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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 213, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727814

RESUMO

Trimeric G proteins transduce signals from a superfamily of receptors and each G protein controls a wide range of cellular and systemic functions. Their highly conserved alpha subunits fall in five classes, four of which have been well investigated (Gs, Gi, G12, Gq). In contrast, the function of the fifth class, Gv is completely unknown, despite its broad occurrence and evolutionary ancient origin (older than metazoans). Here we show a dynamic presence of Gv mRNA in several organs during early development of zebrafish, including the hatching gland, the pronephros and several cartilage anlagen, employing in situ hybridisation. Next, we generated a Gv frameshift mutation in zebrafish and observed distinct phenotypes such as reduced oviposition, premature hatching and craniofacial abnormalities in bone and cartilage of larval zebrafish. These phenotypes could suggest a disturbance in ionic homeostasis as a common denominator. Indeed, we find reduced levels of calcium, magnesium and potassium in the larvae and changes in expression levels of the sodium potassium pump atp1a1a.5 and the sodium/calcium exchanger ncx1b in larvae and in the adult kidney, a major osmoregulatory organ. Additionally, expression of sodium chloride cotransporter slc12a3 and the anion exchanger slc26a4 is altered in complementary ways in adult kidney. It appears that Gv may modulate ionic homeostasis in zebrafish during development and in adults. Our results constitute the first insight into the function of the fifth class of G alpha proteins.


Assuntos
Homeostase , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3965, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730017

RESUMO

Currently, there is no pesticide available for the selective control of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa-specific), and conventional methods typically rely on mechanical techniques such as pheromone traps or broad-spectrum larvicidal chemicals. As climate change increases the range and dispersion capacity of crop and forest pests, outbreaks of the pine processionary occur with greater frequency and significantly impact forestry and public health. Our study is carried out to provide a T. pityocampa-specific pesticide targeting the Allatostatin Type-C Receptor (AlstR-C). We use a combination of computational biology methods, a cell-based screening assay, and in vivo toxicity and side effect assays to identify, for the first time, a series of AlstR-C ligands suitable for use as T. pityocampa-specific insecticides. We further demonstrate that the novel AlstR-C targeted agonists are specific to lepidopteran larvae, with no harmful effects on coleopteran larvae or adults. Overall, our study represents an important initial advance toward an insect GPCR-targeted next-generation pesticide design. Our approach may apply to other invertebrate GPCRs involved in vital metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Larva , Mariposas , Animais , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/agonistas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Neuropeptídeos
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(6): 257, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734773

RESUMO

There is a growing imperative for research into alternative compounds for the treatment of the fungal infections. Thus, many studies have focused on the analysis of antifungal proteins and peptides from different plant sources. Among these molecules are protease inhibitors (PIs). Previously, PIs present in the peptide-rich fractions called PEF1, PEF2 and PEF3 were identified from Capsicum chinense seeds, which have strong activity against phytopathogenic fungi. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action and antimicrobial activity of PIs from PEF2 and PEF3 on the growth of yeasts of the genus Candida. In this work, analyses of their antimicrobial activity and cell viability were carried out. Subsequently, the mechanism of action by which the PIs cause the death of the yeasts was evaluated. Cytotoxicity was assessed in vitro by erythrocytes lysis and in vivo in Galleria mellonella larvae. PEF2 and PEF3 caused 100% of the growth inhibition of C. tropicalis and C. buinensis. For C. albicans inhibition was approximately 60% for both fractions. The PEF2 and PEF3 caused a reduction in mitochondrial functionality of 54% and 46% for C. albicans, 26% and 30% for C. tropicalis, and 71% and 68% for C. buinensis, respectively. These fractions induced morphological alterations, led to membrane permeabilization, elevated ROS levels, and resulted in necrotic cell death in C. tropicalis, whilst demonstrating low toxicity toward host cells. From the results obtained here, we intend to contribute to the understanding of the action of PIs in the control of fungal diseases of medical importance.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Candida , Inibidores de Proteases , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Animais , Capsicum/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
PeerJ ; 12: e17307, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742097

