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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130930, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469834

RESUMO

Trans fatty acids (TFAs), associated with the risks of coronary heart disease and diabetes, are formed by isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids during refining of linseed oils. In this study, TFAs and the chemical characteristics (acid value, peroxide value, carbonyl compounds, bioactive minor components and fatty acids) in 32 commercial linseed oils were investigated, and the correlation among them were further analyzed. Results showed that C18:3 TFAs were predominant TFAs in linseed oils and about 9% of the samples had TFA contents above 2 g/100 g fat, as well as the average level of TFA in the refined samples was higher than that in the unrefined oils. The correlation analyses suggested C18:3 TFAs exhibited significant negative correlations with acid value, levels of acetone, trans-2-nonenal, campesterol and α-linolenic acid. These results provided a comprehensive insight of TFAs in linseed oil and had important implications for consumers and linseed oil industry.


Assuntos
Linho , Ácidos Graxos trans , Ácidos Graxos , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Óleos Vegetais
2.
Food Chem ; 370: 131067, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537430

RESUMO

This study evaluated different ultrasonic treatments for lignan biosynthesis in two varieties of flax sprouts. Results showed that lignans in flax sprouts significantly raised with ultrasonic pretreatment. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside dramatically increased by about 6-fold at the flax sprouts. Ultrasonic pretreatment could also affect the accumulation of caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid in flax sprouts. Moreover, it is suggested that fiber flax sprout was more sensitive to ultrasonic pretreatment. The expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of lignan were analyzed and the results could partly explain the accumulation of these compounds. The contents of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside were clustered with ferulic acid, which indicated that the accumulation of ferulic acid might be the key factor during flax sprout maturation for lignan accumulation. Present study could be useful guidance for ultrasonic pretreatment in the promotion of lignan accumulation and the fortification of nutritional values in flax sprouts as a functional vegetable.


Assuntos
Linho , Lignanas , Ultrassom
3.
Food Chem ; 371: 131355, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808769

RESUMO

Chia, flax, and sesame seeds are well known for their nutritional quality and are commonly included in bakery products. So far, the development of methods to verify their presence and authenticity in foods is a requisite and a raised need. In this work we applied untargeted metabolomics to propose authenticity markers. Seeds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and 9938 features in negative mode and 9044 in positive mode were obtained by Mzmine. After isotopes grouping, alignment, gap-filling, filtering adducts, and normalization, PCA was applied to explore the dataset and recognize pre-existent classification patterns. OPLS-DA analysis and S-Plots were used as supervised methods. Twenty-five molecules (12 in negative mode and 13 in positive mode) were selected as discriminant for the three seeds, polyphenols and lignans were identified among them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach using non-target HPLC-MS/MS for the authentication of chia, flax and sesame seeds.


Assuntos
Linho , Sesamum , Cromatografia Líquida , Metabolômica , Sementes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Food Chem ; 372: 131136, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600195

RESUMO

The effect of flaxseed gum (FG) on the weakened gelling properties of myofibrillar proteins (MP) induced by catechin was investigated. Different levels of FG and catechin were incorporated into MP and the chemical changes of MP were studied; MP emulsions and gels with different levels of FG and catechin were prepared and their properties were studied. Catechin promoted the loss of thiol and the exposure of the hydrophobic groups of MP and increased the particle size and apparent viscosity of emulsions, resulting in a poor gel network. The incorporation of FG enhanced the gel strength, water holding capacity and dynamic rheological properties, which might be attributed to the formation of uniform and stabilized emulsions with high apparent viscosity and the enhanced disulfide cross-linking and hydrophobic interactions during heat-induced gelation. FG could be a potential approach in overcoming the deterioration of protein gels caused by catechin.


