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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249617, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345540

RESUMO

Abstract Hibernation is a natural condition of animals that lives in the temperate zone, although some tropical lizards also experience hibernation annually, such as the lizard native from South America, Salvator merianae, or "tegu" lizard. Even though physiological and metabolic characteristic associated with hibernation have been extensively studied, possible alterations in the red blood cells (RBC) integrity during this period remains unclear. Dehydration and fasting are natural consequences of hibernating for several months and it could be related to some cellular modifications. In this study, we investigated if the osmotic tolerance of RBCs of tegu lizard under hibernation is different from the cells obtained from animals while normal activity. Additionally, we indirectly investigated if the RBCs membrane of hibernating tegus could be associated with oxidation by quantifying oxidized biomolecules and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that RBCs are more fragile during the hibernation period, although we did not find evidence of an oxidative stress scenario associated with the accentuated fragility. Even though we did not exclude the possibility of oxidative damage during hibernation, we suggested that an increased RBCs volume as a consequence of hypoosmotic blood during hibernation could also affect RBCs integrity as noted.


Resumo A hibernação é uma condição natural dos animais que vivem na zona temperada, embora alguns lagartos tropicais também experenciem hibernação anualmente, como é o caso do lagarto nativo da América do Sul, Salvator merianae ou "teiú". Embora as características fisiológicas e metabólicas associadas à hibernação tenham sido amplamente estudadas, possíveis alterações na integridade das hemácias durante esse período ainda permanecem obscuras. A desidratação e o jejum são consequências naturais da hibernação por vários meses e podem estar relacionadas a algumas modificações celulares. Neste estudo, investigamos se a tolerância osmótica de hemácias do lagarto teiú sob hibernação são diferentes das células obtidas de animais em atividade normal. Além disso, investigamos indiretamente por meio da quantificação de biomoléculas oxidadas e da atividade de enzimas antioxidantes se a membrana das hemácias dos teiús em hibernação poderia estar associada à oxidação. Nossos resultados sugerem que as hemácias possuem maior fragilidade durante o período de hibernação, embora não tenhamos encontrado evidências de um cenário de estresse oxidativo associado à essa fragilidade acentuada. Embora não tenhamos excluído a possibilidade de dano oxidativo durante a hibernação, sugerimos que um aumento no volume das hemácias como consequência de sangue hipoosmótico durante a hibernação também poderia afetar a integridade de hemácias, tal como foi observado.


Assuntos
Animais , Hibernação , Lagartos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Eritrócitos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Assuntos
Animais , Lagartos , Paquistão , Filogenia , Variação Genética/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253508, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360218

RESUMO

Present research work represents antiviral and antibacterial value of body fat of Saara hardwickii commonly called as spiny tailed lizard. Oil was extracted from body fats located in the ventral region of this animal using hydrocarbons e.g., n-hexane, methanol, butanol and ethyl acetate as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of lizard oil was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines ofEscherichia coli, Styphalococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris alone and with antibiotic ampicillin. For antibacterial potential, Ethyl acetate and Butanol solvent extract showed best zone of inhibition (7mm) with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. For antiviral potential, Butanol and Methanol extract showed best HA (Hemagglutination) titer of 04 with NDV and IBV viral strain respectively. It is concluded that lizard oil has antimicrobial potential against different pathogens strains (virus, bacteria).


O presente trabalho de pesquisa apresenta a importância antiviral e antibacteriana da gordura corporal de Saara hardwickii, comumente chamado de lagarto de cauda espinhosa. O óleo foi extraído de gorduras corporais localizadas na região ventral desse animal usando hidrocarbonetos, por exemplo, n-hexano, metanol, butanol e acetato de etila, como solvente. A atividade antibacteriana do óleo do lagarto foi testada em linhagens padrão e multirresistentes de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Proteus vulgaris, de forma isolada e com antibiótico ampicilina. Para o potencial antibacteriano, acetato de etila e extrato de butanol apresentaram melhor zona de inibição (7 mm) com P. aeruginosa e S. aureus, respectivamente. Para o potencial antiviral, o extrato de butanol e o extrato de metanol apresentaram melhor título de hemaglutinação de 4 com as cepas virais NDV e IBV, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o óleo do lagarto possui potencial antimicrobiano contra diferentes cepas de patógenos (vírus e bactérias).