RESUMO

Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally. Amphibians are one of the most threatened vertebrate taxa and are particularly sensitive to invasive species, including other amphibians. African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) are native to Southern Africa but have subsequently become invasive on multiple continents-including multiple parts of North America-due to releases from the pet and biomedical trades. Despite their prevalence as a global invader, the impact of X. laevis remains understudied. This includes the Pacific Northwest of the USA, which now hosts multiple expanding X. laevis populations. For many amphibians, chemical cues communicate important information, including the presence of predators. Here, we tested the role chemical cues may play in mediating interactions between feral X. laevis and native amphibians in the Pacific Northwest. We tested whether native red-legged frog (Rana aurora) tadpoles display an antipredator response to non-native frog (X. laevis) or native newt (rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa) predator chemical stimuli. We found that R. aurora tadpoles exhibited pronounced anti-predator responses when exposed to chemical cues from T. granulosa but did not display anti-predator response to invasive X. laevis chemical cues. We also began experimentally testing whether T. granulosa-which produce a powerful neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX)-may elicit an anti-predator response in X. laevis, that could serve to deter co-occupation. However, our short-duration experiments found that X. laevis were attracted to newt chemical stimuli rather than deterred. Our findings show that X. laevis likely poses a threat to native amphibians, and that these native species may also be particularly vulnerable to this invasive predator, compared to native predators, because toxic native newts may not limit X. laevis invasions. Our research provides some of the first indications that native Pacific Northwest species may be threatened by feral X. laevis and provides a foundation for future experiments testing potential management techniques for X. laevis.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Espécies Introduzidas , Salamandridae , Xenopus laevis , Animais , Washington , Salamandridae/fisiologia , Larva , Comportamento Predatório , Ranidae
5.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 116(1): e22118, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713637

RESUMO

We detected enzymatic activity that generates 20-nucleotide (nt) RNA from double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in crude extracts prepared from various silkworm (Bombyx mori) organs. The result using knocked-down cultured cells indicated that this dicing activity originated from B. mori Dicer-2 (BmDcr2). Biochemical analyses revealed that BmDcr2 preferentially cleaves 5'-phosphorylated dsRNAs at the 20-nt site-counted from the 5'-phosphorylated end-and required ATP and magnesium ions for the dicing reaction. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of Dicer-2 in lepidopteran insects. This enzymatic property of BmDcr2 in vitro is consistent with the in vivo small interfering RNA profile in virus-infected silkworm cells.


Assuntos
Bombyx , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Ribonuclease III , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 531, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724710

RESUMO

The Samarco/Vale/BHP mine tailing dam breach that took place in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, in 2015, deposited high concentrations of metals and metalloids in the Rio Doce basin, severely impacting freshwater and riverine forest ecosystems. To assess developmental instability of caddisflies in response to the environmental impacts of the dam breach, we investigated the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the species Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) coronata (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). FA was assessed at individual and populational scales using geometric morphometric methods in the cephalic capsule and mandibles of larvae and also on the forewings of adults, both collected under the impacted condition, and under the least disturbed condition. The levels of FA increased in response to stressors on the forewings at the populational scale, and on the mandibles, at individual scale. These morphological variations in the larval and adult stages may lead to detrimental effects and result in high mortality rates as well as lower adult fitness. Trichoptera forewings are revealed as suitable traits for assessing FA, holding potential for applications in biomonitoring programs. Directional asymmetry levels were higher than FA levels for all traits, and this correlation could be explained by a transition from fluctuating to directional asymmetry in the presence of heightened disturbance. Our results validate the relationship between the impacts from the dam breach and increased developmental instability in this species with likely cascade effects on the insect community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Larva , Mineração , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos , Brasil , Poluentes Químicos da Água
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 201, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711091

