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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546

RESUMO

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Estrigiformes , Reprodução , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

RESUMO

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Glutamina , Ratos Wistar , Dipeptídeos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Aminoácidos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMO

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

RESUMO

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Agaricus , Comportamento Exploratório , Modelos Animais de Doenças
5.
Food Chem ; 398: 133868, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961171

RESUMO

Gametogenesis can significantly affect the biochemical composition of oysters, but little research on the difference between sexes. Therefore, we conducted the first in-depth study on the composition differences between males and females of three different Crassostrea sp.. The results showed that females had higher glycogen, lipid, Cu and Zn contents than males, while males had higher protein and taurine contents than females at maturity, which might be related to special meiosis pattern of eggs and less energy was required for female gametogenesis. In addition, both males and females had well-balanced essential amino acid compositions. The omega-3: omega-6 (n-3: n-6) ratio of males was significantly higher than that of females, indicating that the nutritional quality of males was higher. These results provide a reliable and refined theoretical and research basis for revealing the nutritional quality, extracting beneficial ingredients, and developing functional food of Crassostrea sp., and provide data support for the sex-regulated breeding of oysters.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Crassostrea/genética , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Metais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e239237, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1399762

RESUMO

Aim: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported depressive symptoms in undergraduate and graduate dental students. Methods: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was applied, and only the depression domain was verified. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and COVID-19 pandemic-related fear variables. Academic performance was assessed based on academic records, ranging from 0 (worst possible grade) to 10 (best possible grade). Respondents included 408 regularly enrolled dental students. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the association between at least moderate depressive symptoms and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of at least moderate depression was 40.5% among undergraduate students and 26% among graduate students. The prevalence of fear and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was 96.1% among undergraduate students and 93.5% among graduate students. In the final multivariate analysis, being female (prevalence ratio [PR]:2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.36­2.96) was associated with a higher PR for depression. Conversely, no exposure to smoking (PR:0.54; 95%CI:0.36­0.82) and a final academic performance average ≥7.0 (PR:0.56; 95%CI:0.41­0.76) was associated with a lower PR for depression. Finally, among graduate students, a non-heterosexual orientation was associated with a higher PR for depression (PR:6.70; 95%CI:2.21­20.29). Conclusion: Higher rates of depression symptoms were observed in female undergraduates, students with lower academic performance and smoking exposure, and graduate dental students with a non-heterosexual orientation


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudantes de Odontologia , Tabagismo , Saúde Mental , Depressão/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0166, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394840

