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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 54, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The characterization of genetic diversity and population differentiation for maize inbred lines from breeding programs is of great value in assisting breeders in maintaining and potentially increasing the rate of genetic gain. In our study, we characterized a set of 187 tropical maize inbred lines from the public breeding program of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) in Brazil based on 18 agronomic traits and 3,083 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers to evaluate whether this set of inbred lines represents a panel of tropical maize inbred lines for association mapping analysis and investigate the population structure and patterns of relationships among the inbred lines from UFV for better exploitation in our maize breeding program. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was large phenotypic and genotypic variation in the set of tropical maize inbred lines from the UFV maize breeding program. We also found high genetic diversity (GD = 0.34) and low pairwise kinship coefficients among the maize inbred lines (only approximately 4.00 % of the pairwise relative kinship was above 0.50) in the set of inbred lines. The LD decay distance over all ten chromosomes in the entire set of maize lines with r2 = 0.1 was 276,237 kb. Concerning the population structure, our results from the model-based STRUCTURE and principal component analysis methods distinguished the inbred lines into three subpopulations, with high consistency maintained between both results. Additionally, the clustering analysis based on phenotypic and molecular data grouped the inbred lines into 14 and 22 genetic divergence clusters, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the set of tropical maize inbred lines from UFV maize breeding programs can comprise a panel of tropical maize inbred lines suitable for a genome-wide association study to dissect the variation of complex quantitative traits in maize, mainly in tropical environments. In addition, our results will be very useful for assisting us in the assignment of heterotic groups and the selection of the best parental combinations for new breeding crosses, mapping populations, mapping synthetic populations, guiding crosses that target highly heterotic and yielding hybrids, and predicting untested hybrids in the public breeding program UFV.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Zea mays , Brasil , Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/genética
2.
Planta ; 255(2): 35, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015132

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: SorghumBase provides a community portal that integrates genetic, genomic, and breeding resources for sorghum germplasm improvement. Public research and development in agriculture rely on proper data and resource sharing within stakeholder communities. For plant breeders, agronomists, molecular biologists, geneticists, and bioinformaticians, centralizing desirable data into a user-friendly hub for crop systems is essential for successful collaborations and breakthroughs in germplasm development. Here, we present the SorghumBase web portal ( https://www.sorghumbase.org ), a resource for the sorghum research community. SorghumBase hosts a wide range of sorghum genomic information in a modular framework, built with open-source software, to provide a sustainable platform. This initial release of SorghumBase includes: (1) five sorghum reference genome assemblies in a pan-genome browser; (2) genetic variant information for natural diversity panels and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutant populations; (3) search interface and integrated views of various data types; (4) links supporting interconnectivity with other repositories including genebank, QTL, and gene expression databases; and (5) a content management system to support access to community news and training materials. SorghumBase offers sorghum investigators improved data collation and access that will facilitate the growth of a robust research community to support genomics-assisted breeding.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grão Comestível , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Internet , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sorghum/genética
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019108

RESUMO

In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Assuntos
Soja , Bangladesh , Genótipo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Soja/genética , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 48, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018493

RESUMO

Sixteen Rahaji breed beef cattle (112.00 ± 0.15 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to one of four rations differing in the degree of substitution of sorghum straw with Cattail (Typha domingensis) silage. Growth performance, feed intake, blood profile, and economics of production were evaluated. Completely randomized design was used, and the feeding trial lasted for 42 days. Cattle were fed a total mixed ration of roughage:concentrate (400:600) g/kg dry matter and gamba hay free choice. The control diet (T0) contained 400 g/kg sorghum straw, expressed on a dry matter basis (DM). For additional treatments, Typha silage (TS) was included at 100 (T10), 200 (T20), and 300 (T30) g/kg of the mix replacing an equal DM weight of sorghum straw. Growth rate was similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the TS level. DM (5160.77-5524.96 g/d) and crude protein (846.36-955.82 g/d) intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in T20 and T30 diets, while the acid detergent fiber intake (471.27-512.46 g/d) reduced (P < 0.05) in TS-based diets. Red blood cell concentrations of cattle fed TS-based diets increased (P < 0.05). The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations of cattle fed T20 diet decreased (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. Sodium and albumin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in cattle fed TS-based diets. Total cost of feeding ($ 49.60-61.62) decreased (P < 0.05) in TS-based diets, while the gross benefit of cattle fed 300 g/kg TS diet ($ 74.98) was enhanced relative to cattle fed T0 and T10 diets. TS can be considered a new resource of feed for cattle.


