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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260092, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374644

RESUMO

Ground beetles (Carabid beetles) may be found in virtually all of the world's habitats. They are one of the three most diverse families of extant beetles, with 34,275 species documented, and they serve as vital ecological markers in all environments. Edaphic living beetles catch and eat a wide variety of arthropods that live in the soil. In the case of weeds, most of the ground beetles eat their seeds and help regulate their populations. The findings of a field study in agrocenoses in South-East Kazakhstan from 2019 to 2020 are presented in this article. Twenty-seven ground beetle species from 9 genera were discovered as a consequence of the study. 670 soil traps yielded a total of 1012 beetles. Polytopic mesophilic beetles provide the foundation of the agrocenoses fauna. Hygrophils, mesophiles, and eurybionts are among the beetles found in irrigated areas, as are mixed and herbivorous species. The Carabidae family of beetles is the most numerous in fields and steppe settings. As a result, mixed-diet beetles can be found depending on the habitat and air temperature. The species of beetles in all fields in the investigation area are in accordance with the insects' complex. During the growth season, the diet of beetles shifts: predatory beetles take precedence initially, followed by mixed-diet beetles.


Os besouros terrestres (besouros carabídeos) podem ser encontrados em praticamente todos os hábitats do mundo. Eles são uma das três famílias mais diversas de besouros existentes, com 34.275 espécies documentadas, e servem como marcadores ecológicos vitais em todos os ambientes. Os besouros vivos edáficos capturam e comem uma grande variedade de artrópodes que vivem no solo. No caso de ervas daninhas, os besouros terrestres, em sua maioria, comem sementes delas e ajudam a regular suas populações. Os resultados do estudo de campo em agrocenoses no sudeste do Cazaquistão de 2019 a 2020 são apresentados neste artigo. Foram descobertas 27 espécies de besouros terrestres de 9 gêneros como consequência do estudo. As 670 armadilhas de solo renderam um total de 1.012 besouros. Besouros mesófilos politópicos fornecem a base para a fauna de agrocenoses. Higrófilos, mesófilos e euribiontes estão entre os besouros encontrados em áreas irrigadas, assim como espécies mistas e herbívoras. Em campos e estepes, a família Carabidae de besouros é a mais numerosa. Como resultado, dependendo do hábitat e da temperatura do ar, podem ser encontrados besouros de dieta mista. As espécies de besouros em todos os campos da área de investigação estão de acordo com o complexo dos insetos. Durante a estação de crescimento, a dieta dos besouros muda: os besouros predadores têm precedência, seguidos dos besouros de dieta mista.


Assuntos
Animais , População , Besouros , Cultivos Agrícolas , Meio Ambiente , Plantas Daninhas , Biodiversidade
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257039, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364528

RESUMO

The active ingredient glyphosate is the most commercialized herbicide on the world market due to its capability in eliminating weeds. However, it can harm the development of non-target organisms and threaten environmental quality. This study analyzed the effects of potentially toxic concentrations of glyphosate on germination, growth, cell cycle and genomic stability of Lactuca sativa L., and identified the most sensitive variables for assessing the toxicity of this herbicide to this biomonitor. Seeds of L. sativa were germinated in Petri dishes containing a sheet of filter paper moistened with 5 mL of a concentration of glyphosate (1.34, 3.35, 6.70, 10.05, 13.40 mg L-1). Controls consisted of distilled water (negative) and 3 mg L-1 CuSO4 (positive). Macroscopic and microscopic variables were analyzed. The germination of L. sativa was not affected by the concentrations of glyphosate. Root length and shoot height of the plants and the mitotic index decreased from the lowest concentration tested on. The chromosomal anomaly index and frequency of micronuclei increased by 3.2 and 22 times, respectively, with the presence of the lowest concentration of glyphosate compared to the negative control. The observed phytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects demonstrate the negative influence that glyphosate has on the development of L. sativa. Root length and microscopic variables showed the highest sensitivity. This study warns of the possible harmful effects that glyphosate can have on non-target organisms and suggests greater control over the use of this herbicide to mitigate its environmental impact.