Assuntos
Animais , Antivirais , Tecido Adiposo , Lagartos , Antibacterianos
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14511, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620745

RESUMO

Background: Integrative studies of animals and associated microbial assemblages (i.e., the holobiont) are rapidly changing our perspectives on organismal ecology and evolution. Insular vertebrates provide ideal natural systems to understand patterns of host-gut microbiota coevolution, the resilience and plasticity these microbial communities over temporal and spatial scales, and ultimately their role in the host ecological adaptation. Methods: Here we used the endemic Balearic wall lizard Podarcis lilfordi to dissect the drivers of the microbial diversity within and across host allopatric populations/islets. By focusing on three extensively studied populations/islets of Mallorca (Spain) and fecal sampling from individually identified lizards along two years (both in spring and autumn), we sorted out the effect of islet, sex, life stage, year and season on the microbiota composition. We further related microbiota diversity to host genetics, trophic ecology and expected annual metabolic changes. Results: All the three populations showed a remarkable conservation of the major microbial taxonomic profile, while carrying their unique microbial signature at finer level of taxonomic resolution (Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs)). Microbiota distances across populations were compatible with both host genetics (based on microsatellites) and trophic niche distances (based on stable isotopes and fecal content). Within populations, a large proportion of ASVs (30-50%) were recurrently found along the four sampling dates. The microbial diversity was strongly marked by seasonality, with no sex effect and a marginal life stage and annual effect. The microbiota showed seasonal fluctuations along the two sampled years, primarily due to changes in the relative abundances of fermentative bacteria (mostly families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae), without any major compositional turnover. Conclusions: These results support a large resilience of the major compositional aspects of the P. lilfordi gut microbiota over the short-term evolutionary divergence of their host allopatric populations (<10,000 years), but also indicate an undergoing process of parallel diversification of the both host and associated gut microbes. Predictable seasonal dynamics in microbiota diversity suggests a role of microbiota plasticity in the lizards' metabolic adaptation to their resource-constrained insular environments. Overall, our study supports the need for longitudinal and integrative studies of host and associated microbes in natural systems.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lagartos , Microbiota , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estações do Ano , Fezes , Lagartos/microbiologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2216789120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634133

RESUMO

Urbanization drastically transforms landscapes, resulting in fragmentation, degradation, and the loss of local biodiversity. Yet, urban environments also offer opportunities to observe rapid evolutionary change in wild populations that survive and even thrive in these novel habitats. In many ways, cities represent replicated "natural experiments" in which geographically separated populations adaptively respond to similar selection pressures over rapid evolutionary timescales. Little is known, however, about the genetic basis of adaptive phenotypic differentiation in urban populations nor the extent to which phenotypic parallelism is reflected at the genomic level with signatures of parallel selection. Here, we analyzed the genomic underpinnings of parallel urban-associated phenotypic change in Anolis cristatellus, a small-bodied neotropical lizard found abundantly in both urbanized and forested environments. We show that phenotypic parallelism in response to parallel urban environmental change is underlain by genomic parallelism and identify candidate loci across the Anolis genome associated with this adaptive morphological divergence. Our findings point to polygenic selection on standing genetic variation as a key process to effectuate rapid morphological adaptation. Identified candidate loci represent several functions associated with skeletomuscular development, morphology, and human disease. Taken together, these results shed light on the genomic basis of complex morphological adaptations, provide insight into the role of contingency and determinism in adaptation to novel environments, and underscore the value of urban environments to address fundamental evolutionary questions.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Humanos , Lagartos/genética , Ecossistema , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cidades , Genoma/genética , Evolução Biológica
7.
PeerJ ; 11: e14717, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655047

RESUMO

After its original description, the Middle Miocene gekkotan Palaeogekko risgoviensis remained an enigma for palaeontologists due to a rather poor knowledge of its osteology and relationships. Coming from a single locality in southern Germany, this gecko lived in central Europe during a period when a single gekkotan lineage (i.e., euleptine sphaerodactylids) is confidently reported to have inhabited the continent. However, it is unclear whether P. risgoviensis may represent a member of this same lineage or a second clade of Gekkota. In order to shed light on this issue, the type material of P. risgoviensis is here redescribed, refigured and extensively compared with extinct and extant geckos from Europe. A phylogenetic analysis is also conducted in order to investigate its relationships. The new observations confirm the validity of the German species as a distinct taxon, and exclude the previously-suggested chimeric status of the type material of this gecko (with the exception of a single dentary included in the type series, which clearly belong to a different lizard). Phylogenetic relationships of Palaeogekko are still unclear, though, with different positions within the gekkotan tree recovered for the taxon. Nevertheless, it is confidently supported as a non-eublepharid gekkonoid, in agreement with hypothesys presented by other scholars.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Filogenia , Alemanha , Europa (Continente) , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia
8.
Evolution ; 77(1): 138-154, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622227

