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1.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112004, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greenness exposure may lower blood pressure. However, few studies of this relationship have been conducted with children and adolescents, especially in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children and adolescents across China. METHODS: We recruited 61,229 Chinese citizens aged 6-18 years from 94 schools in a nationwide cross-sectional study in seven Chinese provinces/province-level municipalities. Participants' blood pressures and hypertension were assessed with standardized protocols. Greenness levels within 500 m and 1,000 m of each school were estimated with three satellite-based indices: vegetation continuous fields (VCF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between greenness and blood pressure, greenness and prevalent hypertension, using coefficient and odds ratio respectively. Stratified analyses and mediation analyses were also performed. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in greenness was associated with a 17%-20% reduced prevalence of hypertension for all measures of greenness (odds ratios for VCF500m = 20% (95% CI:18%, 23%); for NDVI500m = 17% (95% CI:13%, 21%); and for SAVI500m = 17% (95% CI: 13%, 20%). Increases in greenness were also associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (0.48-0.58 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (0.26-0.52 mmHg). Older participants, boys, and urban dwellers showed stronger associations than their counterparts. No evidence of mediation was observed for air pollution (i.e., NO2 and PM2.5) and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Higher greenness around schools may lower blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension among Chinese children and adolescents, particularly in older subjects, boys, and those living in urban districts. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are needed to examine causality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Pressão Sanguínea , Meio Ambiente , Hipertensão , Plantas , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150751, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619201

RESUMO

China produces vast amounts of food waste every year. However, the environmental impact of the current treatment of food waste and its potential for improvement are not very clear. Therefore, this study applied life cycle assessment to compare the current major treatment options for food waste and to systematically quantify the environmental impact of current and future food waste treatment in China based on the amount and treatment mode of food waste. In 2020, 125 million tons (Mt) of food waste was generated in China. Its treatment consumed 30.1 Mt oil-Eq of fossil fuels and 16.7 Mt of freshwater, and released 37.5 Mt of CO2-Eq. A promising finding was that if the proportion of food waste treated by anaerobic digestion exceeded 40% and landfilling was terminated by 2050, most impact categories would be reduced by more than 50%. Although anaerobic digestion is a potentially more environmentally friendly treatment option due to more output of energy and resources, it is worth noting that it consumed more freshwater than incineration and landfilling. Electricity consumption contributed more than 50% of the environmental burden of anaerobic digestion. Therefore, for the upstream of anaerobic digestion, China should further implement policies of waste classification and promote zero-waste cities, so that less impurities and more food waste would enter anaerobic digestion instead of landfills. Whereas downstream, the resource utilization of biogas and digestate enhance should be enhanced so as to strengthen the environmental sustainability of anaerobic digestion.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Alimentos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149845, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455278

RESUMO

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) relies on rigorous scientific assessment of all potential causal pathways by which large-scale developments may impact on valued assets in a region. Despite their importance to informed decision-making, many EIAs are flawed by incomplete analysis of causal pathways, limited spatial assessment and a lack of transparency about how risks have been evaluated across the region. To address these, we describe an EIA methodology based on network analysis of potential causal pathways in a given region. This network approach is coupled with a systematic evaluation of the likelihood, consequence and mitigation options for each causal pathway from one or more human activities to multiple valued assets. The method includes analysis of the confidence in these evaluations, recognizing where knowledge gaps constrain assessments of risks to particular assets. The causal network approach is complemented by a spatially explicit analysis of the region that allows residual risk (i.e. risk remaining after all feasible mitigations) to be mapped for all valued assets. This identifies which activities could lead to potential impacts of varying concern (rated from 'very low' to 'very high'), their likely pathways, which valued assets are at risk and where these residual risks are greatest. The output maps reveal 'risk hotspots' where more detailed local-scale assessments and monitoring should focus. The method is demonstrated by application to potential impacts on 8 valued assets (aquifers, ecosystems and protected species) due to unconventional gas resource development in the Cooper Basin, central Australia. Results show which activities and causal pathways are of potential concern to different valued assets and where residual risk is greatest for particular species and ecosystems. This spatial causal network provides a systematic, consistent and transparent assessment of potential impacts, improving the quality of decision-making about planned developments and their environmental risks.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Austrália , Humanos , Medição de Risco
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149991, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482137

