodactyl species that inhabited shaded environments (ßshaded  = -1.774). Arctiodacyl species inhabiting a nonshaded environment were slightly more probable to have the GI present (ßnonshaded  = 0.023), with species inhabitating ambiguously shaded environments having a high probability of GI presence (ßambiguous  = 2.214). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the GI may be a common morphological feature to shade the pupil in nonshaded environments, and, in its absence, increase the amount of light reaching the retina to improve vision in shaded environments for hooved mammals. Further research on the functional optics of the GI and studies that include additional ungulate species would further elucidate phylogenetic and ecological factors influencing the occurrence of GI in hooved mammals.


Assuntos
Iris/anatomia & histologia , Ruminantes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Ruminantes/classificação , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 5, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Valsalva maneuver (VM) is widely used in daily life, and has been reported to cause high intraocular pressure (IOP). This study aimed to assess changes in IOP, the Schlemm's canal (SC), autonomic nervous system activity, and iridocorneal angle morphology in healthy individuals during different phases of the VM. METHODS: The high frequency (HF) of heart rate (HR) variability, the ratio of low frequency power (LF) and HF (LF/HF), heart rate (HR), IOP, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the area of SC (SCAR), pupil diameter (PD), and some iridocorneal angle parameters (AOD500, ARA750, TIA500 and TISA500) were measured in 29 young healthy individuals at baseline, phase 2, and phase 4 of the VM. SBP and DBP were measured to calculate mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP). HF and the LF/HF ratio were recorded using Kubios HR variability premium software to evaluate autonomic nervous system activity. The profiles of the anterior chamber were captured by a Spectralis optical coherence tomography device (anterior segment module). RESULTS: Compared with baseline values, in phase 2 of the VM, HR, LF/HF, IOP (15.1 ± 2.7 vs. 18.8 ± 3.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), SCAR (mean) (7712.112 ± 2992.14 vs. 8921.12 ± 4482.79 µm2, P = 0.039), and PD increased significantly, whereas MOPP, AOD500, TIA500, and TISA500 decreased significantly. In phase 4, DBP, MAP, AOD500, ARA750, TIA500and TISA500 were significantly lower than baseline value, while PD and HF were remarkably larger than baseline. The comparison between phase 2 and phase 4 showed that HR, IOP (18.8 ± 3.5 vs. 14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg, P < 0.001) and PD decreased significantly from phase 2 to phase 4, but there were no significant differences in other parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The expansion and collapse of the SC in different phases of the VM may arise from changes in autonomic nervous system activity. Further, the effects of the VM on IOP may be attributed to changes in blood flow and ocular anatomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This observational study was approved by the ethics committee of Tongji Hospital (Registration Number: ChiCTR-OON-16007850, Date: 01.28.2016).


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Esclera/fisiologia , Manobra de Valsalva/fisiologia , Adulto , Câmara Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Esclera/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 25(5): 1194-1214, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584534

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this article is to review the anatomy and physiology of pupillary function and then employ that information to develop a comprehensive framework for understanding and diagnosing pupillary disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The contribution of rods and cones to the pupillary light reflex has long been known. A third photosensitive cell type, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell, has recently been discovered. This cell type employs melanopsin to mediate a portion of the pupillary light reflex independent of rods and cones (the postillumination pupillary response) and photic regulation of circadian rhythm. SUMMARY: The autonomic nervous system regulates pupil size in response to stimuli. The parasympathetic nervous system causes miosis in response to light and near visual stimuli. These stimuli activate supranuclear pathways that project to the Edinger-Westphal nuclei. The sympathetic nervous system causes mydriasis in response to a variety of arousing factors, both physiologic (wakefulness) and pathologic (pain). Abnormalities of physiologic function cause disturbances of pupil size, shape, and response to stimuli. The clinical approach to pupillary abnormalities should focus on the clinical and pharmacologic assessment of the pupil's expected response to diverse stimuli.