Assuntos
Silagem , Typhaceae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rúmen , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(2): 687-698, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989558

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is strongly adapted to growth in adverse environments. In Liangshan, the Yi people cultivate different Tartary buckwheat landraces in different habitats. In this study, we aimed to understand the molecular differences in transcriptomic and metabolomic responses underlying cold tolerance between two Tartary buckwheat landraces (TM and RG) cultivated at different altitudes. After cold treatment, TM showed normal growth in the seedling stage and had significantly higher total flavonoids (16.53 mg/g, 1.47 times), rutin (5.73 mg/g, 1.32 times), and quercetin (0.08 mg/g, 2.67 times), which were higher than those in RG. In addition, TM showed higher-level changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism than RG. Combined transcriptome and metabolomic analyses showed that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was upregulated after cold treatment, and in TM, rutin synthesis was upregulated with a higher-level response to cold stress. RG showed higher expression in anthocyanins in response to cold stress. In addition, 24 structural genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, including 6 PAL, 3 C4H, 2 4CL, 2 CHS, 1 CHI, 3 F3H, 3 DFR, 1 FLS, 1 F3'H, and 4 GTR genes, were identified. These results will provide sufficient information for breeding Tartary buckwheat with high cold tolerance and constructing rutin high-yield varieties based on genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Antocianinas , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Fagopyrum/genética , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Fenilalanina , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has few cotton varieties suitable for mechanical harvesting. The plant height of the cultivar is one of the key features that need to modify. Hence, this study was planned to locate the QTL for plant height in a 60Co γ treated upland cotton semi-dwarf mutant Ari1327. RESULTS: Interestingly, bulk segregant analysis (BSA) and genotyping by sequencing (GBS) methods exhibited that candidate QTL was co-located in the region of 5.80-9.66 Mb at D01 chromosome in two F2 populations. Using three InDel markers to genotype a population of 1241 individuals confirmed that the offspring's phenotype is consistent with the genotype. Comparative analysis of RNA-seq between the mutant and wild variety exhibited that Gh_D01G0592 was identified as the source of dwarfness from 200 genes. In addition, it was also revealed that the appropriate use of partial separation markers in QTL mapping can escalate linkage information. CONCLUSIONS: Overwhelmingly, the results will provide the basis to reveal the function of candidate genes and the utilization of excellent dwarf genetic resources in the future.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Gossypium/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
J Food Sci ; 87(1): 36-51, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940984

RESUMO

Sorghum is a drought-resistant crop widely spread in tropical regions of the American, African, and Asian continents. Sorghum flour is considered the main alternative for wheat flour, and it exhibits gluten-free nature. Generally, conventional wet chemical methods are used to analyze the nutritional profile of sorghum. Since many sorghum plants are available in breeding grounds, the application of conventional methods has limitations due to high cost and time consumption. Therefore, rapid screening protocols have been introduced as nondestructive alternatives. The current review highlights novel and portable devices that can be used to analyze the nutritional composition, color parameters, and pest resistance. Sorghum is often a traditional food item with minimal processing, and the review elaborates on emerging food applications and feasible food product developments from sorghum. The demand for gluten-free products has been rapidly increasing in developed countries. In order to develop food products according to market requirements, it is necessary to screen high-quality sorghum plants. Rapid analysis techniques effectively select the best sorghum types, and the novel tools have outperformed existing conventional methods.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150131, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788940

