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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMO

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos
2.
J Intensive Care Med ; 38(1): 106-113, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35795966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, critical care resource requirements, and outcomes of children who were hospitalized after a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) consult in the Emergency Department (ED). METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we conducted chart reviews for children (<18 years) hospitalized following a PICU consult in the ED to examine patient characteristics, timing of consult, ED length of stay, Medical Emergency Team (MET) utilization, PICU nursing workload, and critical care interventions for children who were and were not admitted to the PICU. RESULTS: During the one-year study period, 247 PICU consults were performed in the ED resulting in 161 (65.2%) direct admissions to PICU and 1 indirect PICU admission via the ward. Of 105 children with complex chronic conditions, 73 (69.5%) were admitted to PICU, including 32 (91.4%) of 35 children with chronic home ventilatory needs, only 2 (6.2%) of whom received a critical care intervention beyond respiratory support. Within 24 h of hospitalization, 112 (69.1%) of 162 PICU admissions received a critical care-specific intervention. Of 86 (34.8%) ward admissions, 16 (18.6%) were reviewed by the MET. Children admitted to the ward had a significantly longer post-consult ED length of stay than children admitted to PICU (median 428 min vs. 130 min; p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Over two-thirds of children admitted to PICU from the ED required early critical care interventions, with the remainder potentially benefitting from closer monitoring or a higher frequency of non-critical care interventions than can be reasonably provided on general inpatient wards. More research is needed to evaluate critical care and hospital resource utilization when children are triaged to the ward following a PICU consult in the ED.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tempo de Internação
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 20-25, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of viral infections, length of stay (LOS), and outcome in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) during the period preceding the COVID-19 pandemic in a MERS-CoV endemic country. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children 0-14 years old admitted to PICU with a viral infection. RESULTS: Of 1736 patients, 164 patients (9.45%) had a positive viral infection. The annual prevalence trended downward over a three-year period, from 11.7% to 7.3%. The median PICU LOS was 11.6 days. Viral infections were responsible for 1904.4 (21.94%) PICU patient-days. Mechanical ventilation was used in 91.5% of patients, including noninvasive and invasive modes. Comorbidities were significantly associated with intubation (P-value = 0.025). Patients infected with multiple viruses had median pediatric index of mortality 2 (PIM 2) scores of 4, as compared to 1 for patients with single virus infections (p < 0.001), and a median PICU LOS of 12 days, compared to 4 in the single-virus group (p < 0.001). Overall, mortality associated with viral infections in PICU was 7 (4.3%). Patients with viral infections having multiple organ failure were significantly more likely to die in the PICU (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Viral infections are responsible for one-fifth of PICU patient-days, with a high demand for mechanical ventilation. Patients with multiple viral infections had longer LOS, and higher PIM 2 scores. The downward trend in the yearly rate of PICU admissions for viral infections between the end of the MERS-CoV outbreak and the start of the COVID-19 pandemic may suggest viral interference that warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Viroses , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Pandemias , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Viroses/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130162, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257112

RESUMO

Although drinking water is the main source of fluoride intake, recent studies reported that fluoride intake from foods could also be high, depending on cooking methods. In this study, we quantified the fluoride accumulation in foods soaked or boiled in fluoride-containing water and assessed the fluoride intake in different age groups from food and drinking water. We observed that, in the case of rice soaked in fluoride-containing water, more fluoride was accumulated in the rice than previously estimated. Fluoride interferes with the iodine staining process of rice, indicating fluoride adsorption. Fluoride accumulation in rice and vegetables increased when the soaking temperature was raised to 100 °C due to the gelatinization of rice grains and softening of vegetables. Ingesting foods boiled in fluoride-containing water increased the fluoride intake per body weight of infants more significantly than that in children and adults due to their low body weight. These results indicate that soaking and boiling foods in fluoride-containing water significantly increases fluoride intake compared to previous estimations. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the fluoride intake from food and drinking water considering the methods used for cooking food in each country and region.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Oryza , Criança , Lactente , Adulto , Humanos , Fluoretos , Adsorção , Verduras , Peso Corporal
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130163, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272370