O ingrediente ativo glifosato é o herbicida mais comercializado do mercado mundial, pela sua capacidade de eliminar as plantas daninhas. No entanto, ele pode prejudicar o desenvolvimento dos organismos não-alvo e ameaçar a qualidade do ambiente. O estudo teve como objetivo analisar os efeitos de concentrações potencialmente tóxicas de glifosato sobre a germinação, o crescimento, o ciclo celular e a estabilidade genômica de Lactuca sativa L., e identificar as variáveis mais sensíveis para avaliar a toxicidade deste herbicida ao biomonitor. Sementes de L. sativa foram germinadas em placas de Petri contendo uma folha de papel-filtro umedecida com 5 mL das concentrações de glifosato (1,34, 3,35, 6,70, 10,05, 13,40 mg L-1). Os controles consistiram em água destilada (negativo) e 3 mg L-1 de CuSO4 (positivo). Variáveis macroscópicas e microscópicas foram analisadas. A germinação de L. sativa não foi afetada pelas concentrações de glifosato. O comprimento da raiz e a altura da parte aérea das plantas e o índice mitótico reduziram desde a menor concentração testada. O índice de anomalias cromossômicas e a frequência de micronúcleos aumentaram, respectivamente, 3,2 e 22 vezes na presença da menor concentração de glifosato em comparação ao controle negativo. Os efeitos fitotóxicos e citogenotóxicos observados demonstram a interferência negativa do herbicida no desenvolvimento de L. sativa. O comprimento da raiz e as variáveis microscópicas foram as que apresentaram maior sensibilidade. Este estudo alerta sobre os possíveis efeitos prejudiciais que o glifosato pode provocar nos organismos não-alvo, sugerindo um maior controle quanto à utilização deste herbicida, a fim de mitigar o seu impacto ambiental.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Toxicidade , Herbicidas
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257969, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364513

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Neste estudo, avaliamos a variação nos eventos fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de quatro espécies de plantas filogeneticamente relacionadas submetidas a um ambiente sazonal. Para isso, amostramos 15 indivíduos de cada espécie quinzenalmente, pelo período de um ano, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. Para avaliar quando uma determinada fenofase ocorreu de modo mais intenso na população foi utilizado o índice de intensidade de Fournier e a sincronia dos indivíduos da amostra em determinado evento fenológico foi estimada utilizando-se o índice de atividade. O teste de Rayleigh (Z) foi usado para determinar se os eventos fenológicos têm distribuição sazonal. A relação dos fatores abióticos (fotoperíodo, precipitação, temperatura e umidade relativa) com a intensidade das fenofases foi avaliada para cada espécie de planta usando modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs). As fenofases de todas as plantas apresentaram um padrão de distribuição sazonal, bem como variação na sincronia das fenofases e conjuntos específicos de fatores abióticos influenciaram significativamente suas fenofases. Folhas novas, por exemplo, foram produzidas ao longo das estações, com intensa queda de folhas na estação seca. Os períodos de floração, por outro lado, não se sobrepuseram. De fato, as espécies exibiram floração sequencial e floração assíncrona entre os indivíduos. Nossos resultados sugerem que os padrões fenológicos das quatro espécies de plantas simpátricas estão diretamente ligados às variáveis climáticas, mas diferentes fatores abióticos afetaram diferentes fenofases.


Assuntos
Plantas , Estações do Ano , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Simpatria/fisiologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253107, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355911

RESUMO

Abstract Life cycle assessment was carried out for a conventional wooden furniture set produced in Mardan division of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan during 2018-19. Primary data regarding inputs and outputs were collected through questionnaire surveys from 100 conventional wooden furniture set manufacturers, 50 in district Mardan and 50 in district Swabi. In the present study, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach was applied for a functional unit of one conventional wooden furniture set. Production weighted average data were modelled in the environmental impacts modelling software i.e., SimaPro v.8.5. The results showed that textile used in sofa set, wood preservative for polishing and preventing insects attack and petrol used in generator had the highest contribution to all the environmental impact categories evaluated. Total cumulative energy demand for wooden furniture set manufactured was 30,005 MJ with most of the energy acquired from non-renewable fossil fuel resources.


