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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118277, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610413

RESUMO

In this study, we firstly used alginate to enhance an electrokinetic technology to remediate soil contaminated with divalent heavy metals (Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+). The mechanisms of alginate-associated migration of metal ions in electric field were confirmed. Alginate resulted in a high electrical current during electrokinetic process, and soil conductivity also increased after remediation. Obvious changes in both electroosmotic flow and soil pH were observed. Moreover, these factors were affected by increasing alginate dosage. The highest Cu (95.82%) and Zn (97.33%) removal efficiencies were obtained by introducing 1 wt% alginate. Alginate can desorb Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions from soil by forming unstable gels, which could be dissociated through electrolysis. However, Pb2+ ions did not easily migrate out of the contaminated soil. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations show Pb2+ ions could form a more stable coordination sphere in metal complexes than Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions. The metal removal efficiency was decreased by increasing alginate dosage at a high level. More alginate could provide more carboxyl ligands for divalent metal ions to stabilize gels, which were difficult to dissociate by electrolysis. In summary, the results indicate it is potential for introducing alginate into an electrokinetic system to remediate Cu- and Zn- contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Polieletrólitos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118313, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634400

RESUMO

Herein, a two-dimensional (2-D) vertically-averaged hydrodynamic model was applied to study the heavy metal particle footprints pre- and post-Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in Poyang Lake. Two defined indexes-Reserve Impact Index (σRII) and Species Impact Index (ηSII) were applied to assess the potential impact of the copper footprint on nature reserves and sensitive species quantitatively. The results demonstrated that the movement speed, distribution, and trajectory of copper particle footprints differed enormously pre- and post-TGD. By contrast, the post-TGD footprints were more complex because of the dam-induced variations in hydrology and meteorology. TGD had both pros and cons for the copper footprint on the reserves based on the results of σRII. It had changed the way for the transport of heavy metals and altered the patterns of exposure risk in the reserves. Sustainable management of Poyang Lake could be achieved by optimizing daily monitoring works. The ηSII for Finless Porpoises do not differ significantly between scenarios, but the ηSII for Siberian White Cranes increased by 0.92 and 0.83 for the two periods pre- and post-TGD, respectively. Heavy metals in food sources and the excreta of Siberian White Cranes could be of great concern in future studies. This study provides a theoretical basis for the in-depth study of the TGD-induced impact on Poyang Lake and provides a reference for the long-term treatment of Poyang Lake and the protection of key species.


Assuntos
Lagos , Metais Pesados , Animais , Aves , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrologia , Metais Pesados/análise
3.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118339, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637824

RESUMO

Non-exhaust emissions (e.g., particles from brake pads, asphalt, curb, road paint, tire) are important sources of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pollution in urban environments and are potential causes of PTEs pollution in road dust. We present the PTEs concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb) of non-exhaust emission sources and pollution degree of PTEs. Isotopic signatures of Cu, Zn, and Pb were also analyzed to distinguish these sources. Among PTEs, the Cu concentration in all brake pads was significantly high and brake pads from Korea showed remarkably high Sb concentrations. Asphalt had a higher Pb concentration than other non-exhaust emission sources. Mean of δ65CuAE647, δ66ZnIRMM3702, and 206Pb/207Pb values of non-exhaust emission sources in this study ranged from -0.49‰ to +0.19‰, -0.24‰ to +0.16‰, and 1.1535 to 1.4471, respectively. Non-exhaust emission sources could be discriminated by plotting the concentration and isotopic composition of Cu. Cu isotopic compositions (δ65CuAE647) were clearly distinguished between brake pads including domestic and imported products and tires. Zn isotope values (δ66ZnIRMM3702) of brake pads, tires, and asphalt overlapped, but discriminated from road paint and curb. Our results indicate that the combination of Cu and Zn isotopic signatures can distinguish various non-exhaust traffic emissions, especially brake pads and tires.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Metais Pesados , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Isótopos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Zinco
4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118324, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637827

RESUMO

Traditional soil heavy metal (HM) investigation usually costs a lot of human and material resources. In-situ portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRF) is a cheap and rapid HM analysis method, but its analysis accuracy is usually affected by spatially non-stationary field environment factors. In this study, residual sequential Gaussian co-simulation (RCoSGS) was first proposed to incorporate both continuous and categorical auxiliary variables for spatial simulation of soil Cu. Next, additional in-situ PXRF sampling sites (n = 300) were allocated in the subareas with high, medium, and low conditional variances in the proportions of 50%, 33.33%, and 16.67%, respectively. Then, robust geographically weighted regression (RGWR) was established to correct the spatially non-stationary effects of field environmental factors on in-situ PXRF and further compared with the traditionally-used multiple linear regression (MLR) and basic GWR in correction accuracy. Finally, RCoSGS with the RGWR-corrected in-situ PXRF as part of hard data (RCoSGS-PXRF) was established and further compared with the model with one or multiple auxiliary variables in the spatial simulation accuracy. Results showed that (i) RCoSGS effectively incorporated both SOM and land-use types and obtained higher spatial simulation accuracy (RI = 37.52%) than residual sequential Gaussian simulation with land-use types (RI = 19.44%) and sequential Gaussian co-simulation with SOM (RI = 20.92%); (ii) RGWR significantly weakened the spatially non-stationary effects of field environmental factors on in-situ PXRF, and RGWR (RI = 58.96%) and GWR (RI = 39.61%) obtained higher correction accuracy than MLR; (iii) the RGWR-corrected in-situ PXRF (RI = 66.57%) brought higher spatial simulation accuracy than both land-use types and SOM (RI = 37.52%); (iv) RCoSGS-PXRF obtained the highest spatial simulation accuracies (RI = 83.74%). Therefore, the proposed method is cost-effective for the rapid and high-precision investigation of soil HMs at a regional scale.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espectrometria por Raios X , Raios X
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118349, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653588