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent organic pollutants widely contaminated and exposed in humans. China is a major manufacturer and consumer of these chemicals. To characterize the occurrences, geographical variations, temporal trends, and exposure risks of legacy and emerging PFAS in perinatal women and their children in China, 30 PFAS were measured in 100 pooled human milk samples consisting of 3531 individual samples collected from 100 sites in 24 provinces during the 2017-2020 National Human Milk Survey. Linear-perfluorooctanoic acid (L-PFOA, 151 pg/mL) and linear-perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS, 57.0 pg/mL) were the predominant PFAS in human milk, followed by 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA, 25.9 pg/mL). The geographic variation trend of PFOA was different from PFOS and Cl-PFESA, and a special geographic trend of perfluoropentanesulfonate (PFPeS) was observed. Comparison of National Human Milk surveys from different periods showed a sharp decrease of PFAS exposure in old industrial areas including Shanghai and Liaoning, but higher PFAS exposure observed in Shandong and Hubei indicated a possible domestic shift of PFAS manufacture to these areas. Worldwide comparison of PFAS in human milk indicated high PFOA exposure in China. Risk assessments for mothers and breastfeeding infants showed that PFAS exposure is of concern in China.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Leite Humano/química , China , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Alcanossulfonatos , Éteres , Poluentes Ambientais/análise
7.
J Nurs Care Qual ; 38(1): E9-E15, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacological interventions are needed to reduce pain during vaccine administration in infants. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of the Buzzy device, which is a combination of cold and vibration, on pain during measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine administration in 12-month-old infants. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled experimental research design was used. RESULTS: A total of 60 infants were included in the study. During and after vaccine injection, pain scores of infants who had the Buzzy device were significantly lower than those of infants in the control group ( P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Buzzy application may be an effective method in reducing pain during MMR vaccine administration. Use of the device is recommended for infants receiving vaccinations.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Dor , Lactente , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Injeções , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 1): 159050, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from in vitro and rodent studies suggests that organophosphate esters (OPEs) may disrupt sex steroid hormone homeostasis, but no human studies, to date, have examined the effects of in utero exposure to OPEs on offspring reproductive development. OBJECTIVE: Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of fetal hormonal milieu and has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. We evaluated the longitudinal effects of prenatal exposure to OPEs on the AGD of offspring from birth to 4 years. METHODS: Based on Shanghai-Minhang Birth Cohort Study, pregnant women provided urine samples at a gestational age of 12-16 weeks, which were analyzed for eight OPE metabolites. AGD was measured in offspring at birth and 0.5, 1, and 4 years of age. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models to estimate the associations of prenatal exposure to individual OPE metabolites and OPE mixtures with AGD stratified by sex. RESULTS: A total of 733 mother-infant pairs were analyzed. Prenatal exposure to diphenyl phosphate and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was associated with decreased AGD in boys in GEE models. Bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP) showed a similar but marginally significant effect. Prenatal exposure to most OPE metabolites was associated with decreased AGD in girls, with the most profound association observed for bis (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP) and alkyl-OPEs. The OPE mixture was also inversely associated with AGD in both sexes. The single-exposure effects of BKMR models were largely consistent with those observed in the GEE models. In addition, alkyl-OPEs, particularly BBOEP, contributed the most to the decreased AGD in girls, while BCIPP contributed the most to the decreased AGD in boys. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first human evidence that prenatal exposure to OPEs is associated with decreased AGD in offspring. The magnitude of these effects may vary depending on the structure of OPEs.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Masculino , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Coortes , Teorema de Bayes , China , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Organofosfatos/urina , Fosfatos