Resumo A abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida foi realizada para um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional produzido na divisão Mardan da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa do Paquistão durante 2018-19. Os dados primários sobre entradas e saídas foram coletados por meio de pesquisas por questionário de 100 fabricantes de conjuntos de móveis de madeira convencionais, 50 no distrito de Mardan e 50 no distrito de Swabi. No presente estudo, a abordagem de avaliação do ciclo de vida do berço ao portão foi aplicada para uma unidade funcional de um conjunto de móveis de madeira convencional. Os dados da média ponderada da produção foram modelados no software de modelagem de impactos ambientais, isto é, SimaPro v.8.5. Os resultados mostraram que os têxteis usados ​​no conjunto de sofás, o preservativo de madeira para polir e prevenir o ataque de insetos e a gasolina usada no gerador tiveram a maior contribuição em todas as categorias de impacto ambiental avaliadas. A demanda total acumulada de energia para o conjunto de móveis de madeira fabricado foi de 30.005 MJ, com a maior parte da energia adquirida de recursos de combustíveis fósseis não renováveis.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Paquistão
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 318: 115634, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621085

RESUMO

Research shows mental health is impacted by poor-quality physical and social-environmental conditions. Subsequently state-led redevelopment/regeneration schemes focus on improving the physical environment, to provide better social-environmental conditions, addressing spatial and socioeconomic inequities thus improving residents' health. However, recent research suggests that redevelopment/regeneration schemes often trigger gentrification, resulting in new spatial and socioeconomic inequalities that may worsen health outcomes, including mental health, for long-term neighborhood residents. Using the right to the city and situating this within the framework of accumulation by dispossession and capitalist hegemony, this paper explores the potential mechanisms in which poor mental health outcomes may endure in neighborhoods despite the implementation of redevelopment/regeneration projects. To do so, we explored two neighborhoods in the city of Glasgow - North Glasgow and East End - and conducted a strong qualitative study based on 25 in-depth semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. The results show that postindustrial vacant and derelict land spaces and socioeconomic deprivation in North and East Glasgow are potential mechanisms contributing to the poor mental health of its residents. Where redevelopment/regeneration projects prioritize economic goals, it is often at the expense of social(health) outcomes. Instead, economic investment instigates processes of gentrification, where long-term neighborhood residents are excluded from accessing collective urban life and its (health) benefits. Moreover, these residents are continually excluded from participation in decision-making and are unable to shape the urban environment. In summary, we found a number of potential mechanisms that may contribute to enduring poor mental health outcomes despite the existence of redevelopment/regeneration projects. Projects instead have negative consequences for the determinants of mental health, reinforcing existing inequalities, disempowering original long-term neighborhood residents and only providing the "right" to the unhealthy deprived city. We define this as the impossibility to benefit from material opportunities, public spaces, goods and services and the inability to shape city transformations.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Características de Residência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679638

RESUMO

A novel technique using a W-band metasurface for the purpose of transmissive fine powder layer sensing is presented. The proposed technique may allow for the detection, identification, and characterization of inhomogeneous ultrafine powder layers which are effectively hundreds of times thinner than the incident wavelengths used to sense them. Such a technique may be useful during personnel screening processes (i.e., at an airport) and in industrial manufacturing environments where early detection and quantization of harmful airborne particulates can be a matter of security or safety. The proposed sensing technique was experimentally and theoretically tested. The results suggest that, using this technique, one may identify, extract the effective complex dielectric properties, and measure the layer thicknesses of ultrafine powder layers present on a metasurface. Using this technique, it may be possible to identify and characterize diverse media in various physical, chemical, and biological metasurface sensing efforts at numerous bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Assuntos
Comércio , Meio Ambiente , Pós
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673921