RESUMO

A key area of interest in evolutionary biology has been understanding the role of ecological opportunity in the formation of adaptive radiations, lineages where speciation and phenotypic diversification are driven by open ecological opportunity. Evolutionary theory posits that adaptive radiations should show initial bursts of ecomorphological diversification and rapid speciation, and that these two processes are correlated. Here, we investigate and contrast these predictions across ecomorphologically diverse continental (Australia) and insular (New Caledonia and New Zealand) radiations of diplodactyloid geckos. We test two key hypotheses: (a) that island colonization and the transition to novel niche-space has resulted in increased rates of speciation and trait diversification and (b) that rates of morphological diversification are correlated across multiple trait axes. Surprisingly, we find that speciation rate is homogenous and morphological diversification rates are idiosyncratic and uncorrelated with speciation rates. Tests of morphological integration suggests that while all traits coevolve, constraint may act differentially on individual axes. This accords with a growing number of studies indicating that ecologically diverse and species-rich radiations can show limited or no evidence of exceptional regime shifts in speciation dynamics or morphological diversification, especially in continental contexts.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Lagartos , Animais , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Austrália
9.
Evolution ; 77(1): 123-137, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625679

RESUMO

As anthropogenic activities are increasing the frequency and severity of droughts, understanding whether and how fast populations can adapt to sudden changes in their hydric environment is critically important. Here, we capitalize on the introduction of the Cuban brown anole lizard (Anolis sagrei) in North America to assess the contemporary evolution of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate to an abrupt climatic niche shift. We characterized hydric balance in 30 populations along a large climatic gradient. We found that while evaporative and cutaneous water loss varied widely, there was no climatic cline, as would be expected under adaptation. Furthermore, the skin of lizards from more arid environments was covered with smaller scales, a condition thought to limit water conservation and thus be maladaptive. In contrast to environmental conditions, genome-averaged ancestry was a significant predictor of water loss. This was reinforced by our genome-wide association analyses, which indicated a significant ancestry-specific effect for water loss at one locus. Thus, our study indicates that the water balance of invasive brown anoles is dictated by an environment-independent introduction and hybridization history and highlights genetic interactions or genetic correlations as factors that might forestall adaptation. Alternative water conservation strategies, including behavioral mitigation, may influence the brown anole invasion success and require future examination.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Lagartos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Água
10.
Cells ; 12(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672195

RESUMO

Geckos are an excellent group to study the evolution of sex determination, as they possess a remarkable variability ranging from a complete absence of sex chromosomes to highly differentiated sex chromosomes. We explored sex determination in the Madagascar leaf-tail geckos of the genus Uroplatus. The cytogenetic analyses revealed highly heterochromatic W chromosomes in all three examined species (Uroplatus&nbsp;henkeli, U.&nbsp;alluaudi, U. sikorae). The comparative gene coverage analysis between sexes in U.&nbsp;henkeli uncovered an extensive Z-specific region, with a gene content shared with the chicken chromosomes 8, 20, 26 and 28. The genomic region homologous to chicken chromosome 28 has been independently co-opted for the role of sex chromosomes in several vertebrate lineages, including monitors, beaded lizards and monotremes, perhaps because it contains the amh gene, whose homologs were repeatedly recruited as a sex-determining locus. We demonstrate that all tested species of leaf-tail geckos share homologous sex chromosomes despite the differences in shape and size of their W chromosomes, which are not homologous to the sex chromosomes of other closely related genera. The rather old (at least 40 million years), highly differentiated sex chromosomes of Uroplatus geckos can serve as a great system to study the convergence of sex chromosomes evolved from the same genomic region.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Lagartos/genética , Filogenia , Madagáscar , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672918