RESUMO

The green powering of electrochemically-assisted soil remediation processes had been strongly discouraged. Low remediation efficiencies have been reported as a consequence of the reversibility of the transport processes when no power is applied to the electrodes, due to the intermittent powering of renewable sources. However, it has been missed a deeper evaluation from the environmental point of view. This work goes further and seeks to quantify, using life cycle assessment tools, the environmental impacts related to the electro-kinetic treatments powered by different sources: grid (Spanish energy mix), photovoltaic and wind sources. The global warming potential and the ozone depletion showed higher environmental impacts in case of using green energies, associated with the manufacturing of the energy production devices. In contrast to that, results pointed out the lowest water consumption for the treatment powered with solar panels. The huge water requirements to produce energy, considering a Spanish energy mix, drop the sustainability of this powering strategy in terms of water footprint. Regarding toxicities, the pollutant toxicity was highly got rid of after 15 days of treatment, regardless the powering source used. Nevertheless, the manufacturing of energy and green energy production devices has a huge impact into the toxicity of the remediation treatments, increasing massively the total toxicity of the process, being this effect less prominent by the electro-kinetic treatment solar powered. In view of the overall environmental impact assessed, according to mid and endpoint impact categories, it can be claimed that, despite the high energy requirements and affectation to the global warming potential, the use of solar power is a more sustainable alternative to remediate polluted soils by electrochemical techniques.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Energia Solar , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Meio Ambiente , Solo , Vento
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150331, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571225

RESUMO

The stakeholders' perceptions on the impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) are critical for reducing exposure and influencing their response to interventions that are aimed at encouraging a behaviour change. A proper understanding of the UHI impacts on the society, economy and environment is deemed an essential motivating factor for the stakeholders to work towards UHI mitigations in the local context. This study adopted an inductive qualitative approach using Stakeholder Dialogue Sessions (SDSs) to assess the perceived impacts of UHI among various stakeholders, comprising policy makers, academicians, developers and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), in a tropical metropolitan city. The results revealed five themes such as deterioration of public health, acceleration of urban migration patterns and spending time in cooler areas, reduction of workers' productivity, increased energy consumption by the households and deterioration of environmental quality and natural resources that were categorized into social, economic and environmental impacts. Although most of the stakeholders were quite unfamiliar with the term UHI, they still display a good understanding of the potential impacts of UHI due to their posteriori knowledge and ability to rationalize the physical condition of the environment in which they live. The findings provide useful insights and valuable information to the local authorities to tailor necessary actions and educational campaigns to increase UHI awareness among the stakeholders. Being among the earlier studies to use a qualitative approach to attain the aforementioned objective, the findings are crucial to determine the level of understanding of the stakeholders on the impact of UHI. Through this study, the authors have highlighted the gaps and needs for knowledge improvements aimed at behaviour change among the stakeholders.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Temperatura Alta , Cidades , Humanos , Saúde Pública
6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118224, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600065

RESUMO

The consequence of the lockdowns implemented to address the COVID-19 pandemic on human health damage due to air pollution and other environmental issues must be better understood. This paper analyses the effect of reducing energy demand on the evolution of environmental impacts during the occurrence of 2020-lockdown periods in Italy, with a specific focus on life expectancy. An energy metabolism analysis is conducted based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of all monthly energy consumptions, by sector, category and province area in Italy between January 2015 to December 2020. Results show a general decrease (by ∼5% on average) of the LCA midpoint impact categories (global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, fine particulate matter formation, etc.) over the entire year 2020 when compared to past years. These avoided impacts, mainly due to reductions in fossil energy consumptions, are meaningful during the first lockdown phase between March and May 2020 (by ∼21% on average). Regarding the LCA endpoint damage on human health, ∼66 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per 100,000 inhabitants are estimated to be saved. The analysis shows that the magnitude of the officially recorded casualties is substantially larger than the estimated gains in human lives due to the environmental impact reductions. Future research could therefore investigate the complex cause-effect relationships between the deaths occurred in 2020 imputed to COVID-19 disease and co-factors other than the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Expectativa de Vida , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113931, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731950