RESUMO

Microbial communities from rhizosphere (rhizomicrobiomes) have been significantly impacted by domestication as evidenced by a comparison of the rhizomicrobiomes of wild and related cultivated rice accessions. While there have been many published studies focusing on the structure of the rhizomicrobiome, studies comparing the functional traits of the microbial communities in the rhizospheres of wild rice and cultivated rice accessions are not yet available. In this study, we used metagenomic data from experimental rice plots to analyze the potential functional traits of the microbial communities in the rhizospheres of wild rice accessions originated from Africa and Asia in comparison with their related cultivated rice accessions. The functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities involved in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, methane metabolism, carbon fixation pathways, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), pyruvate metabolism and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathways were found to be enriched in the rhizomicrobiomes of wild rice accessions. Notably, methane metabolism in the rhizomicrobiomes of wild and cultivated rice accessions clearly differed. Key enzymes involved in methane production and utilization were overrepresented in the rhizomicrobiome samples obtained from wild rice accessions, suggesting that the rhizomicrobiomes of wild rice maintain a different ecological balance for methane production and utilization compared with those of the related cultivated rice accessions. A novel assessment of the impact of rice domestication on the primary metabolic pathways associated with microbial taxa in the rhizomicrobiomes was performed. Results indicated a strong impact of rice domestication on methane metabolism; a process that represents a critical function of the rhizosphere microbial community of rice. The findings of this study provide important information for future breeding of rice varieties with reduced methane emission during cultivation for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Oryza , Domesticação , Metano , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rizosfera
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150301, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536860

RESUMO

Several studies in European and North American agroecosystems conclude that organic farming benefits birds compared to conventional farming. Nevertheless, there are some biases toward these geographic regions and farm size. Argentinian agroecosystems are particularly homogeneous with large arable fields and sparse uncultivated field margins (i.e. large-scale homogenous cropping systems). In Argentina only 0.55% of the total farmland is under organic farming. Thus, our aims were to assess differences in bird occupancy between organic versus conventional farming regimes, and whether bird occupancy varied in relation to annual crop proportion in both farming regimes in central Argentina agroecosystems. We surveyed 156 points in farms under conventional and 154 in organic farming regimes during two bird-breeding seasons. We used multi-species occupancy models with a Bayesian approach to estimate bird occupancy. We observed that the type of farming regime (organic in relation to conventional) had a weak effect on avian occupancy, varying by species and groups. Probability of occupancy was higher for a few insectivorous and omnivorous species but lower for carnivores in organic farms in relation to conventional ones. The proportion of annual crops was positively correlated with occupancy of an insectivore aerial forager, some insectivore foliage gleaners, a granivore, and some omnivorous species in organic farms, but not conventional farms. This work contributes to reducing geographic and small-scale heterogeneous cropping system biases in the avian agroecological literature. Our results, together with future studies needed to assess landscape configuration and composition, and resource availability for birds in each farming regime, will allow the evaluation of organic farming as a tool for the conservation of bird species in large-scale homogeneous cropping systems in temperate regions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Melhoramento Vegetal , Agricultura , Animais , Argentina , Teorema de Bayes , Aves , Fazendas
10.
Food Chem ; 371: 131104, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537605

RESUMO

Mint is a widely used aromatic plant, and the aroma varies among different species. The aroma of five mint species, Mentha citrata L. (MC), Mentha piperita L. (MPI), Mentha spicata L. (MSP), Mentha persicaria L. (MPE), and Mentha suaveolens L. (MSU), were comparatively studied on the sensorial and molecular level. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that MC presented a pronounced lemon-like note, MSU is dominated by citrus and floral aromas, MPI has a prominent minty flavor, MSP and MPE have a similar scent, both of which are flavored with a spearmint-like note. Forty-one odorants with odor activity values (OAVs) ≥1 were characterized. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis based on OAVs indicated that α-citral, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthol, carvone, and linalool were potential odor-active markers for five mint species discrimination. This study herein will provide guidance for mint resources utilization and also aid mint breeding with better flavor.