Assuntos
Iris/fisiologia , Distúrbios Pupilares/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Iris/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distúrbios Pupilares/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(39): 19248-19250, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481611

RESUMO

Gaze following has been argued to be uniquely human, facilitated by our depigmented, white sclera [M. Tomasello, B. Hare, H. Lehmann, J. Call, J. Hum. Evol. 52, 314-320 (2007)]-the pale area around the colored iris-and to underpin human-specific behaviors such as language. Today, we know that great apes show diverse patterns of scleral coloration [J. A. Mayhew, J. C. Gómez, Am. J. Primatol. 77, 869-877 (2015); J. O. Perea García, T. Grenzner, G. Hesková, P. Mitkidis, Commun. Integr. Biol. 10, e1264545 (2016)]. We compare scleral coloration and its relative contrast with the iris in bonobos, chimpanzees, and humans. Like humans, bonobos' sclerae are lighter relative to the color of their irises; chimpanzee sclerae are darker than their irises. The relative contrast between the sclera and iris in all 3 species is comparable, suggesting a perceptual mechanism to explain recent evidence that nonhuman great apes also rely on gaze as a social cue.


Assuntos
Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pigmentação , Esclera/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Pan paniscus/anatomia & histologia , Pan paniscus/fisiologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(13)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284418

RESUMO

Multimodal systems are a workaround to enhance the robustness and effectiveness of biometric systems. A proper multimodal dataset is of the utmost importance to build such systems. The literature presents some multimodal datasets, although, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous studies combining face, iris/eye, and vital signals such as the Electrocardiogram (ECG). Moreover, there is no methodology to guide the construction and evaluation of a chimeric dataset. Taking that fact into account, we propose to create a chimeric dataset from three modalities in this work: ECG, eye, and face. Based on the Doddington Zoo criteria, we also propose a generic and systematic protocol imposing constraints for the creation of homogeneous chimeric individuals, which allow us to perform a fair and reproducible benchmark. Moreover, we have proposed a multimodal approach for these modalities based on state-of-the-art deep representations built by convolutional neural networks. We conduct the experiments in the open-world verification mode and on two different scenarios (intra-session and inter-session), using three modalities from two datasets: CYBHi (ECG) and FRGC (eye and face). Our multimodal approach achieves impressive decidability of 7.20 ± 0.18, yielding an almost perfect verification system (i.e., Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.20% ± 0.06) on the intra-session scenario with unknown data. On the inter-session scenario, we achieve a decidability of 7.78 ± 0.78 and an EER of 0.06% ± 0.06. In summary, these figures represent a gain of over 28% in decidability and a reduction over 11% of the EER on the intra-session scenario for unknown data compared to the best-known unimodal approach. Besides, we achieve an improvement greater than 22% in decidability and an EER reduction over 6% in the inter-session scenario.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Eletrocardiografia , Olho , Face , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Eye Res ; 44(6): 632-637, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747543

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) within a population-based study sample in Germany and to find correlations between age, sphere, and biometric parameters of the anterior chamber. Patients and Methods: A total of 500 eyes, approximately 100 eyes per decade starting with patient age of 20 years, of 463 patients with an average age of 45.2 ± 14.1 (±values subsequent represent standard deviation) years without any known history of ocular diseases, surgery, or optic nerve head excavation or hypoplasia were included. ACAs, volume, and depth were correlated to age and sphere. Scheimpflug images (Pentacam, Oculus) with automatically measured ACAs were compared to manually measured angles (Bland Altman analysis) in this healthy population. Results: The mean manually measured ACA was 26.5° ± 3.9°; the highest average angle was found in the temporal position with 28.1° ± 4.9°, while the lowest average angle was found in nasal superior position with 25.7° ± 4.7°. Statistical analysis showed an average difference of +11.4° nasal and +12.1° temporal between the automatic measurements and the manually measured angles (P < 0.01). The analysis also revealed an independent inverted correlation between age (correlation coefficient between -0.28 and -0.38) and sphere (correlation coefficient between -0.44 and -0.51) of the participants and the anterior chamber volume, angle, and anterior chamber depth (P < 0.01 for all correlations). Conclusion: The ACA width manually measured is considerably less compared to automated imaging and formerly reported values. There is a significant difference in the ACA dependent on the position of measurement (superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal) with the average angle being inversely correlated to age and sphere. Abbreviations: AC: anterior chamber ACA: anterior chamber angle ACV: anterior chamber volume ACD: anterior chamber depth AAC: acute angle closure OAG: open-angle glaucoma OCT: optical coherence tomography ACG: angle-closure glaucoma MIGS: microinvasive glaucoma surgery PACS: primary angle-closure suspects.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Câmara Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Iris/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA