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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 168, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control programs were implemented in several countries against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), one of the most significant cattle diseases worldwide. Most of the programs rely on serological diagnostics in any phase of the program. For the detection of antibodies against BVD virus (BVDV), neutralization tests as well as a variety of (commercially available) ELISAs are used. Here, test systems applied in various laboratories were evaluated in the context of an international interlaboratory proficiency trial. A panel of standardized samples comprising five sera and five milk samples was sent to veterinary diagnostic laboratories (n=51) and test kit manufacturers (n=3). RESULTS: The ring trial sample panel was investigated by nine commercially available antibody ELISAs as well as by neutralization tests against diverse BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and/or border disease virus (BDV) strains. The negative serum and milk sample as well as a serum collected after BVDV-2 infection were mostly correctly tested regardless of the applied test system. A serum sample obtained from an animal immunized with an inactivated BVDV-1 vaccine tested positive by neutralization tests or by total antibody or Erns-based ELISAs, while all applied NS3-based ELISAs gave negative results. A further serum, containing antibodies against the ovine BDV, reacted positive in all applied BVDV ELISAs, a differentiation between anti-BDV and anti-BVDV antibodies was only enabled by parallel application of neutralization tests against BVDV and BDV isolates. For the BVDV antibody-positive milk samples (n=4), which mimicked prevalences of 20% (n=2) or 50% (n=2), considerable differences in the number of positive results were observed, which mainly depended on the ELISA kit and the sample incubation protocols used. These 4 milk samples tested negative in 43.6%, 50.9%, 3.6% and 56.4%, respectively, of all investigations. Overall, negative results occurred more often, when a short sample incubation protocol instead of an over-night protocol was applied. CONCLUSIONS: While the seronegative samples were correctly evaluated in most cases, there were considerable differences in the number of correct evaluations for the seropositive samples, most notably when pooled milk samples were tested. Hence, thorough validation and careful selection of ELISA tests are necessary, especially when applied during surveillance programs in BVD-free regions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença da Fronteira , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1 , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/diagnóstico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Diarreia/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leite/química , Ovinos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0254303, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511819

RESUMO

Q Fever is a zoonotic disease of significant animal and public health concern, caused by Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), an obligate intracellular bacterium. This study was done to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) of three diagnostic methods to diagnose C. burnetii infection in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab, India: an indirect ELISA method applied in serum samples and a trans-Polymerase Chain Reaction (trans-PCR) technique applied in milk samples and genital swabs, using a Bayesian latent class analysis. Conditional independence was assumed between the tests, given (i) the different biological principle of ELISA and trans-PCR and (ii) the fact that the trans-PCR was performed on different tissues. The ELISA method in the serum samples showed the highest DSe of 0.97 (95% Probability Intervals (PIs): 0.93; 0.99) compared to the trans-PCR method applied in milk samples 0.76 (0.63; 0.87) and genital swabs 0.73 (0.58; 0.85). The DSps of all tests were high, with trans-PCR in genital swabs recording the highest DSp of 0.99 (0.98; 1), while the DSp of trans-PCR in milk samples and ELISA in serum samples were 0.97 (0.95; 0.99) and 0.95 (0.93; 0.97) respectively. The study results show that none of the applied tests are perfect, therefore, a testing regimen based on the diagnostic characteristic of the tests may be considered for diagnosis of C. burnetii.


Assuntos
Bison , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii , Febre Q , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Índia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Leite/microbiologia , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/microbiologia , Febre Q/veterinária
3.
Nutr J ; 21(1): 26, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that dairy foods are associated with higher areal bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults. However, data on bone texture are lacking. We determined the association of dairy food intake (milk, yogurt, cheese, milk + yogurt and milk + yogurt + cheese) with spinal trabecular bone score (TBS). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dairy food intake (servings/wk). TBS, an analysis of bone texture, was calculated from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Sex-specific multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association of dairy food intake (energy adjusted via residual methods) with each bone measure adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Mean age of 4,740 participants was 49 (SD: 13) years and mean milk + yogurt + cheese intake was 10.1 (SD: 8.4) servings/week in men and 10.9 (SD: 8.0) servings/week in women. There were no associations between dairy food intake and spinal TBS in adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of primarily healthy adults, dairy intake was not associated with bone texture.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso , Osteoporose , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7550, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534492

RESUMO

Previous work has demonstrated some benefit from alternative breeds in low-input dairying, although there has been no systematic analysis of the simultaneous effect of Jersey crossbreeding on productivity, health, fertility parameters or milk nutritional quality. This work aimed to understand the effects of, and interactions/interrelations between, dairy cow genotypes (Holstein-Friesian (HF), Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbreds (HF × J)) and season (spring, summer, autumn) on milk yield; basic composition; feed efficiency, health, and fertility parameters; and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Milk samples (n = 219) and breed/diet data were collected from 74 cows in four UK low-input dairy farms between March and October 2012. HF × J cows produced milk with more fat (+ 3.2 g/kg milk), protein (+ 2.9 g/kg milk) and casein (+ 2.7 g/kg milk); and showed higher feed, fat, and protein efficiency (expressed as milk, fat and protein outputs per kg DMI) than HF cows. Milk from HF × J cows contained more C4:0 (+ 2.6 g/kg FA), C6:0 (+ 1.9 g/kg FA), C8:0 (+ 1.3 g/kg FA), C10:0 (+ 3.0 g/kg FA), C12:0 (+ 3.7 g/kg FA), C14:0 (+ 4.6 g/kg FA) and saturated FA (SFA; + 27.3 g/kg milk) and less monounsaturated FA (MUFA; -23.7 g/kg milk) and polyunsaturated FA (- 22.3 g/kg milk). There was no significant difference for most health and fertility parameters, but HF × J cows had shorter calving interval (by 39 days). The superior feed, fat and protein efficiency of HF × J cows, as well as shorter calving interval can be considered beneficial for the financial sustainability of low-input dairy farms; and using such alternative breeds in crossbreeding schemes may be recommended. Although statistically significant, it is difficult to determine if differences observed between HF and HF × J cows in fat composition are likely to impact human health, considering average population dairy fat intakes and the relatively small difference. Thus, the HF × J cow could be used in low-input dairying to improve efficiency and productivity without impacting milk nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Lactação , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade , Leite/química
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7528, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534517

RESUMO

The radionuclide transfer between compartments is commonly described by transfer parameters representing the ratio of concentrations of an element in two compartments for equilibrium conditions. This is a comprehensive study on the soil-to-grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass-to-cow milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for stable strontium (Sr) for soil-grass (pasture)-cow (Bos taurus) milk environmental pathway under field conditions for a high rainfall tropical monsoonal climatic region of the Indian subcontinent. The study was conducted in the vicinity of the Kaiga nuclear power plant (NPP), situated ~ 58 km inland of the West Coast of the Indian subcontinent. A grass field was developed exclusively for this study, and two cows of the native breed were raised to graze on it. The soil, grass, and milk were analyzed to evaluate the Fv and the Fm values for the stable Sr. For comparison, several pasture lands and the cows raised by the villagers and a dairy farm were also studied. The Fv values were in the range 0.18-8.6, the geometric mean (GM) being 1.8. The correlations of Fv values with a range of physicochemical parameters are presented. The GM values for Fm were 2.2 × 10-3 d L-1 and 7.2 × 10-3 d L-1 for the two cows raised for this study, 2.6 × 10-3 d L-1 for those raised by the villagers, and 4.2 × 10-3 d L-1 for the dairy farm. The site-specific Fm value for the region was determined as 3.2 × 10-3 d L-1. The concentration ratio (CR), defined as the ratio of Sr concentration in milk to that in feed under equilibrium conditions, exhibited less variability (1.8 × 10-2-5.4 × 10-2) among the three categories of cows.


Assuntos
Leite , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Leite/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Poaceae , Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Estrôncio/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 386: 132814, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509170

RESUMO

Cold plasma has potential for the degradation of aflatoxins in corn and hazelnuts; however, this has not been demonstrated for aflatoxin in milk. In this study, the efficacy of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) on the reduction of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in skim milk improved with increasing treatment times (1-20 min), using gas containing 65% oxygen (MA65) rather than air, increasing voltage (60-80 kV) and reducing sample volume (30 mL-10 mL). Direct treatment was more effective than indirect treatment. AFM1 in milk was degraded by 65.0 % and 78.9 % by air and MA65 respectively in 20 min with no change in milk colour. The toxicity of AFM1 after treatment was assessed using a brine shrimp model. A five-minute HVACP treatment reduced the toxicity of AFM1 by 83.9 % based on the increase in brine shrimp survival. HVACP is a promising method to reduce AFM1 in milk.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Gases em Plasma , Aflatoxina M1/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Leite/química
7.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(5): 209, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501410

RESUMO

In contrast to reported enzyme-based immunoassays, an enzyme-free immunoassay (optical and electrochemical) is presented here for the first time that can be used as point-of-need detection bioplatforms of bovine IgG as goat milk adulterant. In the first format, Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) were used as antibody catalytic labels in a competitive colorimetric microplate immunoassay. Absorbance measurement was performed photometrically at 450 nm. After in-depth optimization, excellent sensitivity was achieved (0.01% cow/goat volume ratio), which is 100 times lower than the limit allowed by the European legislation (EL) (1% v/v), thanks to the high catalytic activity of PBNPs compared with natural peroxidase. Moreover, the antibody-PBNPs bioconjugates showed excellent stability over 4 weeks (> 94% of the initial response) confirming the successful anchoring of the antibodies to the surface of the PBNPs. On the other hand, a label-free voltammetric immunoassay for the detection of bovine IgG was developed. The sensing principle was based on the hindrance of charge transfer between ferri-ferrocyanide redox couple and the screen-printed gold electrodes modified with bovine IgG antibody. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the step-by-step modification of the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions, this single-step electrochemical analysis achieved a high sensitivity of 0.1% (cow/goat) when monitoring the ferrocyanide oxidation at + 0.092 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The selectivity of the developed immunoassays was evaluated for different species of milk of similar composition, and both immunoassays exhibited a selective response only to bovine IgG. Unlike conventional immunoassays, the developed enzyme-free immunoassays have many attractive features for the detection of milk adulteration, whether they are used in quality control laboratories for routine milk analysis (optical immunoassay) or at on-site checkpoints (electrochemical immunoassay) using wireless electrochemical detectors. The sensors provide high sensitivity (≤ 0.1%), excellent precision (RSD < 6%), low cost (no enzyme is required) and ease of operation, including handling of milk samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Bovinos , Feminino , Ferrocianetos/química , Cabras , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Leite/química , Peroxidase , Peroxidases
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257884, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544790

RESUMO

Buffalo is one of the leading milk-producing dairy animals. Its production and reproduction are affected due to some factors including inadequate monitoring around parturition, which cause economic losses like delayed birth process, increased risk of stillbirth, etc. The appropriate calving monitoring is essential for dairy herd management. Therefore, we designed a study its aim was, to predict the calving based on automated machine measured prepartum behaviors in buffaloes. The data were collected from n=40 pregnant buffaloes of 2nd to 5th parity, which was synchronized. The NEDAP neck and leg logger tag was attached to each buffalo at 30 days before calving and automatically collected feeding, rumination, lying, standing, no. of steps, no. of switches from standing to lying (lying bouts) and total motion activity. All behavioral data were reduced to -10 days before the calving date for statistical analysis to use mixed model procedure and ANOVA. Results showed that feeding and rumination time significantly (P<0.05) decreased from -10 to -1 days before calving indicating calving prediction. Moreover, Rumination time was at lowest (P<0.001) value at 2h before the calving such behavioral changes may be useful to predict calving in buffaloes. Similarly, lying bouts and standing time abruptly decreased (P<0.05) from -3 to -1 days before calving, while lying time abruptly increased (P<0.01) from -3 to -1 days before calving (531.57±23.65 to 665.62±18.14, respectively). No. of steps taken and total motion significantly (P<0.05) increased from -10 to -1 days before calving. Feeding time was significantly (P<0.02) lowered in 3rd parity buffaloes compared with 2nd, 4th and 5th parity buffaloes, while standing time of 5th parity buffaloes were lowered (P<0.05) as compared to 2nd to 4th parity buffalos at -1 day of prepartum. However, rumination, lying, no. of steps taken and total motion activity at -1 day of prepartum was independent (P>0.05) of parity in buffaloes. Neural network analysis for combined variables from NEDAP technology at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 98% specificity. In conclusion NEDAP technology can be used to measured behavioral changes -10 day before calving as it can serve as a useful guide in the prediction calving date in the buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Parto , Animais , Feminino , Leite , Paridade , Gravidez , Reprodução
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e259449, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544793

RESUMO

The presence of pathogenic bacteria in food is considered as a primary cause of food-borne illness and food quality deterioration worldwide. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of five essential oils (EOs) against multidrug-resistant foodborne pathogens. In the current study Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella) and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus were isolated from raw milk and biochemically characterized. The anti-bacterial effect of different antibiotics and EOs (thyme, oregano, lemongrass, mint, and rosemary) was determined using the standard disc diffusion method. The antibiogram study revealed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to penicillin while Staphylococcus was resistant to streptomycin, amoxicillin, and lincomycin. Moderate resistance was observed to doxycycline, amikacin, enrofloxacin, kanamycin and cefixime. Isolates were found less resistant to gentamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin. EOs showed a broad range of antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except P. aeruginosa. Of these, thyme was more effective against most of the multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and formed the largest zone of inhibition (26 mm) against Escherichia followed by oregano oil (18 mm) against Staphylococcus (p<0.05). Klebsiella spp and Citrobacter spp showed resistance to mint and lemongrass oil respectively. The EOs such as lemongrass, mint and rosemary were less active against all the bacteria. The findings of the recent study suggest the use of EOs as natural antibacterial agents for food preservation.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Thymus (Planta) , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química
10.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 50(3): 1-7, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising approach to cow's milk and egg allergies, but reactions are frequent and some patients cannot be desensitized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term OIT outcomes with omalizumab (OMZ) in paediatric patients with severe egg and/or milk allergies. METHODS: This retrospective real-life study analysed findings in children with Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to cow's milk and/or hen eggs refractory to conventional OIT, who underwent OIT with OMZ in our department between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015. RESULTS: In all, 41 patients were included (median age: 7 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 5.5-9.5); 26/41 (63.4%) underwent OIT for milk, 8/41 (19.5%) for egg and 7/41 (17.1%) for both. The median time between initiation of OMZ and OIT was 27 weeks (IQR: 22-33). Forty (97.56%) patients reached the maintenance phase (200 mL of cow's milk and 30 mL of raw egg or 1 cooked egg) in a median time of 27 weeks (IQR: 18-37). The median total time with OMZ was 117 weeks (IQR: 88-144). During the OMZ period, 2.44% (1/41) of patients presented anaphylaxis. After discontinuation of OMZ, 29.3% (12/41) presented anaphylaxis, 50% of them had a poor adherence to daily ingestion. One patient (2.44%) was diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis after 2 years of discontinuation of OMZ. Currently, after a median time of 9 years (IQR: 7-10) since the initiation of OMZ, 75.6% (31/41) are desensitized (27/31 without OMZ). CONCLUSIONS: Omalizumab allows desensitisation of children with severe allergies to cow's milk and/or egg without developing severe reactions while receiving this treatment. However, discontinuation of OMZ leads to severe allergic reactions, and hence must be monitored carefully.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Administração Oral , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Criança , Dessensibilização Imunológica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Leite/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 184, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536280

RESUMO

Palm kernel cake, the main by-product of the palm kernel oil extraction process, is a highly available and low-priced agro-industrial by-product. However, several concerns exist to arriving at a safe inclusion level, especially for buffaloes. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding de-oiled palm kernel cake (DPKC) to tropical buffaloes. In trial I, four fistulated Murrah buffaloes arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design were fed diets containing DPKC inclusions at 0, 15, 30, and 45% levels of compound feed to study their effects on rumen fermentation parameters. Trial II involves feeding twelve lactating buffaloes with DPKC inclusion levels at 0 or 15% of the compound feed to evaluate the effect of DPKC on the nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical constituents, rumen fermentation patterns, and lactation profile. The DPKC diets did not affect rumen pH, TCA-ppt nitrogen, and TVFA proportion; nevertheless, the NH3-N data revealed a decreased trend (P = 0.076). The acetate fraction decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increased DPKC diets. Replacing the conventional protein sources with DPKC at a 15% level did not influence the nutrient intake and digestibility coefficients. No significant effects were observed for serum biochemical and mineral profiles of the lactating buffaloes fed the DPKC diet. Neither milk yield nor milk constituents (SNF, total solids, density, lactose, protein) were altered with the diets fed, except for milk fat%, which tended to increase (P = 0.092) on feeding DPKC diets. All the lactation parameters varied with time of collection, and diet × time interactions were noticed for fat, density, protein, 6% FCM yield, and butterfat yield. The feed efficiency tended to increase (P = 0.070) in the buffaloes fed DPKC diets. The profit margins were ₹6.07 and ₹1.63 for the DPKC included diets and feed cost per Kg 6% FCMY, respectively. In  conclusion, the inclusion of DPKC in the diet decreases feed cost without affecting the nutrient intakes, digestibility coefficients, serum biochemical and mineral profile, and lactation parameters.


Assuntos
Leite , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Búfalos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Leite/química , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 185, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538240

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rations containing restaurant food waste (RFW) on nutrient digestibility, milk yield and its composition, and some blood parameters of lactating Zaraibi goats. In the last month of pregnancy, 30 goats (32.8 + 0.91 kg body weight and aged 3-4 years) were chosen and divided into three similar groups (10 goats per group). Each group was randomly assigned to be fed one of the experimental rations. The control group (R1) fed on a ration comprising concentrate feed mixture (CFM1) and berseem as a fresh roughage whereas the second (R2) and the third groups (R3) fed on CFM partially substituted by 15 and 30% of RFW (CFM2 and CFM3, respectively). Nutrient digestibility and feeding values were improved with R3 goats, which had the highest level of RFW (30%) versus R2 and R1 goats. The total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration in the in-rumen liquor was elevated by increasing the level of RFW up to 30% in CFM3 of R3 goats. Actual daily milk yields were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (1269.30 g/h/d) for R3 goats versus R1 and R2 (1037.57 and 1180.70 g/h/d, respectively). The inclusion of RFW in rations had a significant effect on the yield of milk constituents, without significant different among experimental rations regarding some blood constituents and offspring performance. Economic feed efficiency (relative feed cost and relative daily profit) was improved by including RFW in the CFM. Therefore, it can be concluded that the inclusion of up to 30% RFW improved productive performance and economic efficiency in lactating Zaraibi goat rations.


Assuntos
Leite , Eliminação de Resíduos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Cabras/metabolismo , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Restaurantes , Rúmen/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7360, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513691

RESUMO

Metabolomics approaches, such as direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS), allow characterising many polar and non-polar compounds useful as authentication biomarkers of dairy chains. By using both a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA), this study aimed to assess the capability of DART-HRMS, coupled with a low-level data fusion, discriminate among milk samples from lowland (silages vs. hay) and Alpine (grazing; APS) systems and identify the most informative biomarkers associated with the main dietary forage. As confirmed also by the LDA performed against the test set, DART-HRMS analysis provided an accurate discrimination of Alpine samples; meanwhile, there was a limited capacity to correctly recognise silage- vs. hay-milks. Supervised multivariate statistics followed by metabolomics hierarchical cluster analysis allowed extrapolating the most significant metabolites. Lowland milk was characterised by a pool of energetic compounds, ketoacid derivates, amines and organic acids. Seven informative DART-HRMS molecular features, mainly monoacylglycerols, could strongly explain the metabolomic variation of Alpine grazing milk and contributed to its classification. The misclassification between the two lowland groups confirmed that the intensive dairy systems would be characterised by a small variation in milk composition.


Assuntos
Leite , Silagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Dieta , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite/química , Silagem/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 389: 133110, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504074

RESUMO

Brown fermented goat milk as an excellent source of bioactive peptides has only been partially elucidated. Meticulously synthesized MOF@MG as magnetic sorbent for enriching endogenous peptides owned higher reproducibility and uniform distribution of peptides PI compared with ultrafiltration. Combined with UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap, fermentation for 12 h in brown goat milk with the highest overall acceptable degree through sensory evaluation was utilized to explore the transformation of peptides and health benefits, with trypsin or plasmin hydrolyzing proteins and aminopeptidase or carboxypeptidase hydrolyzing peptides to small peptides or amino acids. A total of 1317 peptides were identified by database matching (1259) and de novo sequencing (58), among 18 peptides could originate from gene-independent enzymatic formation and top 25 characteristic peptides were quantified with concentration ranging from 0.12 to 6.40 mg L-1. Bioinformatic analysis results indicated that brown fermented goat milk possesses higher health benefits because of more than 50 peptides with potential bioactivity.


Assuntos
Cabras , Leite , Animais , Fermentação , Cabras/metabolismo , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Leite/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida
17.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(6): 5850-5866, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603382

RESUMO

Traditional laboratory microscopy for identifying bovine milk somatic cells is subjective, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. The accuracy of the recognition directly through a single classifier is low. In this paper, a novel algorithm that combined the feature extraction algorithm and fusion classification model was proposed to identify the somatic cells. First, 392 cell images from four types of bovine milk somatic cells dataset were trained and tested. Secondly, filtering and the K-means method were used to preprocess and segment the images. Thirdly, the color, morphological, and texture features of the four types of cells were extracted, totaling 100 features. Finally, the gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT)-AdaBoost fusion model was proposed. For the GBDT classifier, the light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) was used as the weak classifier. The decision tree (DT) was used as the weak classifier of the AdaBoost classifier. The results showed that the average recognition accuracy of the GBDT-AdaBoost reached 98.0%. At the same time, that of random forest (RF), extremely randomized tree (ET), DT, and LightGBM was 79.9, 71.1, 67.3 and 77.2%, respectively. The recall rate of the GBDT-AdaBoost model was the best performance on all types of cells. The F1-Score of the GBDT-AdaBoost model was also better than the results of any single classifiers. The proposed algorithm can effectively recognize the image of bovine milk somatic cells. Moreover, it may provide a reference for recognizing bovine milk somatic cells with similar shape size characteristics and is difficult to distinguish.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Leite , Animais
18.
Food Funct ; 13(10): 5528-5535, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522849

RESUMO

The food industry is constantly attempting to develop better products that will have a positive effect on health. Feiraco® and Clesa®, expressed their intention to create novel products using UNICLA® milk as a matrix to develop functional foods. In this respect, ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) at 1% was able to reduce the cholesterol concentration in Feiraco-UNICLA® milk products by around 87-85%. Products were fortified with omega-3 from fish oil with α- and ß-CD acting as carriers. It was possible to add around 50% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), with a high diet proportion of fibre and similar organoleptic properties to commercial omega-3 products. 80% of a sensory panel found our formulations satisfactory. The final product was stable, and the bioaccessibilty of the fatty acids added to the milk was around 74%. These results as a whole satisfy the aid of Feiraco® and Clesa® to develop improved products.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Doenças Metabólicas , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe , Humanos , Leite/metabolismo , Iogurte
19.
Food Chem ; 389: 133120, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526288

RESUMO

This work proposed a cost-effective, simple, and highly sensitive magnetic molecularly imprinted particles (MMIPs) electrochemical sensor to indirectly detect kanamycin (KAN), tobramycin (TOB), and gentamicin (GEN). The MMIPs electrochemical sensor was prepared by a complex of metal ions and the MMIPs of rebinding the template, which modified on the magnetic glassy carbon electrode surface. Here, metal ions were used as the signal tracers and amplifiers of the MMIPs electrochemical sensor. Then the response peak currents of metal re-oxidized to metal ion was recorded by differential pulse voltammetry and used to monitor the level of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Under the optimal conditions, the MMIPs electrochemical sensors showed a high sensitivity toward KAN, TOB, and GEN with detection limits of 4.88, 1.28, and 1.07 nmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, the MMIPs electrochemical sensors showed high selectivity for determining KAN, TOB, and GEN, and they were successfully used to detect KAN, TOB, and GEN in milk.


Assuntos
Leite , Impressão Molecular , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Íons , Canamicina , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Leite/química , Tobramicina
20.
Food Chem ; 389: 132986, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569245

RESUMO

The aim was to develop a fluorescent multiplex array for simultaneously measuring regulated food allergens using specific allergen protein molecules from peanut, tree nut, cow's milk, egg, soy, fish, shellfish, sesame, mustard and celery. Microspheres coupled to specific monoclonal antibodies were used for allergen detection, with purified allergens as reference standards.Standard curves for 17 allergens covered a 5-log dynamic range. Intra- and inter-assay acceptance criteria were within 70-130% recovery and a CV of ≤15%. Food reference materials contained high levels of their respective major allergens (2000-175,000 µg/g), Similar high allergen levels were found in 10 selected foods analysed using a 9-plex array. Egg, milk, peanut, hazelnut and walnut allergens were detectable in chocolate bars with incurred allergens at 3, 10, 30, and 100 ppm. The multiplex array is an efficient tool for measuring specific food allergens, with applications for risk assessment and standardization of therapeutic products for food allergy.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos/análise , Animais , Arachis , Bovinos , Corantes/análise , Feminino , Leite/química
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