RESUMO

Geckos (Gekkota), the species-rich clade of reptiles with more than 2200 currently recognized species, demonstrate a remarkable variability in diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 16-48) and mode of sex determination. However, only a small fraction of gekkotan species have been studied with cytogenetic methods. Here, we applied both conventional (karyotype reconstruction and C-banding) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for rDNA loci and telomeric repeats) cytogenetic analyses in seven species of geckos, namely Blaesodactylus boivini, Chondrodactylus laevigatus, Gekko badenii, Gekko cf. lionotum, Hemidactylus sahgali, Homopholis wahlbergii (Gekkonidae) and Ptyodactylus togoensis (Phyllodactylidae), in order to provide further insights into the evolution of karyotypes in geckos. Our analysis revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric repeats in four species, but we were not able to conclude if they are remnants of previous chromosome rearrangements or were formed by an accumulation of telomeric-like satellite motifs. Even though sex chromosomes were previously identified in several species from the genera Hemidactylus and Gekko by cytogenetic and/or genomic methods, they were not detected by us in any examined species. Our examined species either have poorly differentiated sex chromosomes or, possibly, environmental sex determination. Future studies should explore the effect of temperature and conduct genome-wide analyses in order to identify the mode of sex determination in these species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Lagartos/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Cariotipagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646309

RESUMO

Digestion and assimilation of nutrients and energy is central to survival. At its most basic level, investigations of digestion in animals must examine digestive efficiency, or how much of a given meal (i.e., energy) or a specific nutrient an organism can acquire from its food. There are many studies examining this in reptiles, but there is large variation in methodology, and thus, in the conclusions drawn from the gathered data. The majority rely on ratio-based analyses that can jeopardize the reliability of their findings. Therefore, we reviewed the literature to identify common themes in the digestive efficiency data on reptiles. Due to the sheer number of available studies, we largely focused on lizards, but included data on all reptilian groups. As an example of what the current data can reveal, we performed a meta-analysis of digestive efficiency in lizards as a function of temperature using regression analyses. We detected a weak positive trend of soluble carbohydrate digestibility as a function of temperature, but no similar trend in broad-scale digestive efficiency, and propose that these patterns be reevaluated with non-ratio data. We conclude with calls to end conducting analyses on ratios and instead employ covariate methods, for more studies of reptilian digestive efficiency and related processes using consistent methodology, more representation of each population (e.g., many studies focus on males only), and more detailed studies examining the effects of temperature on digestion (since the current data are inconclusive).


Assuntos
Digestão , Lagartos , Masculino , Animais , Digestão/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Lagartos/fisiologia , Temperatura , Dieta
13.
J Helminthol ; 97: e3, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637249

RESUMO

Reptiles, as well as other vertebrate groups, harbour a significant diversity of parasitic organisms, from nematodes and other helminths to viruses and bacteria. The Northeast is one of the richest regions in Brazil in terms of the reptile diversity, number of species and endemism. Parasites are diverse organisms and knowledge about the parasitic fauna of vertebrates is an important factor in understanding the ecological relationships between hosts and the environment. Studies on the parasitic fauna of reptiles in South America have increased in the past few years. The present review is a compilation of 122 studies published from 1924 to 2021. We present information on 101 species of reptiles from five groups (amphisbaenians, crocodile, testudines, snakes and lizards) and 183 parasitic taxa belonging to four phyla: Nematoda; Arthropoda; Platyhelminthes; and Acanthocephala. Nematodes were the most frequently recorded species. Lizards and snakes had more records of parasitism and higher levels of parasite richness and diversity. Ceará was the state with most studies and recorded cases of parasite-host association. The Caatinga and Atlantic Forest were the most investigated environments. The objective of this review was to contribute knowledge on the parasitic biodiversity in reptiles from Northeast Brazil, which may help identify gaps in our knowledge and guide future studies.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Nematoides , Parasitos , Animais , Brasil , Lista de Checagem , Lagartos/parasitologia , Serpentes/parasitologia
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(4): 714-721, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640073