Assuntos
Mentha spicata , Mentha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aromatizantes , Odorantes/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal
11.
Food Chem ; 370: 131003, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543920

RESUMO

Metabolomics is one of the most powerful -omics to assist plant breeding. Despite the recognized genetic diversity in Portuguese common bean germplasm, details on its metabolomics profiles are still missing. Aiming to promote their use and to understand the environment's effect in bean metabolomics profiles, 107 Portuguese common bean accessions, cropped under contrasting environments, were analyzed using spectrophotometric, untargeted and targeted mass spectrometry approaches. Although genotype was the most relevant factor on bean metabolomics profile, a clear genotype × environment interaction was also detected. Multivariate analysis highlighted, on the heat-stress environment, the existence of higher levels of salicylic acid, and lower levels of triterpene saponins. Three clusters were defined within each environment. White accessions presented the lowest content and the colored ones the highest levels of prenol lipids and flavonoids. Sources of interesting metabolomics profiles are now identified for bean breeding, focusing either on local or on broad adaptation.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Genótipo , Metabolômica , Phaseolus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
12.
Food Chem ; 372: 131273, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649030

RESUMO

Mauritia flexuosa, Bactris gasipaes, and Oenocarpus bataua are among the main palms in the Amazon used for food and medicinal purposes. The food most commonly derived from these are fruits, oil, and the larvae of the insect Rhynchophorus palmarum reared in their trunks. Palm fruits are used for oil extraction as they are rich in saturated fatty acids, fiber, pro-vitamin A, carotenoids, tocopherols, macro and microelements, and polyphenols. Furthermore, the larvae of R. palmarum are rich in lipids, vitamin E, and proteins. This review analyzes the chemical composition of the fruit and oil of these palm species, as well as the R. palmarum larvae that breed in them. Our aim is to present information that is not widely known in order to demonstrate the potential of these palms as sources of plant-based and animal food with high nutritional and functional values.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Insetos Comestíveis , Animais , Frutas , Nutrientes , Melhoramento Vegetal
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2368: 1-41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647245

RESUMO

Gravitropism, the growth of roots and shoots toward or away from the direction of gravity, has been studied for centuries. Such studies have not only led to a better understanding of the gravitropic process itself, but also paved new paths leading to deeper mechanistic insights into a wide range of research areas. These include hormone biology, cell signal transduction, regulation of gene expression, plant evolution, and plant interactions with a variety of environmental stimuli. In addition to contributions to basic knowledge about how plants function, there is accumulating evidence that gravitropism confers adaptive advantages to crops, particularly under marginal agricultural soils. Therefore, gravitropism is emerging as a breeding target for enhancing agricultural productivity. Moreover, research on gravitropism has spawned several studies on plant growth in microgravity that have enabled researchers to uncouple the effects of gravity from other tropisms. Although rapid progress on understanding gravitropism witnessed during the past decade continues to be driven by traditional molecular, physiological, and cell biological tools, these tools have been enriched by technological innovations in next-generation omics platforms and microgravity analog facilities. In this chapter, we review the field of gravitropism by highlighting recent landmark studies that have provided unique insights into this classic research topic while also discussing potential contributions to agriculture on Earth and beyond.


Assuntos
Gravitropismo , Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Ausência de Peso
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2360: 217-233, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495518

RESUMO

Cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is heavily attacked by various species of insects worldwide and breeding of new varieties resistant to pests is still a hard battle to win. RNAi technology is an important reverse genetics tool to induce gene silencing in eukaryotic organisms and produce phenotypic modifications. In cotton, RNAi was applied to investigate gene function and enhance resistance to insects and pathogens. Different methods and techniques can be used to synthetize double stranded RNA (dsRNA) into plant cells. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a common method to introduce RNAi binary plasmids into cotton genome and obtain stable transgenics plants. This methodology includes the coculture of cotton tissues with Agrobacterium cultures, selection of transgenic cells and induction of somatic embryogenesis to finally obtain transgenic plants after a relatively long period of time. The transient synthesis of dsRNA mediated by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cotton is an alternative to anticipate the silencing effect of a specific RNA sequence, prior to the development of a stable transgenic plant. VIGS vectors are incorporated into the plant by agroinfiltration technique. During VIGS replication inside plant cells, synthetized dsRNA allows the study on specific heterologous gene expression including the phenotypic effect on herbivorous target pests, thus facilitating a rapid evaluation of dsRNA expressed in cotton plants against individual insect target genes. Here we describe the complementation of these two techniques to evaluate RNAi-based cotton plant protection against insect pests.