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The rising burden of mosquito-borne diseases in Europe extends beyond urban areas, encompassing rural and semi-urban regions near managed and natural wetlands evidenced by recent outbreaks of Usutu and West Nile viruses. While wetland management policies focus on biodiversity and ecosystem services, few studies explore the impact on mosquito vectors. METHODS: Our research addresses this gap, examining juvenile mosquito and aquatic predator communities in 67 ditch sites within a South England coastal marsh subjected to different wetland management tiers. Using joint distribution models, we analyse how mosquito communities respond to abiotic and biotic factors influenced by wetland management. RESULTS: Of the 12 mosquito species identified, Culiseta annulata (Usutu virus vector) and Culex pipiens (Usutu and West Nile virus vector) constitute 47% of 6825 larval mosquitoes. Abundant predators include Coleoptera (water beetles) adults, Corixidae (water boatmen) and Zygoptera (Damselfy) larvae. Models reveal that tier 3 management sites (higher winter water levels, lower agricultural intensity) associated with shade and less floating vegetation are preferred by specific mosquito species. All mosquito species except Anopheles maculipennis s.l., are negatively impacted by potential predators. Culiseta annulata shows positive associations with shaded and turbid water, contrary to preferences of Corixidae predators. CONCLUSIONS: Tier 3 areas managed for biodiversity, characterised by higher seasonal water levels and reduced livestock grazing intensity, provide favourable habitats for key mosquito species that are known vectors of arboviruses, such as Usutu and West Nile. Our findings emphasise the impact of biodiversity-focused wetland management, altering mosquito breeding site vegetation to enhance vector suitability. Further exploration of these trade-offs is crucial for comprehending the broader implications of wetland management.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Culicidae , Mosquitos Vetores , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/fisiologia , Culicidae/virologia , Ecossistema , Larva/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido , Culex/fisiologia , Culex/virologia , Culex/classificação , Inglaterra
8.
Biol Lett ; 20(5): 20230595, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747684

RESUMO

The mechanisms whereby environmental experiences of parents are transmitted to their offspring to impact their behaviour and fitness are poorly understood. Previously, we showed that naive Bicyclus anynana butterfly larvae, whose parents fed on a normal plant feed but coated with a novel odour, inherited an acquired preference towards that odour, which had initially elicited avoidance in the naive parents. Here, we performed simple haemolymph transfusions from odour-fed and control-fed larvae to naive larval recipients. We found that larvae injected with haemolymph from odour-fed donors stopped avoiding the novel odour, and their naive offspring preferred the odour more, compared to the offspring of larvae injected with control haemolymph. These results indicate that factors in the haemolymph, potentially the odour molecule itself, play an important role in odour learning and preference transmission across generations. Furthermore, this mechanism of odour preference inheritance, mediated by the haemolymph, bypasses the peripheral odour-sensing mechanisms taking place in the antennae, mouthparts or legs, and may mediate food plant switching and diversification in Lepidoptera or more broadly across insects.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Hemolinfa , Larva , Odorantes , Animais , Borboletas/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(2): e20230671, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747789

RESUMO

Temperature affects the rate of biochemical and physiological processes in amphibians, influencing metamorphic traits. Temperature patterns, as those observed in latitudinal and altitudinal clines, may impose different challenges on amphibians depending on how species are geographically distributed. Moreover, species' response to environmental temperatures may also be phylogenetically constrained. Here, we explore the effects of acclimation to higher temperatures on tadpole survival, development, and growth, using a meta-analytical approach. We also evaluate whether the latitude and climatic variables at each collection site can explain differences in species' response to increasing temperature and whether these responses are phylogenetically conserved. Our results show that species that develop at relatively higher temperatures reach metamorphosis faster. Furthermore, absolute latitude at each collection site may partially explain heterogeneity in larval growth rate. Phylogenetic signal of traits in response to temperature indicates a non-random process in which related species resemble each other less than expected under Brownian motion evolution (BM) in all traits, except survival. The integration of studies in a meta-analytic framework allowed us to explore macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns and provided a better understanding of the effects of climate change on amphibians.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Evolução Biológica , Larva , Temperatura , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Anfíbios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anfíbios/fisiologia , Anfíbios/classificação , Mudança Climática , Filogenia , Metamorfose Biológica/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 123(5): 211, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748261

RESUMO

Ivermectin is one of the most widely used drugs for parasite control. Previous studies have shown a reduction in the abundance and diversity of "non-target" coprophilous organisms due to the presence of ivermectin (IVM) in bovine faecal matter (FM). Due to its breadth of behavioural habits, Calliphora vicina is a suitable dipteran species to evaluate the effects of IVM in FM. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of five concentrations of IVM in FM (3000, 300, 100, 30, and 3 ng/g) on the development of C. vicina. The following endpoints were evaluated: survival (between the first larval stage and emergence of new adults), larval development times to pupation and pupation times to adult, and adult emergence (% sex) and LC50. Sampling was performed from larval hatching at 60 and 120 min and at 3, 4, 5, and 12 h, and every 24 h specimens were weighed until pupae were observed. Data were analysed by ANOVA using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and as a function of elapsed development time and accumulated degree hours (ADH). Mortality at 3000 and 300 ng/g was 100% and 97%, respectively. There were statistically significant delays in adult emergence time (p = 0.0216) and in the ADH (p = 0.0431) between the control group (C) and 100 ng/g. The LC50 was determined at 5.6 ng/g. These results demonstrate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of IVM on C. vicina, while highlighting the usefulness of this species as a bioindicator for ecotoxicological studies.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Fezes , Ivermectina , Larva , Animais , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Calliphoridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/parasitologia , Bovinos , Análise de Sobrevida , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Masculino , Dose Letal Mediana , Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743467

RESUMO

Introduction . Acinetobacter baumannii is a critical priority pathogen for novel antimicrobials (World Health Organization) because of the rise in nosocomial infections and its ability to evolve resistance to last resort antibiotics. A. baumannii is thus a priority target for phage therapeutics. Two strains of a novel, virulent bacteriophage (LemonAid and Tonic) able to infect carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (strain NCTC 13420), were isolated from environmental water samples collected through a citizen science programme.Gap statement. Phage-host coevolution can lead to emergence of host resistance, with a concomitant reduction in the virulence of host bacteria; a potential benefit to phage therapy applications.Methodology. In vitro and in vivo assays, genomics and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the phages; determine mechanisms and impact of phage resistance on host virulence, and the efficacy of the phages against A. baumannii.Results. A. baumannii developed resistance to both viruses, LemonAid and Tonic. Resistance came at a cost to virulence, with the resistant variants causing significantly reduced mortality in a Galleria mellonella larval in vivo model. A replicated 8 bp insertion increased in frequency (~40 % higher frequency than in the wild-type) within phage-resistant A. baumannii mutants, putatively resulting in early truncation of a protein of unknown function. Evidence from comparative genomics and an adsorption assay suggests this protein acts as a novel phage receptor site in A. baumannii. We find no evidence linking resistance to changes in capsule structure, a known virulence factor. LemonAid efficiently suppressed growth of A. baumanni in vitro across a wide range of titres. However, in vivo, while survival of A. baumannii infected larvae significantly increased with both remedial and prophylactic treatment with LemonAid (107 p.f.u. ml-1), the effect was weak and not sufficient to save larvae from morbidity and mortality.Conclusion. While LemonAid and Tonic did not prove effective as a treatment in a Galleria larvae model, there is potential to harness their ability to attenuate virulence in drug-resistant A. baumannii.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteriófagos , Acinetobacter baumannii/virologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/patogenicidade , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Virulência , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Animais , Mariposas/microbiologia , Mariposas/virologia , Terapia por Fagos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/virologia
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303473, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743768