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical training for the elderly is extremely popular. However, there is a lack of analysis on sports injuries in the elderly. Objective: Study the analysis of movement in sports training techniques and preventing sports injuries in the elderly. Methods: Participating in a 15-minute running and warm-up activity before using the standard FMS test kit, they followed seven test movements, each repeated three times; they did so during six weeks of training based on the recommendations for the prevention of sports injuries presented in this paper. Results: Among the 14 elderly subjects with a total FMS score <14 points, most functional motor scores were 15-16 points, of which 19 points were high, and 9 points were low. In the intervention based on the perspective of sports injuries, the FMS measurement value of the elderly was much better than before, and the evaluation of the technical analysis of movement after the correction was significantly higher than before. Conclusion: The prevention of sports injuries proposed in this paper can effectively help the elderly to prevent sports injuries. This paper considers the FMS trial design as an example for analyzing movements in sports training of the elderly and formulating standards. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: O treinamento físico em idosos é extremamente popular, entretanto, carece de análise sobre as lesões esportivas em idosos. Objetivo: Estudar a análise do movimento nas técnicas de treinamento esportivo e a prevenção de lesões esportivas em idosos. Métodos: Participando de uma atividade de 15 minutos de corrida e aquecimento antes de utilizar o kit de teste padrão FMS, seguiram-se sete movimentos de teste, cada um deles repetidos 3 vezes; fizeram-no durante seis semanas de treinamento com base nas recomendações de prevenção de lesões esportivas apresentadas neste trabalho. Resultados: Entre os 14 sujeitos idosos com pontuação total de FMS <14 pontos, a maioria das pontuações motoras funcionais foram de 15-16 pontos, dos quais 19 pontos foram altos e 9 pontos foram baixos. Na intervenção baseada sob a ótica das lesões esportivas, o valor de medição FMS dos idosos foi muito melhor do que anteriormente, e a avaliação da análise técnica do movimento após a correção foi significativamente maior do que aquela antes da correção. Conclusão: A prevenção de lesões esportivas proposta neste trabalho pode efetivamente ajudar os idosos a prevenir as lesões esportivas. Este documento considera o projeto de ensaio do FMS como um exemplo para analisar os movimentos no treinamento esportivo das pessoas idosas e para formular padrões. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: El entrenamiento físico en las personas mayores es muy popular, sin embargo, hay una falta de análisis sobre las lesiones deportivas en las personas mayores. Objetivo: Estudiar el análisis del movimiento en las técnicas de entrenamiento deportivo y la prevención de lesiones deportivas en las personas mayores. Métodos: Participando en una actividad de carrera y calentamiento de 15 minutos antes de utilizar el kit de prueba estándar de FMS, se siguieron siete movimientos de prueba, cada uno repetido 3 veces; lo hicieron durante seis semanas de entrenamiento basado en las recomendaciones para la prevención de lesiones deportivas presentadas en este trabajo. Resultados: Entre los 14 sujetos de edad avanzada con una puntuación total de FMS <14 puntos, la mayoría de las puntuaciones motoras funcionales eran de 15-16 puntos, de los cuales 19 puntos eran altos y 9 puntos eran bajos. En la intervención basada en la perspectiva de las lesiones deportivas, el valor de medición de la FMS de los ancianos fue mucho mejor que antes, y la evaluación del análisis técnico del movimiento después de la corrección fue significativamente mayor que antes de la corrección. Conclusión: La prevención de las lesiones deportivas propuesta en este artículo puede ayudar eficazmente a las personas mayores a prevenir las lesiones deportivas. Este documento considera el diseño de la prueba FMS como un ejemplo para analizar los movimientos en el entrenamiento deportivo de las personas mayores y para formular normas. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Movimento/fisiologia
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115825, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240978

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Biejiajian pill (BJJP) is a canonical formula that is clinically used to treat chronic liver disease, especially to decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms underlying the prevention of HCC progression by BJJP remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to determine whether BJJP inhibits HCC progression by downregulating platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRß) signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in a mouse model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally injected with DEN 2 weeks after birth, followed by repeated injections of CCl4 weekly from 6 weeks of age onwards, to recapitulate features of HCC. At week 14, BJJP was orally administered to mice. The effects of BJJP on HCC progression were evaluated using histology, immunohistochemistry, and serum biochemical marker levels. Transcriptome analysis, molecular docking, quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blot were used to study the genes targeted by BJJP and the associated signaling pathway. The effects of BJJP on PDGFRß signaling in CAFs and the underlying mechanism were demonstrated. RESULTS: BJJP treatment significantly suppressed carcinogenesis and cancer progression, and it ameliorated liver inflammation in mice with HCC. A total of 176 genes, including PDGFRß, were significantly downregulated after BJJP treatment and five components of BJJP with high binding affinity to PDGFRß were identified. BJJP inhibited the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3ß) by suppressing PDGFRß expression in CAFs, and it also downregulated the expression of the downstream proteins hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Furthermore, BJJP-containing serum consistently reduced PDGFRß, HGF, and VEGF-A expression levels in HSC-derived CAFs in vitro. Importantly, PDGF-BB induced PDGFRß activation in CAFs and both BJJP and sunitinib (a kinase inhibitor) inhibited PDGF-BB/PDGFRß signaling. CONCLUSION: BJJP inhibits the progression of HCC through suppressing VEGF-A and HGF expression in CAFs by downregulating PDGFRß signaling.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Becaplermina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Talanta ; 251: 123784, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988346