Assuntos
Catequina , Linho , Géis , Proteínas Musculares , Miofibrilas , Reologia
5.
Food Chem ; 368: 130802, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411866

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the influences of microwave (MV) exposure to flaxseed on the physicochemical stability of oil bodies (OBs) focused on the interface remodeling. The results showed that the intracellular OBs subjected to absolute rupture and then partial dispersion by protein bodies visualized by TEM following MV exposure (1-5 min; 700 W). After aqueous extraction, native flax OBs manifested excellent spherical particles with completely intact surface and wide particle size distribution (0.5-3.0 µm) examined by cryo-SEM. Upon 1-5 min of MV exposure, the defective interface integrity and beaded morphology were successively observed for flax OBs, accompanied by the impaired physical stability and rheological behavior due to the newly assembled phospholipid/protein interface. Notably, the profitable migration of phenolic compounds effectively suppressed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in flax OBs. Thus, MV exposure (1-5 min; 700 W) was unfavorable for improving the physical stability of flax OBs.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Gotículas Lipídicas , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis , Fosfolipídeos
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 550, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800206

RESUMO

Increasing polyunsaturated or long-chain fatty acids in meat for human consumption improves both nutritional quality and consumer perception. The increase could occur through the addition of rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids (such as flaxseed or flaxseed oil) to the animal diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplement with two presentations of flax (crushed seeds or oil) on the change of FA content in two cuts of caiman meat (tail and neck). We measured fatty profile in two different caiman meat cuts (neck and tail) from 30 animals (total length 96.7 ± 4.9 cm, snout-vent length 47.8 ± 3 cm, weight 4.2 ± 0.6 kg), raised in individual enclosures, fed three a week for 50 days with crushed chicken head and a dry food formulated for these reptiles in a 70/30 ratio (C, n = 10), control diet with 10% crushed flaxseed (FS, n = 10), and control diet with 10% flaxseed oil (FO, n = 10), while the remaining days animals were fed the control diet. Meats from animals fed both enrichment diet (FS and FO) showed an increase of C18:3n-3 and ΣUFA with respect to control diet. Although both enriched diets raised the levels of C18:3n-3, the neck showed higher values than the tail. We observed that the neck is more susceptible than the tail to be improved by FO, which could suggest that it is more beneficial to consume neck meat. In order to be implemented in caiman farms, flaxseed oil is more expensive than seed, but more effective, easier to manage, and is practical for application on caiman farms.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Linho , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Carne/análise
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639207

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is gradually becoming one of the most common and health-endangering diseases; therefore, it is very important to prevent the occurrence of NASH and prevent simple non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) from further developing into NASH. We fed mice a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat) for 14 weeks to induce NAFL and then fed different doses of flaxseed powder (low (10%), middle (20%), and high (30%)) to the mice for 28 weeks. After the animal experiment, we analyzed fecal bile acid (BA) profiles of the HFD mice, flaxseed-fed (FLA-fed) mice, and control mice with a normal diet (10% fat) using a targeted metabolomics approach, and we analyzed the gut microbiota at the same time. We also investigated the mechanistic role of BAs in NASH and identified whether the altered BAs strongly bind to colonic FXR or TGR5. In the present study, we found that 28-week FLA treatment notably alleviated NASH development in NAFL model mice fed with an HFD, and the beneficial effects may be attributed to the regulation of and improvement in the gut flora- and microbiota-related BAs, which then activate the intestinal FXR-FGF15 and TGR5-NF-κB pathways. Our data indicate that FLA might be a promising functional food for preventing NASH through regulating microbiomes and BAs.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Linho/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Pós/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258800, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common causes of morbidity and mortality. Flaxseed contains several bioactive compounds that have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effect of flaxseed in diabetic rats with adenine-induced CKD. METHODS: Male Wister rats (n = 48) were randomly divided into seven equal groups and treated for 33 consecutive days as follows: G1: control. G2 adenine, G3: streptozotocin (STZ), G4: flaxseed, G5: adenine+flaxseed, G6: STZ+flaxseed, G7: adenine+STZ+flaxseed). DM or CKD were experimentally induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) or by adenine via oral gavage, respectively. RESULTS: Rats fed adenine alone exhibited several changes including decreased body weight, increased food and water intake and urine output, increased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. They also showed an increase in plasma urea and, creatinine, indoxyl sulfate, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C, and a decrease in renalase activity. These were associated with significant changes in inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers, e.g., increase in 8-isoprostane, 8 -hydroxy -2-deoxy guanosine and decrease in antioxidant enzymes, as well as increase in interleukins 1ß and 6, and NF-κB, and a decrease in interlukin-10. Histopathologically, there was increased tubular necrosis and fibrosis. Concomitant administration of adenine and STZ further worsened the renal damage induced by adenine alone. Flaxseed significantly ameliorated the changes caused by adenine and STZ, given either singly or in combination. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that flaxseed is a potential therapeutic agent in attenuating the progression of CKD in diabetes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Fatores Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Linho/química , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sementes/química , Adenina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Estreptozocina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500623