RESUMO

Urban malaria has become a challenge for most African countries due to urbanization, with increasing population sizes, overcrowding, and movement into cities from rural localities. The rapid expansion of cities with inappropriate water drainage systems, abundance of water storage habitats, coupled with recurrent flooding represents a concern for water-associated vector borne diseases, including malaria. This situation could threaten progress made towards malaria elimination in sub-Saharan countries, including Senegal, where urban malaria has presented as a threat to national elimination gains. To assess drivers of urban malaria in Senegal, a 5-month study was carried out from August to December 2019 in three major urban areas and hotspots for malaria incidence (Diourbel, Touba, and Kaolack) including the rainy season (August-October) and partly dry season (November-December). The aim was to characterize malaria vector larval habitats, vector dynamics across both seasons, and to identify the primary eco- environmental entomological factors contributing to observed urban malaria transmission. A total of 145 Anopheles larval habitats were found, mapped, and monitored monthly. This included 32 in Diourbel, 83 in Touba, and 30 in Kaolack. The number of larval habitats fluctuated seasonally, with a decrease during the dry season. In Diourbel, 22 of the 32 monitored larval habitats (68.75%) were dried out by December and considered temporary, while the remaining 10 (31.25%) were classified as permanent. In the city of Touba 28 (33.73%) were temporary habitats, and of those 57%, 71% and 100% dried up respectively by October, November, and December. However, 55 (66.27%) habitats were permanent water storage basins which persisted throughout the study. In Kaolack, 12 (40%) permanent and 18 (60%) temporary Anopheles larval habitats were found and monitored during the study. Three malaria vectors (An. arabiensis, An. pharoensis and An. funestus s.l.) were found across the surveyed larval habitats, and An. arabiensis was found in all three cities and was the only species found in the city of Diourbel, while An. arabiensis, An. pharoensis, and An. funestus s.l. were detected in the cities of Touba and Kaolack. The spatiotemporal observations of immature malaria vectors in Senegal provide evidence of permanent productive malaria vector larval habitats year-round in three major urban centers in Senegal, which may be driving high urban malaria incidence. This study aimed to assess the presence and type of anopheline larvae habitats in urban areas. The preliminary data will better inform subsequent detailed additional studies and seasonally appropriate, cost-effective, and sustainable larval source management (LSM) strategies by the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP).


Assuntos
Anopheles , Cidades , Ecossistema , Larva , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores , Estações do Ano , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Senegal/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Incidência , Humanos
13.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744526

RESUMO

Despite discovery more than 100years ago and documented global occurrence from shallow waters to the deep sea, the life cycle of the enigmatic crustacean y-larvae isincompletely understood and adult forms remain unknown. To date, only 2 of the 17 formally described species, all based on larval stages, have been investigated using an integrative taxonomic approach. This approach provided descriptions of the morphology of the naupliar and cyprid stages, and made use of exuvial voucher material and DNA barcodes. To improve our knowledge about the evolutionary history and ecological importance of y-larvae, we developed a novel protocol that maximises the amount of morpho-ecological and molecular data that can be harvested from single larval specimens. This includes single-specimen DNA barcoding and daily imaging of y-nauplii reared in culture dishes, mounting of the last naupliar exuviae on a slide as a reference voucher, live imaging of the y-cyprid instar that follows, and fixation, DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of the y-cyprid specimen. Through development and testing of a suite of new primers for both nuclear and mitochondrial protein-coding and ribosomal genes, we showcase how new sequence data can be used to estimate the phylogeny of Facetotecta. We expect that our novel procedure will help to unravel the complex systematics of y-larvae and show how these fascinating larval forms have evolved. Moreover, we posit that our protocols should work on larval specimens from a diverse array of moulting marine invertebrate taxa.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Larva , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Larva/genética , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/classificação , Crustáceos/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Filogenia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10828-10841, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691839

RESUMO

Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) constitute a class of olfactory proteins localized in insect sensory organs that serve a crucial function in decoding external chemical stimuli. This study aims to elucidate the involvement of CrufCSP3 in olfactory perception within the context of Cotesia ruficrus, an indigenous endoparasitoid targeting the invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Through fluorescence-competitive binding assays and site-directed mutagenesis, we pinpointed four amino acids as pivotal residues involved in the interaction between CrufCSP3 and five host-related compounds. Subsequent RNA interference experiments targeting CrufCSP3 unveiled a reduced sensitivity to specific host-related compounds and a decline in the parasitism rate of the FAW larvae. These findings unequivocally indicate the essential role of CrufCSP3 in the chemoreception process of C. ruficrus. Consequently, our study not only sheds light on the functional importance of CSPs in parasitic wasp behavior but also contributes to the development of eco-friendly and efficacious wasp behavior modifiers for effectively mitigating pest population surges.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos , Spodoptera , Vespas , Animais , Vespas/química , Vespas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Percepção Olfatória
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10958-10969, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703118