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are proposed novel biomarker for noninvasive diagnosis of cancer. miRNA-143 is reported to be associated with the development of prostate cancer. However, detection of miRNAs is still challenging due to their unique characteristics, such as small size and high sequence homology among family members. We here developed a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based visual assay that combines with CRISPR/Cas12a-assisted hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA), which is called HRCA enhanced CRISPR/Cas12a-based assay (HECA) for sensitive detection of miRNA-143. The sequence-specific recognition character of CRISPR/Cas12a and HRCA signal amplification strategy enables the HECA outstanding specificity and sensitivity. In optimal condition, 1 fM miRNA-143 could be detected by naked eyes, and down to aM level with the aid of UV-Vis instrument. The diagnostic performance of the HECA for clinical samples was also evaluated based on the receiving operating characteristic algorithm (ROC), and our results suggest the miR-143 is a promising biomarker for noninvasive diagnosis of prostate cancer. This method is simple in operation and requires minimum instrument. We expect it to be widely applied in clinical diagnostics, especially in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Próstata , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
10.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103863, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055035

RESUMO

Measuring trust is an important element of effective human-robot collaborations (HRCs). It has largely relied on subjective responses and thus cannot be readily used for adapting robots in shared operations, particularly in shared-space manufacturing applications. Additionally, whether trust in such HRCs differ under altered operator cognitive states or with sex remains unknown. This study examined the impacts of operator cognitive fatigue, robot reliability, and operator sex on trust symptoms in collaborative robots through both objective measures (i.e., performance, heart rate variability) and subjective measures (i.e., surveys). Male and female participants were recruited to perform a metal surface polishing task in partnership with a collaborative robot (UR10), in which they underwent reliability conditions (reliable, unreliable) and cognitive fatigue conditions (fatigued, not fatigued). As compared to the reliable conditions, unreliable robot manipulations resulted in perceived trust, an increase in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, and operator-induced reduction in task efficiency and accuracy but not precision. Cognitive fatigue was shown to correlate with higher fatigue scores and reduced task efficiency, more severely impacting females. The results highlight key interplays between operator states of fatigue, sex, and robot reliability on both subjective and objective responses of trust. These findings provide a strong foundation for future investigations on better understanding the relationship between human factors and trust in HRC as well as aid in developing more diagnostic and deployable measures of trust.


Assuntos
Robótica , Confiança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Confiança/psicologia , Robótica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103869, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055036

RESUMO

Static biomechanical simulations are sometimes used to estimate in vivo kinetic demands because they can be solved efficiently, but this ignores any potential inertial effects. To date, comparisons between static and dynamic analyses of spinal demands have been limited to lumbar joint differences in young males performing sagittal lifts. Here we compare static and dynamic vertebral compressive and shear force estimates during axial, lateral, and sagittal lifting tasks across all thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in older men and women. Participant-specific thoracolumbar full-body musculoskeletal models estimated vertebral forces from recorded kinematics both with and without consideration of dynamic effects, at an identified frame of peak vertebral loading. Static analyses under-predicted dynamic compressive and resultant shear forces, by an average of about 16% for all three lifts across the thoracic and lumbar spine but were highly correlated with dynamic forces (average r2 > .95). The study outcomes have the potential to enable standard clinical and occupational estimates using static analyses.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares , Postura , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Suporte de Carga , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Região Lombossacral , Modelos Biológicos
12.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107464, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As daily engagement with social networking sites (SNS) increases globally, identifying and understanding the risk factors associated with problematic SNS use is of utmost importance. Researchers are interested in understanding internalizing symptoms as both a risk factor and a negative consequence of problematic SNS use. Prior research has proposed rumination alongside internalizing symptoms as a risk factor, though limited research has examined these associations across different cultures. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the indirect associations between internalizing symptoms (specifically depressive and social anxiety symptoms) and problematic SNS use via rumination among a cross-cultural sample. METHOD: Participants were 8,912 (70.8 % female; Mean age = 20.25, SD = 3.95) college students recruited across seven countries (U.S., Canada, Spain, England, Argentina, Uruguay, and South Africa) who completed measures of internalizing symptoms, rumination, weekly SNS use, and problematic SNS use. RESULTS: We found that higher internalizing symptoms were associated with more problematic SNS use via higher ruminative thinking. Specifically, problem-focused thoughts (a rumination subtype) uniquely accounted for 22.89% and 28.15% of the total effect of depressive and social anxiety symptoms on problematic SNS use, respectively. Other rumination subtypes (i.e., anticipatory thoughts and repetitive thinking) also demonstrated significant indirect effects, though weaker effects than for problem-focused thoughts. Findings were invariant across countries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for further exploring the role rumination plays in determining and comparing problematic SNS use cross-culturally in longitudinal and experimental work.