RESUMO

An understanding of the main causes of mortality in caiman lizards (Dracaena guianensis) under managed care is imperative to promote optimal husbandry, health, and welfare. A retrospective review of morbidity and mortality in caiman lizards from North American zoological institutions between 2005 and 2020 was conducted. Postmortem data, including gross necropsy and histopathology findings, were available for 32 caiman lizards (n = 12 subadults, n = 20 adults) from six zoological institutions. Necropsy reports were evaluated to collect general demographic data, categorize cause of death (accident/trauma, congenital/genetic, degenerative/geriatric, infectious, deposition disease, neoplastic, unknown, and multifactorial), and assess common comorbidities. Infectious disease was the most common cause of mortality in adult lizards (8/20; 40%) with amoebiasis and bacterial etiologies being overrepresented. Demise due to traumatic/accidental injury was the second most common cause of death in adult lizards (3/20;15%) and included blunt force trauma or suspected drowning. Infectious disease (4/12; 33.3%) and trauma/accidental injury (4/12; 33.3%) were also the most common causes of death in subadults. The most common comorbidities or other incidental findings identified during necropsy included trematode parasitism (15/32; 46.9%), arteriosclerosis (11/32; 34.4%), and adrenocortical hyperplasia (6/32; 18.8%). This retrospective review suggests that management practices to prevent and control infectious diseases and mitigate traumatic injury play a pivotal role in the long-term care and survival of caiman lizards in managed care.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Dracaena , Lagartos , Animais , Lesões Acidentais/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(1): 257-268, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525337

RESUMO

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the molecular picture of water sorption in gecko keratin and the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the local structure and dynamics in water-swollen keratin. At low RHs, water sorption occurs through hydrogen bonding of water with the hydrophilic groups of keratin. At high RHs (>80%), additional water molecules connect to the first "layer" of amide-connected water molecules (multimolecular sorption) through hydrogen bonds, giving rise to a sigmoidal shape of the sorption isotherm. This causes the formation of large chain-like clusters surrounding the hydrophilic groups of keratin, which upon a further increase of the RH form a percolating water network. An examination of the dynamics of water molecules sorbed in keratin demonstrates that there are two states, bound and free, for water. The dynamics of water in these states depends on the RH. At low RHs, large-scale translational motions of tightly bound water molecules to keratin are needed to remake the entire hydration shell of the keratin. At high RHs (>80%), the water molecules more quickly exchange between the two states. The center-of-mass mean-square displacement of water molecules indicates a hopping motion of water molecules in the keratin solvation shell. The hopping mechanism is more pronounced at RHs < 80%. At higher RHs, water translation through water clusters (water network) dominates. We have observed two regimes for the dependence of dynamical properties on the RH: a regime of gradual increase of the dynamics over 10% < RH < 80% and a regime of drastic dynamic acceleration at RH > 80%. The latter regime begins exactly where the water uptake and the volume swelling also increase much more and where a drastic change in the elastic properties of gecko keratin has been observed. A nearly linear relation between the relaxation times for all dynamical processes and the water content of gecko keratin is observed.


Assuntos
Lagartos , beta-Queratinas , Animais , Estrutura Molecular , beta-Queratinas/metabolismo , Água/química , Água/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Lagartos/metabolismo
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 178: 107632, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182052

RESUMO

Population divergence leading to speciation is often explained by physical barriers causing allopatric distributions of historically connected populations. Environmental barriers have increasingly been shown to cause population divergence through local adaptation to distinct ecological characteristics. In this study, we evaluate population structuring and phylogeographic history within the Yucatán banded gecko Coleonyx elegans Gray 1845 to assess the role of both physical and environmental barriers in shaping the spatio-genetic distribution of a Mesoamerican tropical forest taxon. We generated RADseq and multi-locus Sanger datasets that included sampling across the entire species' range. Results find support for two distinct evolutionary lineages that diverged during the late Pliocene and show recent population expansions. Furthermore, these genetic lineages largely align with subspecies boundaries defined by morphology. Several mountain ranges identified as phylogeographic barriers in other taxa act as physical barriers to gene flow between the two clades. Despite the absence of a physical barrier between lineages across the lowland Isthmus of Tehuantepec, no introgression was observed. Here, a steep environmental cline associated with seasonality of precipitation corresponds exactly with the distributional limits of the lineages, whose closest samples are only 30 km apart. The combination of molecular and environmental evidence, and in conjunction with previous morphological evidence, allows us to reassess the current taxonomy in an integrative framework. Based on our findings, we elevate the previously recognized subspecies from the Pacific versant, the Colima banded gecko C. nemoralis Klauber 1945, to full species status and comment on conservation implications.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Lagartos , Animais , Filogeografia , Filogenia , Lagartos/genética , Fluxo Gênico
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 178: 107635, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208694