RESUMO

Lignans are the main secondary metabolites synthetized by Linum species as plant defense molecules. They are also valuable for human health, in particular, for their potent antiviral and antineoplastic properties. In this study, the adventitious root cultures of three Linum species (L. flavum, L. mucronatum and L. dolomiticum) were developed to produce aryltetralin lignans. The effect of two elicitors, methyl jasmonate and coronatine, on aryltetralin lignans production was also evaluated. The adventitious root cultures from L. dolomiticum were obtained and analyzed for the first time and resulted as the best producer for all the aryltetralins highlighted in this system: Podophyllotoxin, 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin-7-O-ß-glucoside, the last showing a productivity of 92.6 mg/g DW. The two elicitors differently affected the production of the 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin-7-O-ß-glucoside.


Assuntos
Linho/metabolismo , Lignanas/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Indenos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Podofilotoxina/análogos & derivados , Podofilotoxina/biossíntese
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468521

RESUMO

Unavailability of probiotics in fish digestive system fingerlings is unable to digest and absorb their food properly. The current research was conducted to investigate the influence of probiotics added Linseed meal based (LMB) diet on hematology and carcass composition of Labeo rohita juveniles. Hematological parameters are essential diagnostics used to estimate the health status of fish. The usage of probiotics for fish health improvement is becoming common due to the higher demand for environment-friendly culture system in water. Linseed meal was used as a test ingredient to prepare six experimental test diets by adding probiotics (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg) and 1% indigestible chromic oxide for seventy days. According to their live wet weight, five percent feed was given to fingerlings twice a day. Fish blood and carcass samples (Whole body) were taken for hematological and carcass analysis at the end of the experiment. The highest carcass composition (crude protein; 18.72%, crude fat; 8.80% and gross energy; 2.31 kcal/g) was observed in fish fed with test diet II supplemented with probiotics (2 g/kg). Moreover, maximum RBCs number (2.62× 106mm-3), WBCs (7.84×103mm-3), PCV (24.61), platelets (63.85) and hemoglobin (7.87) had also been reported in the fish fingerlings fed on 2 g/kg of probiotics supplemented diet. Results indicated that probiotics supplementation has a critical role in improvement of fingerlings' body composition and hematological indices. Present findings showed that probiotics supplementation at 2 g/kg level in linseed by-product-based diet was very useful for enhancing the overall performance of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Linho , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária
11.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111014, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482917

RESUMO

Flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly linolenic acid, which is converted from linoleic acid. Studies have indicated that the biosynthesis of linoleic acid and linolenic acid is controlled by FAD2 and FAD3, respectively. However, the functional distinctions of different LuFAD2 and LuFAD3 copies from L. usitatissimum in governing the biosynthesis of linoleic acid or linolenic acid, respectively, remain unclear. In this study, five LuFAD2 and three LuFAD3 cDNAs were cloned from the L. usitatissimum cultivar 'Longya 10', and GC-MS results demonstrated that LuFAD2A and LuFAD3A play predominant roles in the accumulation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid, respectively. Their simultaneous overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds led to a significant increase in fatty acid contents, especially PUFAs. Additionally, LuFAD2A and LuFAD3A promoted the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid by increasing the levels of linolenic acid, which, in turn, enhanced plant cold tolerance. When the amount of linolenic acid is not sufficient, plants adapt to low temperature via the accumulation of anthocyanins. These findings provide insights into the higher accumulation of PUFAs in L. usitatissimum seeds, and provide potential targets for improving oil quality of other oil-producing crops through molecular manipulation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Linho/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Linho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
12.
Nat Plants ; 7(9): 1200-1206, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518667