RESUMO

"Cruising" is a concept which designates a practice of social interaction that consists of anonymous sexual encounters, mostly among homosexuals, in open and/or closed public spaces. Coastal dunes and beaches are examples of open public spaces where these sexual practices are widely carried out, to the extent that the so-called "Four S's" (Sand, Sun, Sea and Sex) have even been defined in the literature. Abundant studies have addressed the topic of relationships between tourism and sex, but few have analyzed the consequences of these practices on the natural environment, especially when the spaces where these activities take place are protected areas. In this work, the spatial distribution and the environmental impacts of cruising in a protected coastal dune system are characterized and assessed. There is no intention to criticize the actions of some of the LGBTI community. The sex spots (places for sexual encounters) were located and inventoried by fieldwork. The dimensions or internal distribution, as well as the sexual use, geographical position, vegetation cover and attributes, and environmental impacts or lack of management actions were examined and collated in a geographic information system (GIS). The results show that the distribution of the 298 identified sex spots, which occupy an area of 5763.85 m2, is related to the distance to authorized paths in the protected area, to the presence of bushy and dense vegetation, and to stabilized aeolian landforms or ones formed by vegetation (nebkhas). The bigger the sex spot, the higher the number of people who made use of it, the greater the likelihood of it being a low-lying area covered by vegetation, and the larger the amount of waste. The activities developed in these sex spots impact directly on the aeolian landforms and on eight native plant species, three of which are endemic species.


Assuntos
Praias , Ecossistema , Comportamento Sexual , Meio Ambiente , Geografia , Humanos , Plantas
8.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 153-159, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776048

RESUMO

Ureteroscopy is the most common surgical modality for stone treatment. Reusable flexible ureteroscopes are delicate instruments that require expensive maintenance and repairs. Multiple single use ureteroscopes have been developed recently to combat the expensive and time-intensive sterilization and repair of ureteroscopes. Although multiple studies have looked at different aspects of reusable and single use ureteroscopes, there is significant heterogeneity in performance measures and cost between the 2 categories, and neither has a clear advantage. Both can be used successfully, and individual and institution level factors should be considered when deciding which ureteroscope to use.


Assuntos
Equipamentos Descartáveis , Meio Ambiente , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Ureteroscópios , Equipamentos Descartáveis/economia , Equipamentos Descartáveis/normas , Humanos , Manutenção/economia , Ureteroscópios/economia , Ureteroscópios/normas , Urolitíase/cirurgia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150862, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637875

RESUMO

Space activities are now expanding at a fast pace and various ambitious projects have been proposed for the future, raising the question of their environmental sustainability. While the space debris situation has been widely recognized as a serious threat to space sustainability, other pressing environmental issues have received little attention yet, although they pose risks to the environment and actors of the space sector. Therefore, this paper first reviews the major environmental impacts of space activities and their potential growth, analyzed together in a comprehensive approach for the first time. The degradation of the orbital environment with space debris has already reached a threshold leading to a future increase of the number of objects even without additional launches, while the contribution of artificial space objects to night sky brightness may have already crossed the light pollution threshold defined by astronomers. Planned large constellations will likely deteriorate the situation significantly. In this context, the formulation of these thresholds within the planetary boundaries framework is proposed to support awareness-raising and policy-making. Furthermore, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change resulting from rocket emissions could reach levels triggering regulatory responses in the next decades due to the coming surge in launch rates. This could also apply to particles from thousands of constellations' satellites burning while reentering Earth's atmosphere, although the magnitude of their effects is yet unknown. A common assumption is that limitations to the human enterprise in space are of a purely technical and economic nature. This paper challenges this assumption, by highlighting the existence of environmental limits to the currently planned development of space activities. Risks arising from these limits are explored, and the importance of ecodesign in the space sector is emphasized. Finally, the paper discusses the future sustainability of proposed space projects in the context of global ecological transition.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Atmosfera , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150904, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653470