RESUMO

There are many frequent landslide areas in China, which badly affect local people. Since the 1980s, there have been more than 200 landslides in China with a death toll of 30 or more people at a time, economic losses of more than CNY 10 million or significant social impact. Therefore, the study of landslide displacement prediction is very important. The traditional ARIMA and LSTM models are commonly used for forecasting time series data. In our study, a multivariable LSTM landslide displacement prediction model is proposed based on the traditional LSTM model, which integrates rainfall and reservoir water level data. Taking the Baijiabao landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir area as an example, the data of displacement, rainfall and reservoir water level of monitoring point ZG323 from November 2006 to December 2012 were selected for this study. Our results show that the displacement prediction results of the multivariable LSTM model are more accurate than those of the ARIMA and the univariate LSTM models, and the mean square, root mean square and mean absolute errors are the smallest, which are 0.64223, 0.8014 and 0.50453 mm, respectively. Therefore, the multivariable LSTM model method has higher accuracy and better application prospects in the displacement prediction of the Baijiabao landslide, which can provide a certain reference for the displacement prediction of the same type of landslide.


Assuntos
Deslizamentos de Terra , Humanos , Meio Ambiente , China , Previsões , Água
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673952

RESUMO

People are increasingly concerned with natural environment quality (NEQ) as well as recreation services (RS) as the popularity of natural experiences grows. Specifically, public spaces in ecologically sensitive areas must achieve coordinated eco-recreational development. Waterfront spaces fall into this category, providing a high-quality natural environment and facilitating various recreational activities. This paper uses two waterfront spaces, Foshan New City Riverfront Park and Nanhai Qiandeng Lake Park, as sample sites, divides 22 waterfront space samples into specific research objects, introduces dual variables for RS function and NEQ, and uses mathematical and statistical methods, such as Pearson correlation analysis, coupling coordination degree calculation, and redundancy analysis, to investigate the influence of different waterfront spaces on RS function and NEQ. Finally, we propose an optimization strategy for coupling and coordinating the development of the RS function and the NEQ of waterfront space. This paper found the following: (1) RS (number of public facilities) and natural environment quality (shoreline curvature) are the dominant factors in the vitality of waterfront space; (2) optimization of RS function will restrict the development of NEQ to a certain extent; and (3) the coupling and coordination of NEQ and RS function are positively related to the vitality of waterfront space. This study can be valuable for government officials and waterfront space planners as they develop social-ecological synergy models.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Logradouros Públicos , Humanos , Cidades , Acidentes por Quedas , China
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674042