Assuntos
Rede Social , Estudantes , Adulto , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Uruguai/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107462, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084413

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that females respond more favourably to baclofen treatment for alcohol use disorder. Females are generally more likely to drink to regulate stress reactivity and negative affect. This study thus aimed to evaluate the role of sex on the effect of baclofen on the relationship between daily alcohol consumption, stress and craving. METHODS: A network analysis of fluctuations using vectorized autoregressive modelling was used to explore the relationship between daily surveys of alcohol consumption, stress and craving from daily diary data over 84 days from a randomised controlled trial of baclofen (30 mg or 75 mg per day) versus placebo in 104 participants with alcohol dependence (1, 2). Symptom interrelations across patients and across time were examined including temporal networks (time lagged), contemporaneous and between-subjects networks, and were examined for placebo and baclofen stratified by sex. RESULTS: Overall, between persons, there was a significant relationship between stress and drinking in placebo treated individuals in females (r = -0.70, p < 0.001) but not males (r = 0.32, p = 0.054) that was not observed in baclofen treated individuals. No relationship was observed between stress and drinking in the baclofen group for either sex (p's < 0.45). DISCUSSION: There appears to be some sex-specific differences whereby baclofen abolishes an overall association between stress and drinking in females, but this is not observed in males. Network analyses may assist in elucidating the mechanism of action of alcohol pharmacotherapies such as baclofen and understanding which symptoms and mechanisms are key for effective interventions.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Baclofeno , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Baclofeno/farmacologia , Baclofeno/uso terapêutico , Fissura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
14.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114090, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057378