RESUMO

The use of mineral fertilizers in agriculture has significantly increased to support the growing global food demand. Organic fertilizers are produced from renewable waste materials to overcome the drawbacks of inorganic fertilizers. The development of novel production processes of organic fertilizers entails a significant advance towards the circular economy that reincorporates waste materials into the production cycle. In this work, the economic and environmental feasibility of an industrial plant with a treatment capacity of 300 kg/h of organic waste for the production of liquid fertilizers has been performed. Two extraction technologies (conventional and microwave) and two solvents (water and alkaline) have been compared to select the most sustainable and profitable scenario for scaling-up. The extraction process consists of 2 steps: extraction followed by a concentration stage (necessary only if water extraction is applied). The resolution of the mass balances shows that the fertilizer production under alkaline conditions is ten times higher than for water-based extraction. The economic analysis demonstrated that the total investment cost of microwave technology (>3.5 M€) is three times higher compared to the conventional extraction technology (<1.5 M€), mainly due to the higher complexity of the equipment. These facts directly impact the minimum selling price, because the fertilizers obtained by conventional extraction with alkaline solvent would have a lower selling price (about 1 €/L). As for environmental assessment, the indicators show that the environmental impact produced by water-based extraction is higher than alkaline-solvent extraction, mainly due to the necessity of a concentration stage of the liquid extract to meet the requirements of European regulations. In view of the results obtained in the economic and environmental evaluation, it could be concluded that the most favourable scenario for scaling up the production of liquid fertilizers from organic waste is the conventional extraction under alkaline conditions.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Micro-Ondas , Agricultura , Meio Ambiente , Tecnologia
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151208, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715226

RESUMO

Widespread industrialization, rapid urbanization, and massive transport through land, waters, and air have led to catastrophes such as climate change, water pollution, resource limitation, and pandemics causing severe economic consequences, massive influences on the natural environment and pose a great threat to the life sustainability. Sustainability topic has a long history, and many policies and initiatives are in effect for a sustainable planet Earth, still gaps of varying degrees exist in almost all sectors. This article addresses the essentiality of minimising the sustainability gaps exist in diverse realms of life and citing few examples. Creating a cyclic path for production-consumption process in the economic sector through promoting circular economy, learning from the natural processes through appropriate biomimicking, and knowledge-integration from diverse disciplines and emphasizing sustainability in the educational sector are shown to lower the sustainability gaps.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Urbanização , Mudança Climática , Planeta Terra , Poluição da Água
12.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108674, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736162

RESUMO

The current study examines the determinants of the intention to reduce meat consumption for pro-environmental reasons. The research model includes variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Norm Activation Model (NAM). The research was conducted in Poland and Slovakia, which are similar in terms of economic, social, and cultural conditions, located next to each other in the same climate zone, but differ greatly in terms of meat consumption and the direction of its change. Whereas in Poland, the meat consumption trend is rising, it is declining in Slovakia. The results of this study revealed that only attitude toward the impact of meat consumption reduction on the environment and personal norms related positively to intention to reduce meat consumption due to environmental reasons in both countries. However, in the country with decreasing meat consumption (Slovakia), the influence of attitude on intention was much stronger than in the country with increasing meat consumption (Poland). This study is the first to examine which predictors of intention to reduce meat consumption due to environmental reasons are simultaneous in two countries that have significantly different meat consumption levels and directions of change.


Assuntos
Atitude , Intenção , Carne , Adulto , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Eslováquia , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114062, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773783

RESUMO

Environmental impact associated with production and consumption of pulses in the United States was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The system boundary was set to cradle-to-grave with a functional unit of 60 g (dry basis) of pulses consumed in a US household. Varieties of pulses modeled in the study included field pea (Pisum sativum), lentil (Lens culinaris), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and dry bean. Three methods of cooking pulses at the consumer stage tested in the study were cooking in open vessel on electric cooking range (OVC), cooking in stovetop pressure cooker on electric cooking range (SPC), and cooking in electric pressure cooker (EPC). OVC formed the base scenario against which all other scenarios were compared. The environmental impact of pulses varied with type of pulse crop, cooking method, and the batch size. Consumption of approximately 60 g of dry pulses resulted in the greatest environmental impact for OVC. The consumer stage contributed at least 83, 81, 76, 75, and 87 percent for global warming potential (GWP), fossil resource scarcity (FRS), water consumption (WC), freshwater eutrophication (FE), and marine eutrophication (ME), respectively for this scenario. EPC resulted in the greatest decrease in the environmental impact, compared to OVC, for GWP, FRS, FE, and ME for all pulse varieties, which was validated in the uncertainty analysis. SPC, on the other hand, decreased the impact across these categories only for chickpea and dry bean. The uncertainty analysis suggested that the differences associated with cooking methods in the mean land use and water consumption scores of pulses were statistically non-significant. The impact categories were also highly sensitive to the mass of pulses cooked in a batch. Increasing the reference flow in OVC to 1 kg decreased the environmental impact of pulses by 49-87 percent for all impact categories, excluding land use. Overall, the study identified the consumer stage as the hotspot for environmental impact in the supply chain of pulses in the United States. The large contribution of the consumer stage to the overall environmental impact of pulses was attributed to electricity consumption for cooking and associated upstream emissions.