9.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136792, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to cadmium has various effects on health, especially on male reproductive organs. Although it is widely known that prenatal maternal cadmium exposure can affect birth outcomes, the effect of paternal exposure to cadmium remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of paternal cadmium exposure on fetal growth by considering maternal cadmium exposure and exposure to other heavy metals, namely mercury and lead. METHODS: The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study is a prospective birth cohort study in Korea. Overall, 1313 families (father-mother-child triple) without child abnormalities and who completed paternal whole blood cadmium assessments were included in this study. Families were divided into two subgroups based on the blood sampling periods, namely early and late pregnancy. Subjects were selected as follows: one family triple with a high level of paternal cadmium and two triples with low levels of paternal cadmium, using the method of propensity score matching. And linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The group with high paternal cadmium exposure (80% or more; 1.93 µg/L) had lower birth weight infants compared to the group with low cadmium concentrations (ß(se) = -0.21(0.10); p-value = 0.0283). After stratification by infant sex, prenatal paternal cadmium exposure significantly reduced the birth weight of females in subgroups of different sampling times, namely early pregnancy (ß(se) = -0.52 (0.22); p-value = 0.0170) and late pregnancy (ß(se) = -0.43 (0.18); p-value = 0.0160). Finally, after performing propensity score matching in the early pregnancy measurement group, it was found that the prenatal exposure of father to cadmium significantly reduced birth weight in females (ß(se) = -0.72(0.25); p-value = 0.0047). CONCLUSION: This study assessed the effect of paternal cadmium exposure on birth outcomes in family units consisting of a father, mother, and child. Prenatal paternal cadmium exposure negatively affected birth weight, especially that of female, considering covariates and other heavy metals exposure, namely mercury and lead.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Lactente , Gravidez , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Cádmio , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Pontuação de Propensão , Exposição Materna , Pai
10.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136940, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), used as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, were indicated as thyroid hormone disruptive toxicants in experimental studies. However, it is unclear whether prenatal exposure to Cl-PFESA and PFBS affects neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in human. OBJECTIVE: To disclose the relationships between prenatal Cl-PFESAs and PFBS exposure and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels based on a perspective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1015 pairs of mother and newborn were included from an ongoing birth cohort study in Wuhan, China, between 2013 and 2014. Six PFASs in cord blood sera and TSH concentration in neonatal postpartum heel sticks blood were quantified. Mixed linear and weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression models were applied to assess the individual and combination effects of PFASs exposure on neonatal TSH levels with multiple covariates adjustments. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders and other five PFASs, for each 1-ng/mL increase of PFBS or 8:2 Cl-PFESA, was negatively associated with 25.90% (95%CI: 37.37%, -12.32%; P < 0.001) and 27.19% (95%CI: 46.15%, -1.55%; P = 0.033) change in TSH in male but not female infants, respectively. No significant association was found between other PFASs exposure and neonatal TSH. Higher PFAS mixture in cord blood was significantly associated with decrease TSH concentration in all newborns (ß = -0.36; 95%CI: 0.58, -0.13; P = 0.001) identified by WQS regression model. PFBS, PFOS and 6:2 Cl-PFESA were the major contributors to the neonatal TSH decrement with the weights of 56.50%, 18.71%, 12.81% among PFAS mixture, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: our prospective cohort study suggested a negative association of cord serum PFBS and 8:2 CI-PFESA with TSH concentration in newborns, especially for boys. Additional studies are required to elaborate on the underlying biological mechanisms, especially for PFBS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Lactente , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Humanos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Tireotropina , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Coorte de Nascimento , Éteres , Éter , China
11.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 136991, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306967