RESUMO

Demand for the exploration of botanical pesticides continues to increase due to the detrimental effects of synthetic chemicals on human health and the environment and the development of resistance by pests. Under the guidance of a bioactivity-guided approach and HSQC-based DeepSAT, 16 coumarin derivatives were discovered from the leaves of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, including seven undescribed monoterpenoid coumarins, three undescribed monoterpenoid phenylpropanoids, and two new coumarin derivatives. The structure and configurations of these compounds were established and validated via extensive spectroscopic analysis, acetonide analysis, and quantum chemical calculations. Biologically, 5 exhibited significant antifeedant activity toward the Plutella xylostella. Moreover, tyrosinase being closely related to the growth and development of larva, the inhibitory potentials of 5 against tyrosinase was evaluated in vitro and in silico. The bioactivity evaluation results highlight the prospect of 5 as a novel category of botanical insecticide.


Assuntos
Ailanthus , Cumarínicos , Inseticidas , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/química , Ailanthus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Bioensaio , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/química , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10794-10804, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711396

RESUMO

Chitin-degrading enzymes are critical components in regulating the molting process of the Asian corn borer and serve as potential targets for controlling this destructive pest of maize. Here, we used a scaffold-hopping strategy to design a series of efficient naphthylimide insecticides. Among them, compound 8c exhibited potent inhibition of chitinase from OfChi-h and OfChtI at low nanomolar concentrations (IC50 = 1.51 and 9.21 nM, respectively). Molecular docking simulations suggested that 8c binds to chitinase by mimicking the interaction of chitin oligosaccharide substrates with chitinase. At low ppm concentrations, compound 8c performed comparably to commercial insecticides in controlling the highly destructive plant pest, the Asian corn borer. Tests on a wide range of nontarget organisms indicate that compound 8c has very low toxicity. In addition, the effect of inhibitor treatment on the expression of genes associated with the Asian corn borer chitin-degrading enzymes was further investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, our study highlights the potential of 8c as a novel chitinase-targeting insecticide for effective control of the Asian corn borer, providing a promising solution in the quest for sustainable pest management.


Assuntos
Quitina , Quitinases , Proteínas de Insetos , Inseticidas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mariposas , Zea mays , Animais , Quitinases/química , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Mariposas/enzimologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética , Quitina/química , Quitina/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/parasitologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Controle de Insetos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10805-10813, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712504

RESUMO

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) mediate the responses of adaptive metabolism to various xenobiotics. Here, we found that BoAhR and BoARNT are highly expressed in the midgut of Bradysia odoriphaga larvae. The expression of BoAhR and BoARNT was significantly increased after exposure to imidacloprid and phoxim. The knockdown of BoAhR and BoARNT significantly decreased the expression of CYP6SX1 and CYP3828A1 as well as P450 enzyme activity and caused a significant increase in the sensitivity of larvae to imidacloprid and phoxim. Exposure to ß-naphthoflavone (BNF) significantly increased the expression of BoAhR, BoARNT, CYP6SX1, and CYP3828A1 as well as P450 activity and decreased larval sensitivity to imidacloprid and phoxim. Furthermore, CYP6SX1 and CYP3828A1 were significantly induced by imidacloprid and phoxim, and the silencing of these two genes significantly reduced larval tolerance to imidacloprid and phoxim. Taken together, the BoAhR/BoARNT pathway plays key roles in larval tolerance to imidacloprid and phoxim by regulating the expression of CYP6SX1 and CYP3828A1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos , Inseticidas , Larva , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Dípteros/metabolismo , Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Inativação Metabólica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(3): e13213, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738810

RESUMO

Since a significant proportion of plant matter is consumed by herbivores, a necessary adaptation for many phyllosphere microbes could be to survive through the guts of herbivores. While many studies explore the gut microbiome of herbivores by surveying the microbiome in their frass, few studies compare the phyllosphere microbiome to the gut microbiome of herbivores. High-throughput metabarcode sequencing was used to track the fungal community from milkweed (Asclepias spp.) leaves to monarch caterpillar frass. The most commonly identified fungal taxa that dominated the caterpillar frass after the consumption of leaves were yeasts, mostly belonging to the Basidiomycota phylum. While most fungal communities underwent significant bottlenecks and some yeast taxa increased in relative abundance, a consistent directional change in community structure was not identified from leaf to caterpillar frass. These results suggest that some phyllosphere fungi, especially diverse yeasts, can survive herbivory, but whether herbivory is a key stage of their life cycle remains uncertain. For exploring phyllosphere fungi and the potential coprophilous lifestyles of endophytic and epiphytic fungi, methods that target yeast and Basidiomycota fungi are recommended.