Assuntos
Culinária , Aquecimento Global , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Eutrofização , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Estados Unidos
14.
Med Clin North Am ; 106(1): 1-12, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823724

RESUMO

Medicine's acceptance of addiction as a medical concept has waxed and waned over time. Addiction, as a disease, fits with modern disease definitions and scientific advances in elucidating the interactions between neurobiology and environment. Definitions of addiction need to acknowledge the complex interactions of brain circuits, genetics, environmental factors, and individual life experiences. Addiction aligns with diagnostic categories of substance use disorders that do not rely on tolerance and withdrawal as defining characteristics. Shifts in social and political views of addiction continue to propel and mirror changes in addiction treatment approaches and terminology within the medical community.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Assistência Integral à Saúde/métodos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Comportamento/ética , Comportamento Aditivo/história , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914788

RESUMO

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is an excellent cool-season turfgrass utilized widely in Northern China. However, turf quality of Kentucky bluegrass declines significantly due to drought. Ethephon seeds-soaking treatment has been proved to effectively improve the drought tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass seedlings. In order to investigate the effect of ethephon leaf-spraying method on drought tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass and understand the underlying mechanism, Kentucky bluegrass plants sprayed with and without ethephon are subjected to either drought or well watered treatments. The relative water content and malondialdehyde conent were measured. Meanwhile, samples were sequenced through Illumina. Results showed that ethephon could improve the drought tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass by elevating relative water content and decreasing malondialdehyde content under drought. Transcriptome analysis showed that 58.43% transcripts (254,331 out of 435,250) were detected as unigenes. A total of 9.69% (24,643 out of 254,331) unigenes were identified as differentially expressed genes in one or more of the pairwise comparisons. Differentially expressed genes due to drought stress with or without ethephon pre-treatment showed that ethephon application affected genes associated with plant hormone, signal transduction pathway and plant defense, protein degradation and stabilization, transportation and osmosis, antioxidant system and the glyoxalase pathway, cell wall and cuticular wax, fatty acid unsaturation and photosynthesis. This study provides a theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism for how ethephon regulates drought response and improves drought tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Poa/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Meio Ambiente , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Poa/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Água/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which mountain biking impacts upon the environment is largely determined by rider behaviours. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how mountain bikers interact with the natural environment and explore their attitudes towards sustainability. METHODS: 3780 European mountain bikers completed an online cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: Connection to nature was an important source of motivation and the use of mountain bike trails has increased rider's appreciation of and willingness to protect nature, with a large majority having taken direct action to do so. Mountain bikers are prepared to contribute towards trail maintenance through the provision of labour or financially. Although most mountain bikers make use of wet trails and illegal trails, incidence of conflict is relatively low. A range of characteristics were identified as being fundamental elements of sustainable trails, both in relation to the sustainability of the trail itself and in terms of wider environmental sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: European mountain bikers care about the sustainability of the natural environment. Self-reported attitudes and behaviours suggest a willingness to reduce environmental impact and actively protect nature.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Motivação , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
17.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 500-509, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908386