RESUMO

Humans are simultaneously exposed to phenols and phthalates (PAEs). However, the mixture effect of phenols and PAEs on the body size of twins is lacking. From 2016 to 2018, we recruited 228 pregnant twins and collected up to three urine samples. A total of 8 PAE metabolites and 7 phenols were detected in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Chemical individual and mixture effects were estimated. Multivariable linear regression results presented the percentage change in twins' growth differences at one month old with maternal PAE and phenol exposure. These chemicals were positively associated with weight differences during the entire trimester. Moreover, the quantile g-computed model showed that increased urinary concentrations of all chemicals by one quartile were associated with a 22.85% (95%CI: 11.21-35.72%), 22.60% (95%CI: 12.31-33.83%), and 24.05% (95%CI: 13.11-36.05%) larger weight difference within twins in each trimester, respectively. Increasing all PAE metabolites and phenols by one quantile across the entire trimester, weight differences increased by 26.61% (95% CI: 15.79%, 38.44%), and height differences increased by 15.84% (95%CI: 3.92%, 29.13%). Co-exposure to PAEs and phenols may primarily play a role in twins' growth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenóis/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Tamanho Corporal
12.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105574, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332434

RESUMO

Rewarding individuals who distribute resources fairly and punishing those who distribute resources unfairly may be very important actions for fostering cooperation. This study investigated whether 9-month-olds have some expectations concerning punishments and rewards that follow distributive actions. Infants were shown simple animations and were tested using the violation-of-expectation paradigm. In Experiment 1, we found that infants looked longer when they saw a bystander delivering a corporal punishment to a 'fair distributor,' who distributed some windfall resources equally to the possible recipients, rather than to an 'unfair distributor,' who distributed the resources unequally. This pattern of looking times was reversed when, in Experiment 2, punishments were replaced with rewards. These findings suggest an early emergence of expectations about punishing and rewarding actions in third-party contexts, and they help to evaluate competing claims about the origins of a sense of fairness.


Assuntos
Punição , Recompensa , Lactente , Humanos
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105569, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332436

RESUMO

Joint Attention (JA) in parent-infant interaction has been demonstrated to contribute to infants' language outcomes. A limited number of studies have investigated the characteristics of JA episodes during parent-toddler interaction in relation to toddlers' language development. The majority of these studies were conducted with mothers, whereas JA with fathers remains understudied. The current study investigated JA episodes during interactions with mothers and fathers separately as well as longitudinal associations with child language outcomes. A total of 31 toddlers (18 girls) and their mothers and fathers participated in the study at ages 2 years (M = 24.07 months, SD = 1.45) and 3 years (M = 37.44 months, SD = 1.72). JA episodes were observed during free play interactions at age 2 and were coded microanalytically; receptive and expressive language skills were assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at ages 2 and 3. No significant differences in JA episodes were found between mother-toddler and father-toddler dyads. Whereas JA characteristics with mothers were not found to be significantly associated with toddlers' language outcomes, multiple linear regression analyses showed that paternal education and parent-followed JA episodes during father-toddler interaction at age 2 explained a significant amount of variance in toddlers' expressive language skills at age 3. Findings suggest that JA episodes during interactions with fathers might benefit toddlers' expressive language development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Feminino , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Linguagem Infantil , Cognição , Atenção
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105577, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335835

RESUMO

After decades of research suggesting that metacognition-that is, processes whereby people monitor and regulate their cognitive performance-did not emerge and is not related to children's performance until late childhood, recent studies have provided evidence that even preverbal infants can access their internal states. The existence of this basic metacognition raises the question of the variables influencing its development at such a young age and whether such early skills could predict successful cognitive performance. The current study had two main goals: (a) exploring the relation between parental metacognitive style and children's early metacognition and (b) determining whether these early metacognitive skills can predict children's memory performance. To this end, 2.5- to 4.5-year-old children (N = 72) and their parents were recruited. To assess parental metacognitive style, parent-child dyads were invited to participate in a 15-min session during which they played memory games. The parents' speech during this session was later coded for metacognitive content. Children's memory was assessed using cued recall and recognition tests. During one of these recognition tests, participants had the opportunity to ask for a cue to help them decide whether their response was correct (i.e., metacognitive measure). Results revealed that parental metacognitive style predicted both children's metacognitive accuracy and memory performance. Interestingly, a mediation effect of children's metacognitive skills on the relation between parental style and memory performance was found. These findings suggest that environmental factors such as parental metacognitive style are related to children's early metacognition, which in turn is linked to children's memory development.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Pais , Relações Pais-Filho , Cognição , Sinais (Psicologia)
15.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105554, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208491