RESUMO

Despite the higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women, the majority of preclinical research has been conducted utilizing male subjects. We have found that male rats exposed to the predator scent 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT) show heterogenous long-term anxiety-like behavior and conditioned fear to the TMT environment. Stress-Resilient males exhibit increased mGlu5 mRNA expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we sought to determine whether the same behavioral and genetic responses would be observed in female rats exposed to TMT. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to TMT for ten minutes, while Controls were exposed to an unscented environment. Anxiety and anhedonia were assessed 7-14 days later with elevated plus maze (EPM), acoustic startle response, light-dark box, and sucrose preference test (SPT). TMT-exposed females spent less time in the EPM open arms, exhibited greater startle amplitude, and reduced sucrose intake compared to Controls. Median split analyses conducted on EPM and SPT data yielded stress-Susceptible and -Resilient phenotypes that displayed behavior in the light-dark box consistent with EPM and SPT behavior. Susceptible females displayed greater BLA mGlu5 mRNA expression than Resilient and Control rats and did not show conditioned fear, in contrast to previous results in males. Resilient females displayed greater mGlu5 mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. These data indicate that the predator scent stress model of PTSD produces distinct stress-Susceptible and Resilient phenotypes in female rats that are associated with changes in mGlu5 mRNA expression in several brain regions.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo
15.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114087, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of alcohol analgesia and tolerance can facilitate misuse and lead to the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Numerous alcohol-induced behaviors are genetically influenced; however, it is unknown if alcohol analgesia has a genetic contribution. Rodent studies have shown that alcohol responses differ vastly between two widely studied inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 J (B6) and DBA/2 J (D2). Here, we used B6 and D2 mice as an initial behavioral genetic analysis of acute alcohol-induced antinociception. METHODS: The antinociceptive effect of orally-administered alcohol was characterized using the hot plate test in B6 and D2 mice of both sexes. Using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, the involvement of the opioid system was assessed. Locomotor activity and blood alcohol concentrations were also measured. Ovariectomized mice were used to evaluate the influence of ovarian sex hormones on alcohol-induced antinociception. RESULTS: Alcohol induced an antinociceptive effect in B6 and D2 male mice in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, D2 male mice were more sensitive to the antinociceptive effect of alcohol than B6 male mice. However, locomotion is not impeded by the tested doses of alcohol in B6 mice. Female D2 and B6 mice failed to show significant antinociceptive effects in alcohol dose-response studies. In addition, alcohol-induced antinociception was still not evident in ovariectomized female mice. Male mice of both strains developed tolerance to this effect after repeated administration of alcohol. Strain differences were found in blood alcohol concentration. Finally, no difference was found in the blockade of alcohol antinociception by 2 mg/kg naloxone. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the antinociceptive effects of alcohol in the hot plate test are influenced by strain and sex. These findings support further genetic analysis of alcohol-induced antinociception to identify operative mechanisms and better assess the contribution of this phenotype to AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114089, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063970

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) present with a disrupted glutamatergic system that underlies core components of addictive disorders, including drug relapse and low impulse control. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a cystine prodrug that has been found to promote glutamate homeostasis and drug abstinence. However, no studies to date have evaluated NAC's effect on impulsivity in substance use disorders. Here we determined whether NAC would decrease alcohol-intake behaviors, in addition to improving impulse control, in long-term alcohol drinking male Wistar-Han rats. Before the start of the experiments, all rats were exposed to long-term intermittent access to 20% ethanol for at least seven weeks. Next, in different groups of rats, the effect of NAC (60 and/or 90 mg/kg) was evaluated on (i) voluntary alcohol drinking using a two-bottle free choice paradigm, (ii) the motivation to self-administer alcohol under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, and (iii) relapse-like drinking using the alcohol deprivation effect model. Finally, (iv) NAC's effect on impulse control was evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task. Results showed that NAC administration at 90 mg/kg significantly reduced relapse-like drinking and improved impulse control. In contrast, NAC had no effect on levels of alcohol drinking or motivation to drink alcohol. In conclusion, our findings continue to support the use of NAC as an adjuvant treatment for the maintenance of abstinence in AUD. Moreover, we provide evidence for NAC's efficacy in improving impulse control following drinking, which warrants further investigation in substance use settings.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Pró-Fármacos , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cistina , Etanol/farmacologia , Glutamatos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Recidiva , Autoadministração
17.
Zool Res ; 44(1): 63-77, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317480

RESUMO

Stearyl coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), also known as delta-9 desaturase, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the formation of monounsaturated fatty acids. In mammals, depletion or inhibition of SCD activity generally leads to a decrease in triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. However, the endogenous role of scd in teleost fish remains unknown. Here, we generated a zebrafish scd mutant (scd-/-) to elucidate the role of scd in lipid metabolism and sexual development. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the scd-/- mutants had increased levels of saturated fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0, and decreased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids C16:1 and C18:1. The mutant fish displayed a short stature and an enlarged abdomen during development. Unlike Scd-/- mammals, the scd-/- zebrafish showed significantly increased fat accumulation in the whole body, especially in the liver, leading to hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and severe cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, srebf1, a gene encoding a transcriptional activator related to adipogenesis, acc1 and acaca, genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, and dgat2, a key gene involved in triglyceride synthesis, were significantly upregulated in mutant livers to activate fatty acid biosynthesis and adipogenesis. The scd-/- males exhibited defective natural mating behavior due to defective genital papillae but possessed functional mature sperm. All defects in the scd-/- mutants could be rescued by ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of scd. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that scd is indispensable for maintaining lipid homeostasis and development of secondary sexual characteristics in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase , Peixe-Zebra , Masculino , Animais , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Mamíferos
18.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 96(1): 19-32, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698745