RESUMO

Absolute poverty has historically been solved in China, and the focus on poor areas has shifted to addressing relative poverty. To realize the organic combination of the rural revitalization strategy and relative poverty governance, multi-dimensional relative poverty identification and governance path research at the village scale in an alpine-gorge region is required. For this study, the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture's research area in a typical alpine-gorge was chosen. This paper constructed an evaluation index system for the rural regional system based on location conditions, ecological environment, productive resources, economic base, and public service, based on the theory of multi-dimensional regional poverty and the human-land relationship. The level of poverty, types of poverty, and spatial distribution characteristics of 255 administrative villages were systematically analyzed, and poverty governance paths were proposed. The results show that: (1) There were 215 multi-dimensional relative poverty villages in Nujiang Prefecture, accounting for 84.31% of the total. The relatively poor villages with poverty grades I and II, which are classified as mild poverty, account for 77.21% of all poor villages; this demonstrated that the relatively poor villages in Nujiang Prefecture had a high potential for poverty alleviation. (2) There are 19 different types of constraints in poor villages. Grades III and IV poor villages were mostly found in high-altitude areas. The economic foundation was very weak, the infrastructure was imperfect, the land use type was relatively single, and traffic conditions were relatively backward. (3) The priority model accounted for 16.67% of relative poverty governance, the steady improvement accounted for 28.79%, and key support accounted for 54.54%. Relative poverty governance paths for various counties have been proposed, including rural revitalization priority demonstration, ecological environment governance, eco-tourism, modern agriculture + mountain agroforestry, and improved people's livelihood and well-being. The findings provided scientific support and direction for future research on the mode and course of relative poverty governance in poor villages in the alpine-gorge area, as well as the rural revitalization strategy's implementation.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Pobreza , Humanos , População Rural , China
11.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 72, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between the local food environment, diet and diet-related disease is mixed, particularly in the UK. One reason may be the use of more distal outcomes such as weight status and cardiovascular disease, rather than more proximal outcomes such as food purchasing. This study explores associations between food environment exposures and food and drink purchasing for at-home and out-of-home (OOH) consumption. METHODS: We used item-level food and drink purchase data for London and the North of England, UK, drawn from the 2019 Kantar Fast Moving Consumer Goods panel to assess associations between food environment exposures and household-level take-home grocery (n=2,118) and individual-level out-of-home (n=447) food and drink purchasing. Density, proximity and relative composition measures were created for both supermarkets and OOH outlets (restaurants and takeaways) using a 1 km network buffer around the population-weighted centroid of households' home postcode districts. Associations between food environment exposure measures and frequency of take-home food and drink purchasing, total take-home calories, calories from fruits and vegetables, high fat, salt and sugar products, and ultra-processed foods (UPF), volume of take-home alcoholic beverages, and frequency of OOH purchasing were modelled using negative binomial regression adjusted for area deprivation, population density, and individual and household socio-economic characteristics. RESULTS: There was some evidence for an inverse association between distance to OOH food outlets and calories purchased from ultra-processed foods (UPF), with a 500 m increase in distance to the nearest OOH outlet associated with a 1.1% reduction in calories from UPF (IR=0.989, 95%CI 0.982-0.997, p=0.040). There was some evidence for region-specific effects relating to purchased volumes of alcohol. However, there was no evidence for an overall association between food environment exposures and take-home and OOH food and drink purchasing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some evidence for exposure to OOH outlets and UPF purchases, this study finds limited evidence for the impact of the food environment on household food and drink purchasing. Nonetheless, region-specific effects regarding alcohol purchasing indicate the importance of geographical context for research and policy.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comércio , Meio Ambiente , Alimentos , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Restaurantes , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
12.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280035, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634104

RESUMO

This paper takes the specific environment covered by vegetation as the research object, carries out modeling and analysis, takes the large-scale fading model of wireless channel as the basis of data processing, researches the transmission law of electromagnetic wave in a typical vegetation environment, which can be divided into four situations. The signal attenuation in each case is theoretically derived and numerically simulated. From the view point of supporting vegetation environment channel, the large-scale channel measurement system is built to meet the actual needs, such as bandwidth, frequency, vegetation coverage, etc. the final vegetation environment channel model under the large-scale fading model is obtained. The results show that the path gain of four scenarios respectively are 81.3 dB, 36.5 dB, 1.6 dB, 1.5 dB, the value of path gain index is within the range of 2~3.5, four scenarios shadow fading standard deviation values are 7.1, 4.8, 10.1, 9.2, reflects the change of received power at the point caused by random factors such as reflection, absorption and scattering. In addition, the proposed channel model improves the gain about 15% compared with the tradition SUI model within vegetation coverage scene. The design process of the proposed model is carried out in the order of "studied the existing foundation → analyzed the existing problems → proposed the optimization scheme → simulation and verification results → actual measurement system". The advantage of paper's method is that, when the signal frequency, transceiver distance, antenna height and vegetation environment characteristic parameters are given, the statistical analysis results of wireless channel data are obtained. The purpose of the proposed work establishes a signal propagation prediction model under the vegetation environment, realizes a theoretical basis for channel simulation, and provides the basis of anti-fading technologies.