Assuntos
Gossypium , Agrobacterium/genética , Animais , Gossypium/genética , Insetos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética
15.
Food Chem ; 366: 130543, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284193

RESUMO

Differences in Mixolab measurements of dough processing were examined using, as a base, flour from pure breeding, isogenic, wheat lines carrying either the high molecular weight glutenin subunits 5 + 10 or 2 + 12. Before dough pasting, subunits 5 + 10 tend to form a stable gluten network relying mainly on disulfide bonds and hydrogen bonds, but 2 + 12 flour was prone to generating fragile protein aggregates dominated by disulfide bonds and hydrophobicity. During dough pasting, a broader protein network rich in un-extractable polymeric proteins, disulfide bonds and ß-sheets was formed in the dough with subunits 5 + 10, thus resulting in an extensive and compact protein-starch complex which was characterized by high thermal stability and low starch gelatinization, while in the dough of the 2 + 12 line, a porous protein-starch gel with fragmented protein aggregates was controlled by the combination of disulfide bonds, hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonds that facilitated the formation of antiparallel ß-sheets.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Pão , Glutens , Melhoramento Vegetal , Amido
16.
Food Chem ; 369: 130887, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461519

RESUMO

Rapid deterioration of rice bran due to the LOX3 enzyme catalysed oxidation of PUFA is the major bottleneck for its utilization in various downstream applications. In the present study, we have identified a set of nine novel LOX3-null rice accessions carrying a deletion of C residue in the exon2 causing a frameshift mutation resulting in a truncated non-functional LOX3 protein. Our study, further manifested the predominance of C deletion based LOX3-null allele, named lox3-b, in the aromatic rice germplasm particularly in the Indian Basmati rice group. The LOX3-null genotypes exhibited significantly reduced rancidity, after six months of storage. They also showed significantly lower percentage reduction of linoleic acid (LA), higher γ-oryzanol content and lower hexanal content. A functional dCAPS marker designed based on the deletion polymorphism clearly differentiated LOX3 and lox3-b alleles, and has the potential application in marker assisted rice breeding programmes to develop cultivars with better bran storability.


Assuntos
Oryza , Alelos , Genótipo , Lipoxigenases , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Polimorfismo Genético
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2396: 161-173, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786682

RESUMO

Conventional breeding techniques and genetic modifications have made it possible to alter the composition of vegetable oils. In recent years, the field of lipidomics has rapidly evolved due to technological developments in mass spectrometry. "Macrolipidomics" is an approach dedicated to detailed characterization of the most abundant lipids of a sample and has the potential to be useful for the profiling of commercial seed oils. Seed oils are composed largely of triacylglycerols (TAG) with various fatty acyls that can result in a number of isobaric and isomeric TAG species in each sample. Comprehensive methods for fatty acyl TAG characterization are still scarce. In this chapter, we describe the steps required to process and analyze different sunflower oils with altered oleic acid content to generate quantitative data for discrete fatty acyl species of TAG molecules. We utilized a dual ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) serial coupling setup and untargeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantitate 23 common TAG species in three sunflower oils containing 40% (low), 60% (mid), and 85% (high) oleic acid by weight.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Ácido Oleico , Melhoramento Vegetal , Óleo de Girassol , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triglicerídeos
18.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(1): 157-167, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724285