RESUMO

From 10 months of age, human infants start to understand the function of the eyes in the looking behavior of others to the point where they preferentially orient toward an object if the social partner has open eyes rather than closed eyes. Thus far, gaze following has been investigated in controlled laboratory paradigms. The current study investigated this early ability using a remote live testing procedure, testing infants in their everyday environment while manipulating whether the experimenter could or could not see some target objects. A total of 32 11- and 12-month-old infants' looking behavior was assessed, varying the experimenter's eye status condition (open eyes vs closed eyes) in a between-participant design. Results showed that infants followed the gaze of a virtual social partner and that they preferentially followed open eyes rather than closed eyes. These data generalize past laboratory findings to a noisier home environment and demonstrate gaze processing capacities of infants to a virtual partner interacting with the participants in a live setup.


Assuntos
Atenção , Comportamento do Lactente , Lactente , Humanos , Fixação Ocular
16.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105565, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228533

RESUMO

Verb meaning is challenging for children to learn across varied events. This study examined how the taxonomic semantic similarity of the nouns in novel verb learning events in a progressive alignment learning condition differed from the taxonomic dissimilarity of nouns in a dissimilar learning condition in supporting near (similar) and far (dissimilar) verb generalization to novel objects in an eye-tracking task. A total of 48 children in two age groups (23 girls; younger: 21-24 months, Mage = 22.1 months; older: 27-30 months: Mage = 28.3 months) who differed in taxonomic vocabulary size were tested. There were no group or learning condition differences in near generalization. The younger group demonstrated better far generalization of verbs learned with semantically dissimilar nouns. The older group demonstrated the opposite pattern, with better far generalization of verbs learned with semantically similar nouns in the progressive alignment condition. These patterns were associated with children's in-category vocabulary knowledge more than other vocabulary measures, including verb vocabulary size. Taxonomic vocabulary knowledge differentially affects verb learning and generalization across development.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Vocabulário , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Semântica , Aprendizagem Verbal , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
17.
Parasitol Int ; 92: 102689, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240994

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate dynamic changes in seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii within the general population living in the northern part of the Republic of Serbia (Province of Vojvodina) during a 14-year period. The differences in prevalence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies were analyzed in correlation with age, gender, residential area (rural/urban) and meteorological factors. In this cohort retrospective study, 24,440 subjects between 1 and 88 years old were enrolled. To determine the presence of T. gondii-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in serum samples, commercially available ELISA kits were used (Euroimmun, Luebeck, Germany). During the study period, the overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 23.5%. The seroprevalence continuously decreased over time from 31.7% in 2008 to 20.4% in 2021 (0.81% per year, p < 0.001). Approximately 2% of patients had a serologic profile positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. The seroprevalence was higher (28.87%) among men compared to women (24.28%), while urban residents (24.94%) had lower seroprevalence than the rural population (28.17%). A statistically significant negative correlation (r = -0.559) was found between serologic profile of patients positive for both T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and the annual mean air temperature. No significant association was observed between seropositivity to T. gondii infection and examined meteorological factors. These data could be useful to national and regional health authorities to create an optimal health policy to reduce rate of T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Iugoslávia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105564, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265238