RESUMO

Most of the unique and diverse vertebrate fauna that inhabits Madagascar derives from in situ diversification from colonisers that reached this continental island through overseas dispersal. The endemic Malagasy Scincinae lizards are amongst the most species-rich squamate groups on the island. They colonised all bioclimatic zones and display many ecomorphological adaptations to a fossorial (burrowing) lifestyle. Here we propose a new phylogenetic hypothesis for their diversification based on the largest taxon sampling so far compiled for this group. We estimated divergence times and investigated several aspects of their diversification (diversification rate, body size and fossorial lifestyle evolution, and biogeography). We found that diversification rate was constant throughout most of the evolutionary history of the group, but decreased over the last 6-4 million years and independently from body size and fossorial lifestyle evolution. Fossoriality has evolved from fully quadrupedal ancestors at least five times independently, which demonstrates that even complex morphological syndromes - in this case involving traits such as limb regression, body elongation, modification of cephalic scalation, depigmentation, and eyes and ear-opening regression - can evolve repeatedly and independently given enough time and eco-evolutionary advantages. Initial diversification of the group likely occurred in forests, and the divergence of sand-swimmer genera around 20 Ma appears linked to a period of aridification. Our results show that the large phenotypic variability of Malagasy Scincinae has not influenced diversification rate and that their rich species diversity results from a constant accumulation of lineages through time. By compiling large geographic and trait-related datasets together with the computation of a new time tree for the group, our study contributes important insights on the diversification of Malagasy vertebrates.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Filogenia , Serpentes , Tamanho Corporal , Madagáscar
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 59(5): 595-598, 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524847

RESUMO

An air-stable (amino)(amido)radical was synthesized by reacting a cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene with carbazoyl chloride, followed by one-electron reduction. We show that an adjacent radical center weakens the amide bond. It enables the amino group to act as a strong acceptor under steric contraint, thus enhancing the stabilizing capto-dative effect.


Assuntos
Amidas , Lagartos , Animais , Oxirredução , Cloretos , Elétrons
19.
Behav Processes ; 205: 104806, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574892

RESUMO

Nocturnal predators of many taxa are known to come to artificial light at night for foraging on clumped food resources. Both innate and acquired light preferences seem to be possible mechanisms of light approaching behavior although empirical tests are lacking in most nocturnal predators. Here, using a Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus, we investigated whether geckos have a light preference and how foraging experiences under the light reinforce light approaching tendency. In a comparative experiment, there was no difference in light approaching behavior between urban and suburban geckos irrespective of their original light habitats. In an associative learning experiment, geckos did not significantly change light approaching behavior even after repeated opportunities to forage crickets near a lamp in the laboratory setting. These results imply that light approaching behavior of Japanese geckos may not be easily reinforced by foraging experiences under the light. Although we often witness geckos coming to artificial light at night, our findings may not suggest their light preference. Geckos may approach the light-up foraging spot based on other cues relating to the artificial light environment.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagartos , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia)
20.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 14(1): 102081, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403322

RESUMO

In North America, Lyme disease is primarily caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bb), which is transmitted between multiple vertebrate hosts and ixodid ticks, and is a model commonly used to study host-pathogen interactions. While Bb is consistently observed in its mammalian and avian reservoirs, the bacterium is rarely isolated from North American reptiles. Two closely related lizard species, the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) and the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), are examples of reptiles parasitized by Ixodes ticks. Vertebrates are known to generate complement as an innate defense mechanism, which can be activated before Bb disseminate to distal tissues. Complement from western fence lizards has proven lethal against one Bb strain, implying the role of complement in making those lizards unable to serve as hosts to Bb. However, Bb DNA is occasionally identified in distal tissues of field-collected eastern fence lizards, suggesting some Bb strains may overcome complement-mediated clearance in these lizards. These findings raise questions regarding the role of complement and its impact on Bb interactions with North American lizards. In this study, we found Bb seropositivity in a small population of wild-caught eastern fence lizards and observed Bb strain-specific survivability in lizard sera. We also found that a Bb outer surface protein, OspE, from Bb strains viable in sera, promotes lizard serum survivability and binds to a complement inhibitor, factor H, from eastern fence lizards. Our data thus identify bacterial and host determinants of eastern fence lizard complement evasion, providing insights into the role of complement influencing Bb interactions with North American lizards.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Borrelia burgdorferi , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Lipoproteínas , Lagartos , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Lagartos/sangue , Lagartos/imunologia , Lagartos/microbiologia , América do Norte , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/sangue , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Lipoproteínas/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/virologia
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