RESUMO

Flax has a long and fascinating history. This plant was domesticated around 8,000 BCE1 in the Fertile Crescent area2, first for its seeds and then for its fibres1,3. Although its uses existed long before domestication, residues of flax yarn dated 30,000 years ago have been found in the Caucasus area4. However, Ancient Egypt laid the foundations for the cultivation of flax as a textile fibre crop5. Today flax fibres are used in high-value textiles and in natural actuators6 or reinforcements in composite materials7. Flax is therefore a bridge between ages and civilizations. For several decades, the development of non- or micro-destructive analysis techniques has led to numerous works on the conservation of ancient textiles. Non-destructive methods, such as optical microscopy8 or vibrational techniques9,10, have been largely used to investigate archaeological textiles, principally to evaluate their degradation mechanisms and state of conservation. Vibrational spectroscopy studies can now benefit from synchrotron radiation11 and X-ray diffraction measurement in the archaeometric study of historical textiles12,13. Conservation of mechanical performance and the ultrastructural differences between ancient and modern flax varieties have not been examined thus far. Here we examine the morphological, ultrastructural and mechanical characteristics of a yarn from an Egyptian mortuary linen dating from the early Middle Kingdom (Eleventh Dynasty, ca. 2033-1963 BCE) and compare them with a modern flax yarn to assess the quality and durability of ancient flax fibres and relate these to their processing methods. Advanced microscopy techniques, such as nano-tomography, multiphoton excitation microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used. Our findings reveal the cultural know-how of this ancient civilization in producing high-fineness fibres, as well as the exceptional durability of flax, which is sometimes questioned, demonstrating their potential as reinforcements in high-technology composites.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/história , Linho/química , Linho/ultraestrutura , Têxteis/história , Egito , História Antiga , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 73(5): 672-681, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545601

RESUMO

Linseed commonly called as flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum Linn.) is an important oilseed crop cultivated widely in Northern parts of Karnataka. During, 2019 (January-February), a characteristic disease was noticed with symptoms that resembled phytoplasma or like disease symptoms. The incidence was ranged from 6·5 to 16·5% in the experimental station of Raichur Agricultural University. The typical symptoms observed were virescence of floral parts, fasciation of the inflorescence axis, phyllody, stunted and flattened stem with reduced leaves. Symptomatic and healthy samples were collected and processed for molecular detection of phytoplasma. Total DNA was isolated from four infected plants and two healthy plants. The 16S rDNA region was amplified using P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/R16R2 primer pair which showed the amplification of expected amplicon size from all four infected samples. Furthermore, the SecA gene was amplified using SecA1/SecA3 primers. The PCR amplified products were subjected for direct sequencing from both directions and the consensus sequences were obtained and nBLAST search analysis revealed that the 16Sr RNA and SecA sequences were sharing maximum similarity (100%) with the reference sequence of Ca. P. cynodontis. The sequences were analysed phylogenetically by constructing a Phylogram independently by NJ method along with reference sequence of 16S rRNA region and SecA region retrieved from GenBank database showed that the phytoplasma sequence from linseed phyllody of the present study placed in a distinct clade along with reference sequence of "Ca. P. cynodontis" thus confirming the identity phylogenetically. Furthermore, iPhyClassifier and virtual RFLP proved that the phytoplasma belonged to 16SrXIV (subgroup A) phytoplasma. Previously linseed is known to be associated with 16SrII-D phytoplasma but the association of the 16SrXIV-A group of phytoplasma is not reported so far. Therefore, this is the new host record for Ca. P. cynodontis (16SrXIV-A) phytoplasma associated with linseed stem fasciation, phyllody from India.


Assuntos
Linho , Phytoplasma , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Índia , Filogenia , Phytoplasma/genética , Doenças das Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110488, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399484