Assuntos
Asclepias , Fungos , Herbivoria , Folhas de Planta , Animais , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Asclepias/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Leveduras/genética , Micobioma , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Larva/microbiologia , Mariposas/microbiologia
19.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 70, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740585

RESUMO

Stag beetles, recognized as common saproxylic insects, are valued for their vibrant coloration and distinctive morphology. These beetles play a crucial ecological role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, serving as a vital functional component in ecosystem functioning. Although previous studies have confirmed that stag beetles are predominantly fungivores, the fluctuations in their intestinal fungal communities at different developmental stages remain poorly understood. In the current study, high-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the dynamic changes within intestinal fungal communities at various developmental stages in the stag beetle Dorcus hopei. Results showed that microbial diversity was higher during the larval stage than during the pupal and adult stages. Furthermore, significant differences were identified in the composition of the intestinal fungal communities across the larval, pupal, and adult stages, suggesting that developmental transitions may be crucial factors contributing to variations in fungal community composition and diversity. Dominant genera included Candida, Scheffersomyces, Phaeoacremonium, and Trichosporon. Functional predictions indicated a greater diversity and relative abundance of endosymbiotic fungi in the larval gut, suggesting a potential dependency of larvae on beneficial gut fungi for nutrient acquisition. Additionally, the application of abundance-based ß-null deviation and niche width analyses revealed that the adult gut exerted a stronger selection pressure on its fungal community, favoring certain taxa. This selection process culminates in a more robust co-occurrence network of fungal communities within the adult gut, thereby enhancing their adaptability to environmental fluctuations. This study advances our understanding of the intestinal fungal community structure in stag beetles, providing a crucial theoretical foundation for the development of saproxylic beetle resources, biomass energy utilization, plastic degradation strategies, and beetle conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fungos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Larva , Animais , Besouros/microbiologia , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/microbiologia , Micobioma , Biodiversidade , Simbiose , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
20.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 111, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormones (JH) play crucial role in regulating development and reproduction in insects. The most common form of JH is JH III, derived from MF through epoxidation by CYP15 enzymes. However, in the higher dipterans, such as the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, a bis-epoxide form of JHB3, accounted most of the JH detected. Moreover, these higher dipterans have lost the CYP15 gene from their genomes. As a result, the identity of the P450 epoxidase in the JH biosynthesis pathway in higher dipterans remains unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we show that Cyp6g2 serves as the major JH epoxidase responsible for the biosynthesis of JHB3 and JH III in D. melanogaster. The Cyp6g2 is predominantly expressed in the corpus allatum (CA), concurring with the expression pattern of jhamt, another well-studied gene that is crucial in the last steps of JH biosynthesis. Mutation in Cyp6g2 leads to severe disruptions in larval-pupal metamorphosis and exhibits reproductive deficiencies, exceeding those seen in jhamt mutants. Notably, Cyp6g2-/-::jhamt2 double mutants all died at the pupal stage but could be rescued through the topical application of JH analogs. JH titer analyses revealed that both Cyp6g2-/- mutant and jhamt2 mutant lacking JHB3 and JH III, while overexpression of Cyp6g2 or jhamt caused a significant increase in JHB3 and JH III titer. CONCLUSIONS: These findings collectively established that Cyp6g2 as the major JH epoxidase in the higher dipterans and laid the groundwork for the further understanding of JH biosynthesis. Moreover, these findings pave the way for developing specific Cyp6g2 inhibitors as insect growth regulators or insecticides.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Hormônios Juvenis , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios Juvenis/biossíntese , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Corpora Allata/metabolismo , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Oxirredutases
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