RESUMO

Pollination of the pantropical Vanilla has been linked to melittophily and food deception. Here we investigated the role of flower traits on the reproduction of Neotropical Vanilla. We also studied the evolution of pollination systems in order to understand the origin of production of flower resources and the diversification of pollinators in this orchid genus. Our study was founded on data of adaptations in flower morphology, production of resources, scent release, pollinators and breeding systems of Vanilla and presenting new data on reproductive biology of V. palmarum. Data on reproductive biology of Vanilla were mapped onto a phylogeny to address our queries on the evolution of pollination systems in this genus. Vanilla palmarum shows a mixed mating system, with its facultative autogamous flowers being pollinated by hummingbirds. Its yellow flowers are scentless and produces nectar. Mapping of the pollination system onto trees resulted in one origin for bird pollination and at least two origins for autogamy in Vanilla. Nectar secretion has a single origin in the Neotropical thick-leafed lineage. Bird pollination of Vanilla is shown for the first time. The origin of ornithophily within a bee-pollinated clade is supported by flower morphology. Floral transitions to ornithophily have been favoured by the occupation of a distinct niche from that of the other thick-leafed Vanilla species. Despite its specialized pollination, V. palmarum is autogamous. A mixed mating system can promote reproductive assurance in the case of a decline in pollinator populations, or in areas where pollinator services are irregular or absent.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae , Vanilla , Animais , Abelhas , Flores , Melhoramento Vegetal , Néctar de Plantas , Polinização
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 810: 152223, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896147

RESUMO

While plant growth promotion with increased nutrient uptake had been well addressed for biochar soil amendment in agriculture, there was limited knowledge on the variation of such effects with crop genotypes. In a rice field experiment without and with biochar soil amendment at 20 t ha-1, 19 mutants of a rice cultivar Wuyunjing 7 (Oryza sativa L.) were tested for plant growth in split plots respectively. At harvest, the biomass of grain, stem and leaves were measured and soil and plant samples were collected for measuring N, P and K nutrients. Across the 19 mutants, relative change with biochar soil amendment varied in a range of -41.6% to +35.6% for biomass production and agronomic traits, and -87.0% to +117% for nutrient accumulation. For the nutrients content, the relative change for N was seen in a narrow range of -29.4% to +16.6%, being similar among grain, leaf and shoot samples while that for P in a wide range of -109% to +105%. With factor analysis, variation of biomass and nutrient uptake was least explained with biochar effect (up to 7.0%) but largely by genotype effect (mostly by 40-70%). However, the genotype × biochar interaction effect could also explain 10-40% of the total variations though the interaction explained 40-70% of leaf P variation. Therefore, mutant and mutant × biochar interactions dominated the agronomic variation of rice production of the Wuyunjing 7 cultivar. Furthermore, across the traits analyzed, genotype effects were shown very significantly but negatively correlated to biochar effects. In other words, biochar soil amendment provided little growth or nutrient enhancement for those mutants bred for high efficiency. Hence, genotype selection should be considered in optimizing prioritizing biochar application in crop production. Of course, variation of biochar effect with crop genotypes deserved further plant physio-ecological studies.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Genótipo , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
20.
Gene ; 808: 145976, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592351

RESUMO

Soybean is a major source of edible protein and oil. Oil content is a quantitative trait that is significantly determined by genetic and environmental factors. Over the past 30 years, a large volume of soybean genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic data have been accumulated. Nevertheless, integrative analyses of such data remain scarce, in spite of their importance for crop improvement. We hypothesized that the co-occurrence of genomic regions for oil-related traits in different studies may reveal more stable regions encompassing important genetic determinants of oil content and quality in soybean. We integrated publicly available data, obtained with distinct techniques, to discover and prioritize candidate genes involved in oil biosynthesis and regulation in soybean. We detected key fatty acid biosynthesis genes (e.g., BCCP2 and ACCase, FADs, KAS family proteins) and several transcription factors, which are likely regulators of oil biosynthesis. In addition, we identified new candidates for seed oil accumulation and quality, such as Glyma.03G213300 and Glyma.19G160700, which encode a translocator protein homolog and a histone acetyltransferase, respectively. Further, oil and protein genomic hotspots are strongly associated with breeding and not with domestication, suggesting that soybean domestication prioritized other traits. The genes identified here are promising targets for breeding programs and for the development of soybean lines with increased oil content and quality.


Assuntos
Óleo de Soja/biossíntese , Óleo de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Óleos Vegetais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética
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