RESUMO

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is of interest as functional food because of the presence of compounds in its composition with potential health benefits, such as fatty acid omega-3, fiber, lignans and flavonoids. The bioactivity of lignans and flavonoids depends greatly on bacterial metabolism. Previously, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains were described to produce enterolignans and bioactive flavonoids (herbacetin, quercetin, quercetagetin, kaempferol, naringenin and eriodictyol) from flaxseed extracts and/or from secoisolariciresinol (SECO) in culture medium. In this work, cow's milk and soy beverage were supplemented with flaxseed extracts and fermented with selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus INIA P224, Limosilactobacillus mucosae INIA P508 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ESI 144 were capable of producing enterolactone (ENL) in both beverages supplemented with flaxseed, in addition to matairesinol and the flavonoids daidzein, genistein, glycitein, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol and eriodictyol. On the other hand, Bifidobacterium breve INIA P367, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum INIA P815 and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum INIA P946 were able to produce quercetin, quercetagetin and high concentrations of herbacetin and SECO, in addition to pinoresinol, matairesinol, daidzein, genistein, naringenin, kaempferol and eriodictyol. The co-incubation of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei INIA P74 and Ligilactobacillus salivarius INIA P183 with Lactococcus lactis MG1363 harboring the food grade vector pLEB590.gly913, facilitated the production of ENL in soy beverage enriched with flaxseed. In this work, it is demonstrated how lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains can improve the nutritional properties of flaxseed-enriched beverages, providing metabolites of great interest for human health.


Assuntos
Linho , Lignanas , Animais , Bebidas , Bifidobacterium , Bovinos , Flavonoides , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Lignanas/análise
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361665

RESUMO

In vitro cultures of scarlet flax (Linum grandiflorum L.), an important ornamental flax, have been established as a new possible valuable resource of lignans and neolignans for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory applications. The callogenic potential at different concentrations of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and thidiazuron (TDZ), alone or in combinations, was evaluated using both L. grandiflorum hypocotyl and cotyledon explants. A higher callus induction frequency was observed on NAA than TDZ, especially for hypocotyl explants, with a maximum frequency (i.e., 95.2%) on 1.0 mg/L of NAA. The presence of NAA (1.0 mg/L) in conjunction with TDZ tended to increase the frequency of callogenesis relative to TDZ alone, but never reached the values observed with NAA alone, thereby indicating the lack of synergy between these two plant growth regulators (PGRs). Similarly, in terms of biomass, NAA was more effective than TDZ, with a maximum accumulation of biomass registered for medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L of NAA using hypocotyls as initial explants (DW: 13.1 g). However, for biomass, a synergy between the two PGRs was observed, particularly for cotyledon-derived explants and for the lowest concentrations of TDZ. The influence of these two PGRs on callogenesis and biomass is discussed. The HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lignans (secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and lariciresinol (LARI) and neolignan (dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol [DCA]) naturally accumulated in their glycoside forms. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities performed for both hypocotyl- and cotyledon-derived cultures were also found maximal (DPPH: 89.5%, FRAP 866: µM TEAC, ABTS: 456 µM TEAC) in hypocotyl-derived callus cultures as compared with callus obtained from cotyledon explants. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activities revealed high inhibition (COX-1: 47.4% and COX-2: 51.1%) for extract of hypocotyl-derived callus cultures at 2.5 mg/L TDZ. The anti-inflammatory action against COX-1 and COX-2 was supported by the IC50 values. This report provides a viable approach for enhanced biomass accumulation and efficient production of (neo)lignans in L. grandiflorum callus cultures.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Butileno Glicóis/análise , Cotilédone/química , Linho/química , Furanos/análise , Hipocótilo/química , Lignanas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Linho/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371804

RESUMO

Functional clinical nutrition is an integrative science; it uses dietary strategies, functional foods and medicinal plants, as well as combinations thereof. Both functional foods and medicinal plants, whether associated or not, form nutraceuticals, which can bring benefits to health, in addition to being included in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Some functional food effects from Avena sativa L. (oats), Linum usitatissimum L. (brown flaxseed), Glycine max L. (soya) and Moringa oleifera have been proposed for nutritional disorders through in vitro and in vivo tests. A formulation called a bioactive food compound (BFC) showed efficiency in the association of oats, flaxseed and soy for dyslipidemia and obesity. In this review, we discuss the effects of BFC in other nutritional disorders, as well as the beneficial effects of M. oleifera in obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, intestinal inflammatory diseases/colorectal carcinogenesis and malnutrition. In addition, we hypothesized that a BFC enriched with M. oleifera could present a synergistic effect and play a potential benefit in nutritional disorders. The traditional consumption of M. oleifera preparations can allow associations with other formulations, such as BFC. These nutraceutical formulations can be easily accepted and can be used in sweet preparations (fruit and/or vegetable juices, fruit and/or vegetable vitamins, porridges, yogurt, cream, mousses or fruit salads, cakes and cookies) or savory (vegetable purees, soups, broths and various sauces), cooked or not. These formulations can be low-cost and easy-to-use. The association of bioactive food substances in dietary formulations can facilitate adherence to consumption and, thus, contribute to the planning of future nutritional interventions for the prevention and adjuvant treatment of the clinical conditions presented in this study. This can be extended to the general population. However, an investigation through clinical studies is needed to prove applicability in humans.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Avena , Linho , Humanos , Moringa oleifera , Soja
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20190443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378632