Assuntos
Radiação Eletromagnética , Modelos Teóricos , Simulação por Computador , Análise de Dados , Meio Ambiente
13.
Environ Microbiol ; 25(1): 59-63, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655714
14.
Biol Lett ; 19(1): 20220448, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596464

RESUMO

Urbanization creates novel ecosystems comprised of species assemblages and environments with no natural analogue. Moreover, irrigation can alter plant function compared to non-irrigated systems. However, the capacity of irrigation to alter functional trait patterns across multiple species is unknown but may be important for the dynamics of urban ecosystems. We evaluated the hypothesis that urban irrigation influences plasticity in functional traits by measuring carbon-gain and water-use traits of 30 tree species planted in Southern California, USA spanning a coastal-to-desert gradient. Tree species respond to irrigation through increasing the carbon-gain trait relationship of leaf nitrogen per specific leaf area compared to their native habitat. Moreover, most species shift to a water-use strategy of greater water loss through stomata when planted in irrigated desert-like environments compared to coastal environments, implying that irrigated species capitalize on increased water availability to cool their leaves in extreme heat and high evaporative demand conditions. Therefore, irrigated urban environments increase the plasticity of trait responses compared to native ecosystems, allowing for novel response to climatic variation. Our results indicate that trees grown in water-resource-rich urban ecosystems can alter their functional traits plasticity beyond those measured in native ecosystems, which can lead to plant trait dynamics with no natural analogue.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Meio Ambiente , Carbono , Água/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 220, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604527

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that exposure to immersive virtual nature environments is able to induce positive affective and physiological effects. However, research on the effects on cognitive performance is scarce. Additionally, the effects of virtual nature exposure compared to a virtual control environment with a comparable amount of virtual objects have not been examined so far. Therefore, we conducted an experiment with 27 participants to study the psychological effects of such exposure. The virtual nature consisted of a 3D model of a typical forest environment, whereas the control environment was an abstract replication of the virtual forest environment. In both environments, a virtual wooden cart was used to transport the users from the start to the end of the virtual road. The typical background noise of moving such a cart was integrated into both environments as well. In addition, the virtual nature environment included typical forest sounds in the background, whereas the control condition did not have such background sounds. Both environments were compared with regard to their effects on cognitive performance (using trail making tests (TMTA, TMTB, and TMTB-A) as well as digit span forward and digit span backward tests), perceived restorativeness, mood, stress, sense of presence, and simulator sickness. The results showed that in comparison to the control environment, exposure to the virtual nature resulted in significantly higher cognitive performance, higher perceived restorativeness, higher positive affect, higher sense of presence, lower perceived stress, and lower simulator sickness.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cognição , Humanos , Meio Ambiente
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674375

RESUMO

As a great practice of building a community of shared future for mankind, the Belt and Road Initiative is facing geopolitical risk brought by great power games, regional conflicts and terrorism. It is an important mission of geopolitical research to scientifically deal with the geopolitical risk along the Belt and Road. This study systematically constructs the geopolitical risk assessment index system and analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution, obstacle factors and risk types of geopolitical risk of countries along the Belt and Road by using the entropy weight TOPSIS model, obstacle degree model and minimum variance method. The research results showed that: (1) From 2005 to 2020, the polarization of geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road was very significant, and the overall trend of geopolitical risk tended to deteriorate. (2) The Middle East and Eastern Europe were the most important geopolitical risk zones along the Belt and Road, and Afghanistan, Iraq, Russia and Ukraine were the main high geopolitical risk centers, with significant risk spillover effects from these centers. (3) Terrorism and close relations with the United States were the most important obstacle factors for geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road, and military intervention politics, trade dependence degree and foreign debt burden were important obstacle factors for geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road. (4) Geopolitical risk along the Belt and Road can be divided into sovereign risk dominant type, sovereign and military risk dominant type, sovereign and major power intervention risk dominant type, and sovereign and military and major power intervention risk jointly dominated type, among which sovereign and military and major power intervention risk jointly dominated type was the most important geopolitical risk type. In order to scientifically deal with geopolitical risk in countries along the Belt and Road, it is necessary to strengthen geopolitical risk awareness, pay attention to the dominant geopolitical risk factors, strengthen the control of regional geopolitical risk spillover and formulate reasonable risk prevention and control scheme based on geopolitical risk types.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Afeganistão , China , Europa Oriental , Iraque , Oriente Médio , Ucrânia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673994