RESUMO

In social groups, some individuals have more influence than others, for example, because they are learned from or because they coordinate collective actions. Identifying these influential individuals is crucial to learn about one's social environment. Here, we tested whether infants represent asymmetric social influence among individuals from observing the imitation of movements in the absence of any observable coercion or order. We defined social influence in terms of Granger causality; that is, if A influences B, then past behaviors of A contain information that predicts the behaviors and mental states of B above and beyond the information contained in the past behaviors and mental states of B alone. Infants (12-, 15-, and 18-month-olds) were familiarized with agents (imitators) influenced by the actions of another one (target). During the test, the infants observed either an imitator who was no longer influenced by the target (incongruent test) or the target who was not influenced by an imitator (neutral test). The participants looked significantly longer at the incongruent test than at the neutral test. This result shows that infants represent and generalize individuals' potential to influence others' actions and that they are sensitive to the asymmetric nature of social influence; upon learning that A influences B, they expect that the influence of A over B will remain stronger than the influence of B over A in a novel context. Because of the pervasiveness of social influence in many social interactions and relationships, its representation during infancy is fundamental to understand and predict others' behaviors.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Meio Social , Lactente , Humanos
19.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 16-27, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the perinatal period, women's perceived quality of life (QOL) may be altered due to physiological, psychological, and bodily changes, as well as changes in family functioning. OBJECTIVES: to explore in a sample of women from the general population, the associations between physical and mental QOL at 1 year post-partum and i) pregnancy social support, demographic, socioeconomic, medical and child health-related factors, paternal and maternal psychological characteristics at 2 months and 1 year post-partum, ii) antenatal preventive measures (early prenatal interview/antenatal classes). METHODS: We used data from the "French Longitudinal Study since Childhood" (ELFE), a representative cohort of children and their parents followed from birth to adulthood. Data were collected from mothers in the maternity ward, at 2 months and 1-year post-partum. QOL was assessed using the SF12 physical (PCS-12) and mental (MCS-12) subscales. RESULTS: Women with both low PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores were more likely to have high maternal age and to experience psychological difficulties during pregnancy. They also had more frequent PNDS, quarrels with insults within the couple, low sleep time at 2 months postpartum, and more frequently received psychological, social and child caregiver support, and were more often housewives or students at 1-year post-partum. Others factors are specific for low PCS-12 or MCS-12. There was no association with antenatal preventive measure and QOL at 1-year post-partum. CONCLUSION: Factors influencing maternal QOL are multiple and multidimensional and can mostly be identified during the ante or early postnatal period. A graduated and coordinated preventive and curative pathway would improve women's health. An ecosystemic approach to pregnancy and the perinatal period could help preventing the negative effects of environment on mothers and thus infants during the "1000-day period".


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Lactente , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães/psicologia , Parto
20.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 74-82, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of prenatal maternal depression, anxiety and stress, and postnatal depression on infant early neurodevelopment, and the sex dimorphism. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from 3379 mother-infant pairs from the Shanghai Birth Cohort. Maternal mental health was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Perceived Stress Scale at mid-pregnancy, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at postpartum. Infant neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Ages & Stages Questionnaires and Bayley Scales at ages 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Linear mixed models and linear regression models were used. RESULTS: Among 3379 mothers, 11.07 %, 5.42 %, and 34.85 % of women experienced depression, anxiety, and elevated stress, separately. As maternal prenatal mental scores increased per 1SD, infant social-emotional scores decreased -2.82 (-3.86, -1.79) vs -2.86 (-3.94, -1.79) for depression, -2.34 (-3.38, -1.31) vs -2.72 (-3.81, -1.64) for anxiety, and -2.55 (-3.60, -1.50) vs -3.41 (-4.48, -2.35) for stress among boys and girls at age 24 months, respectively. Associations were also observed on social-emotional and communication scores in boys and girls, and fine motor in girls at age 6 and 12 months. These associations were not observed for postpartum depression. LIMITATION: Generalizability of the results to other population remains to be determined. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal maternal depression, anxiety, and stress were negatively associated with infant early neurodevelopment, which were not observed for postpartum depression. We underscore the importance of maternal prenatal mental health in optimizing infant neuropsychiatric development.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Humanos , Gravidez , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
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