RESUMO

This study evaluated the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in circulating blood and in the ovarian follicular fluid of mares, after supplementation of the diet with linseed oil. Six Mangalarga Marchador mares, weighing 397.00±31.89 kg, were kept on native pasture, and assigned to the current study. In a switch over design, mares were randomly allocated to receive 150 ml of vegetable oil daily, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids n3 (62.23 g ALA, 20.34 g LA, 2.27 g EPA, 2.32 g DHA), (n=3) or no supplementation (n=3) in two replicates. Blood and follicular fluid samples were taken on the first day (D0) and every 30 days until the end of the supplementation period (D60). After 60 days of supplementation, mares were switched across the treatments. Plasma concentrations of linolenic acid in total fatty acids were higher (P=0.006) in the supplemented compared to the control group (1.89±0.13 vs. 1.49±0.13%). There were positive correlations between plasma linoleic acid and follicular fluid arachidonic acid (P=0.0106; r2=0.13) and between plasma alpha linolenic acid and follicular fluid EPA (P=0.0004; r2=0.2544). Data indicated a low to moderate relationship between the dietary linseed-based oil supplementation studied and circulating and follicular fluid polyunsaturated fatty acids contents in mares.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe , Líquido Folicular , Cavalos
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378664

RESUMO

Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Linho , Biofilmes , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444919

RESUMO

Flaxseed is an oilseed (45-50% oil on a dry-weight basis) crop. Its oil has demonstrated multiple health benefits and industrial applications. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of the free polyphenol fraction of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds (PLU), based on their use in traditional medicine. Mice with alloxan-induced diabetes were used to study the antidiabetic activity of PLU in vivo, with an oral administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg over 28 days. Measurements of body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were carried out weekly, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Inhibitory activities of PLU on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were evaluated in vitro. The anti-inflammatory was evaluated in vivo in Wistar rats using the paw edema induction Test by carrageenan, and in vitro using the hemolysis ratio test. PLU administration to diabetic mice during the study period improved their body weight and FBG levels remarkably. In vitro inhibitory activity of digestive enzymes indicated that they may be involved in the proposed mode of action of PLU extract. Qualitative results of PLU revealed the presence of 18 polyphenols. These findings support daily consumption of flaxseed for people with diabetes, and suggest that polyphenols in flaxseed may serve as dietary supplements or novel phytomedicines to treat diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Linho/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Camundongos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16608, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400694

RESUMO

There is growing interest among the public and scientific community toward the use of probiotics to potentially restore the composition of the gut microbiome. With the aim of preparing eco-friendly probiotic edible films, we explored the addition of probiotics to the seed mucilage films of quince, flax, and basil. These mucilages are natural and compatible blends of different polysaccharides that have demonstrated medical benefits. All three seed mucilage films exhibited high moisture retention regardless of the presence of probiotics, which is needed to help preserve the moisture/freshness of food. Films from flax and quince mucilage were found to be more thermally stable and mechanically robust with higher elastic moduli and elongation at break than basil mucilage films. These films effectively protected fruits against UV light, maintaining the probiotics viability and inactivation rate during storage. Coated fruits and vegetables retained their freshness longer than uncoated produce, while quince-based probiotic films showed the best mechanical, physical, morphological and bacterial viability. This is the first report of the development, characterization and production of 100% natural mucilage-based probiotic edible coatings with enhanced barrier properties for food preservation applications containing probiotics.


Assuntos
Filmes Comestíveis , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas , Mucilagem Vegetal , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Verduras , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Módulo de Elasticidade , Linho/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Teste de Materiais , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Ocimum basilicum/química , Permeabilidade , Rosaceae/química , Sementes/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Água
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