RESUMO

Spending time in the natural outdoor environment is a part of a healthy lifestyle. This study focused on identifying elements of green infrastructure that have a positive impact on both increasing physical activity, spending time outdoors and improving overall health. The aim of the research was to identify which elements of the settlement units' green and blue infrastructure, related to residents' preferences for greenery, influence more physical activity and spending time in green spaces and improve the healthy feeling of users as perceived by respondents. A total of 721 respondents from Poland took part in the survey. Using multiple regression models, the factors that influence an increase in outdoor physical activity Green Physical Activity Index (GPAI) were: using green spaces for exercise, spending time outdoors, exposure to nature and sufficiently large amounts of green space in the neighborhood and proximity to places to walk the dog. In contrast, physical activity has been shown to improve feeling healthy (health declaration). The main findings show that the increase in physical activity outdoors (GPAI) is positively influenced by factors related to respondents' reasons for being outdoors, rather than the attractiveness and availability of green infrastructure. The research confirmed the necessity of arranging green areas with rich offerings in terms of a variety of activities for leisure visitors, to give them more opportunities for being outdoors.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Caminhada , Nível de Saúde , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Humanos
18.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): R44-R48, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693303

RESUMO

Intensive agriculture is reliant on pesticides to control crop pests, but these chemicals can have negative environmental consequences. This has resulted in repeated calls for pesticide risk assessments to be modified to better protect ecosystem services such as pollination. However, the pesticide licensing process is complex, and consequently there is often confusion between risk assessments where the environmental impact of pesticide use is considered, and risk management where licensing decisions are made. Using bees as a case study, we provide a roadmap for how pesticides are licensed for use in the European Union. By outlining the regulatory process, we highlight key data gaps that need to be addressed to generate a holistic approach to environmental risk assessment. Such an approach is vital to protect pollinators and wildlife more broadly from the unintended consequences of pesticide use.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Medição de Risco , Polinização
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673693

RESUMO

The physical environment of airports plays a crucial role in improving travelers' perceptions and well-being. Adopting a green physical environment may elicit customers' cognitive and emotional responses and provide a convenient consumption environment. Brand experience and engagement are other important consumer-firm interactions that influence the attributes of the passengers' well-being. The current study sought to assess the impact of the eco-design of buildings, brand experience and engagement on the well-being of travelers at an international airport in Saudi Arabia. Additionally, the current study investigated the possible effects of eco-design on airport experience and engagement. The results of the structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the eco-design of airport buildings was independently associated with passengers' well-being and brand engagement, but not with brand experience. Additionally, well-being was significantly predicted by brand engagement and experience. Airport managers are advised to adopt an internal eco-design to help promote passengers' connection with the brand and improve their well-being, which would eventually be reflected in their behavioral attributes and decision-making.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Meio Ambiente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Emoções , Arábia Saudita
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673762

RESUMO

Rising childhood myopia rate has detrimental health consequences that pose a considerable challenge to health systems. The school spatial environment, which is where students are for the longest period of time, has a high health value for myopia systematic intervention. While research has demonstrated associations between physical daylight environments, medical gene and visual health, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence that will act as a spatially-organized resource for school designers. This study is based on literature from the period 2000-2022 and has been taken from the Web of Science, scopus, Medline and CNKI core collection database. Collaboration, literature co-citation and quantitative and qualitative analysis, in addition to keyword co-occurrence are adopted to conduct a visual health research review. The results indicate that intensive near work activity (as a risk factor) and longer time spent outdoors (as a protective factor), are involved in visual health factors. Two main research themes are obtained and relate to: (1) The environment of visual work behavior (especially the near work learning environment) and adaptable multimedia learning environment; and (2) the environment of outdoor exposure behavior. Furthermore, with the variation of educational demands, models and concepts, there are different demands for near work behavior, and this study makes an important contribution by pointing to two future research directions, including the accurate and controllable environment of near work behavior, which operate in accordance with various educational mode requirements and the active design of the environment of outdoor exposure behavior. In referring to differences between regions and countries, as well as the development of the educational environment, it provides insight into how these demands can be controlled.


Assuntos
Menores de Idade , Miopia , Humanos , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
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