RESUMO

We examine the relationship between having an emotionally close and active father in an adult child's social network compared to having a father who is not close, or a father who was not named. We hypothesize that fathers provide both essential and important contributions to their children's psychosocial development, and those contributions continue into active adulthood. Using the 2015 UC Berkeley Social Networks Study (UCNets), we find that adult children who name an emotionally close father in their network tend to have more males as social ties, but not more female ties. We conclude that fathers continue to play an important and active role in their children's lives long after childhood.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Pai , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Criança , Pai/psicologia , Rede Social , Poder Familiar
19.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104739, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174954

RESUMO

This study evaluates how long-term dietary low ω6:ω3 ratio in sows and offspring's seaweed (SW) intake affects piglet intestinal function and growth through modifying ileum proteome. Sows were assigned to either control diet (CR, ω6:ω3 ratio = 13:1) or treatment diet (LR, ω6:ω3 = 4:1) during gestation and lactation (n = 8 each). The male weaned offspring were received a basal diet with or without SW powder supplementation (4 g/kg) for 21 days, denoted as SW and CT groups, respectively. In total, four groups of weaned piglets were formed following maternal and offspring's diets combination, represented by CRCT, CRSW, LRCT, and LRSW (n = 10 each). Piglet ileum tissue was collected on day 22 post-weaning and analysed using TMT-based quantitative proteomics. The differentially abundant proteins (n = 300) showed the influence of maternal LR diet on protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell cycle regulation. In contrast, the SW diet lowered the inflammation severity and promoted ileal tissue development in CRSW piglets but reduced the fat absorption capacity in LRSW piglets. These results uncovered the mechanism behind the anti-inflammation and intestinal-boosting effects of maternal LR diet in piglets supplemented with SW.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Alga Marinha , Suínos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Proteômica , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactação , Íleo , Verduras , Ração Animal/análise
20.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104740, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191802

RESUMO

This study examines whether maternal low ω6:ω3 ratio diet and offspring SW supplementation can improve offspring immunity and performance by elucidating the effects on piglet serum proteome. A total of 16 sows were given either a standard (CR, 13:1) or low ω6:ω3 ratio diet (LR, 4:1) during pregnancy and lactation and their male weaned piglets were supplemented with SW powder (4 g/kg, SW) or not (CT) in a 21-day post-weaning (PW) diet. Four PW piglet groups were then identified based on dam and piglet treatment, namely CRCT, CRSW, LRCT, and LRSW (n = 10 each). Piglet serum collected at weaning and d21 PW were analysed (n = 5 each) using TMT-based quantitative proteomics and validated by appropriate assays. The differentially abundant proteins (n = 122) displayed positive effects of maternal LR diet on anti-inflammatory properties and innate immune stimulation. Progeny SW diet activated the innate immunity and enhance the host defence during inflammation. These data demonstrate the value of decreasing ω6:ω3 ratio in maternal diet and SW supplementation in PW piglet's diet to boost their immunity and anti-inflammation properties. SIGNIFICANCE: This novel proteomic study in post-weaned piglets addresses the interplay between maternal and offspring nutritional interventions in a context of rapid and dynamic alterations in piglet metabolic status around weaning. Decreasing ω6:ω3 ratio in maternal diet and SW supplementation in PW piglet's diet can boost their immunity and anti-inflammation properties. This study also provides new insights into piglet serum proteome regulation during post-weaning, a critical development period in swine.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Proteoma , Proteômica , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Verduras , Ração Animal/análise
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