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and heart diseases, which include Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH), have been positioned as the two main causes of mortality in Mexico, which represents important challenges for the different health institutions. Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal trend of DM and SAH based on the detections made in first and and second level units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, during the period 2004-2019. Material and methods: Ecological study in which detection rates of both diseases were calculated per 1,000 persons according to year, triennium and representation. The spatiotemporal trend was analyzed by spatial statistics using Geographic Information Systems. Results: During 2004-2019 therere were 9 399 889 and 11 862 069 detections on average of DM and SAH, respectively. Regarding DM, the detection rate ranged from 203.4 (2004) to 384.4 (2019) per 1000 persons, this trend increased in Tamaulipas. While SAH decreased from 1140.2 (2004) to 352 (2019) per 1000 persons in Veracruz Sur and Tamaulipas, respectively. Conclusions: The observed spatio-temporal trend can contribute to organizing and guiding, according to representation and level of care, institutional programs, integrated care protocols, clinical practice guidelines and other public policy instruments available at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social to improve early detection, care, control and access to medications for DM and SAH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Previdência Social
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 93, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genotype-by-environment interactions for a trait can be modeled using multiple-trait, i.e. character-state, models, that consider the phenotype as a different trait in each environment, or using reaction norm models based on a functional relationship, usually linear, between phenotype and a quantitative measure of the quality of the environment. The equivalence between character-state and reaction norm models has been demonstrated for a single trait. The objectives of this study were to extend the equivalence of the reaction norm and character-state models to a multiple-trait setting and to both genetic and environmental effects, and to illustrate the application of this equivalence to the design and optimization of breeding programs for disease resilience. METHODS: Equivalencies between reaction norm and character-state models for multiple-trait phenotypes were derived at the genetic and environmental levels, which demonstrates how multiple-trait reaction norm parameters can be derived from multiple-trait character state parameters. Methods were applied to optimize selection for a multiple-trait breeding goal in a target environment based on phenotypes collected in a healthy and disease-challenged environment, and to optimize the environment in which disease-challenge phenotypes should be collected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The equivalence between multiple-trait reaction norm and multiple-trait character-state parameters allow genetic improvement for a multiple-trait breeding goal in a target environment to be optimized without recording phenotypes and estimating parameters for the target environment.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Modelos Genéticos , Meio Ambiente , Genótipo , Fenótipo
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(12): 2196-2200, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954986

RESUMO

Objective: To establish an index that can reflect the level of healthy aging promotion in a region. Methods: Establish an indicators system using expert consultation and then determine the weight for each indicator using the analytic hierarchy process. Finally, we can get the regional healthy aging promotion index. Results: Regional healthy aging promotion indicator system was established, including five first-level indicators (residence environment, medical service, public health, nurse and care, and supporting system) and 21 second-level indicators. The weight of every level-one indicator ranges from 0.073 to 0.346. Two indicators with the highest weight are residence environment and public health (0.346 and 0.325, respectively), while the indicator with the lowest weight is nurse and care (0.073). The importance of every level-two indicator ranges from 0.011 to 0.162. The consistency ratio of the regional healthy aging promotion index is 0.021, and the consistency test is qualified. Conclusion: Regional healthy aging promotion index established in this study is very scientific, reasonable, and applicable. It can be used to evaluate the region's situation or level of healthy aging promotion.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Meio Ambiente , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Meio Social
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 5601414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956349

RESUMO

Achieving the rapid and accurate detection of pine cones in the natural environment is essential for yield estimation and automatic picking. However, the complex background and tiny target pose a significant challenge to pine cone detection. This paper proposes a pine cone detection method using the improved You Only Look Once (YOLO) version 4 algorithm to overcome these challenges. First, the original pine cone image data come from a natural pine forest. Crawler technology is utilized to collect more pine cone images from the Internet to expand the data set. Second, the densely connected convolution network (DenseNet) structure is introduced in YOLOv4 to improve feature reuse and network performance. In addition, the backbone network is pruned to reduce the computational complexity and keep the output dimension unchanged. Finally, for the problem of feature fusion at different scales, an improved neck network is designed using the scale-equalizing pyramid convolution (SEPC). The experimental results show that the improved YOLOv4 model is better than the original YOLOv4 network; the average values of precision, recall, and AP reach 96.1%, 90.1%, and 95.8%; the calculation amount of the model is reduced by 21.2%; the detection speed is fast enough to meet the real-time requirements. This research could serve as a technical reference for estimating yields and automating the picking of pine cones.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Meio Ambiente , Frutas
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