RESUMO

The adverse effects of fine atmospheric particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) are closely associated with particulate chemicals. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected from highway and industry sites in Hangzhou, China, during the autumn and winter, and their cytotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity and endocrine-disrupting potential (EDP) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo; the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs), and heavy metals were then characterized. The toxicological results suggested that the PM2.5 from highway site induced higher cytotoxicity (cell viability inhibition, intracellular oxidative stress, and cell membrane injury) and pulmonary toxicity (inflammatory response (IR) and oxidative stress (OS)) than the samples from industry site, while the PM2.5 from industry site exhibited higher EDP (estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity). The cytotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity of PM2.5 in the winter were higher than those in the autumn, while no seasonal difference in the endocrine-disrupting potential was observed (p > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis between the biological effects and particulate chemicals revealed that the PM2.5-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress were closely associated with the particulate PAHs and heavy metals (Pearson correlation coefficients: rIR, PAHs = 0.822-0.988, rIR, heavy metals = 0.895-0.971, rOS, PAHs = 0.843-0.986, and rOS, heavy metals = 0.887-0.933), while particulate di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) substantially contributed to the EDP of PM2.5 (rEDP, DEHP = 0.981). This study indicated that the toxicity and EDP of PM2.5 could vary with the surrounding environment and season, which was closely associated with the variations of particulate chemicals. Further studies are needed to clarify the associations between the harmful effects of PM2.5 and other contributing factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estações do Ano
6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118353, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637821

RESUMO

The skin constitutes a protective barrier to external physical and chemical aggressions. Although it is constantly exposed to various xenobiotics, it is generally considered poorly permeable to them, as for example metal ions, becoming unfortunately an entry route of such substances. Metals may penetrate inside the skin inducing more or less local effects such as skin sensitization and potential metals diffusion into the bloodstream. The objective of the study was to investigate the percutaneous penetration of metals in vitro - ex vivo in Franz cell with intact as well damaged skin applying a road dust powder. Moreover, porcine and human skins were compared. This study demonstrated that, after the application of a road dust powder on the skin, metals can penetrate and permeate this cutaneous membrane. From this experimental analysis, in intact skin lead (Pb) achieved the highest skin absorption in both human and porcine skin, while skin absorption profile of cobalt (Co) was the lowest in human skin than the one in porcine model. The concentrations of Ni present in receiving solution were higher compared to other metals in all experiments performed. The present work, definitely shows that metals permeation through damaged skin is accelerated than intact skin, as a result of the weaker cutaneous barrier function. According to published data, pig skin appeared as a suitable model for human skin. Our results confirmed that skin absorption of metals can be relevant in environmental exposures.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Absorção Cutânea , Animais , Cobalto , Poeira , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Pós/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126154, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673196

RESUMO

The pollution of the environment caused by dyes and heavy metals emitted by industries has become a worldwide problem. The development of efficient, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective methods of wastewater treatment containing dyes and heavy metals is critical. Biologically based techniques for treating effluents are fascinating since they provide several benefits over standard treatment methods. This review assesses the most recent developments in the use of biological based techniques to remove dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. The remediation of dyes and heavy metals by diverse microorganisms such as algae, bacteria, fungi and enzymes are depicted in detail. Ongoing biological method's advances, scientific prospects, problems, and the future prognosis are all highlighted. This review is useful for gaining a better integrated view of biological based wastewater treatment and for speeding future research on the function of biological methods in water purification applications.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Corantes , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 983-993, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487945

RESUMO

The numerous oxygenated functional groups on graphite oxide (GO) make it a promising adsorbent for toxic heavy metals in water. However, the GO prepared from natural graphite is water-soluble after exfoliation, making its recovery for reuse extremely difficult. In this study, porous graphitized carbon (PGC) was oxidized to fabricate a GO-like material, PGCO. The PGCO showed an O/C molar ratio of 0.63, and 8.4% of the surface carbon species were carboxyl, exhibiting enhanced oxidation degree compared to GO. The small PGCO sheets were intensely aggregated chemically, yielding an insoluble solid easily separable from water by sedimentation or filtration. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the PGCO afforded significantly higher removal efficiencies for heavy metals than GO, owing to the former's greater functionalization with oxygenated groups. An isotherm study suggested that the adsorption obeyed the Langmuir model, and the derived maximum adsorption capacities for Cr3+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ were 119.6, 377.1, 99.1, 65.2, 53.0, and 58.1 mg/g, respectively. Furthermore, the spent PGCO was successively regenerated by acid treatment. The results of the study indicate that PGCO could be an alternative adsorbent for remediating toxic metal-contaminated waters.


Assuntos
Grafite , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carbono , Cinética , Óxidos , Porosidade , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150287, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798761

RESUMO

A. canescens (Pure) Nutt. is a halophytic forage shrub distributes in arid and semiarid regions, which has great use potential in disturbed lands for its strong adaptability and feeding value. At present, land degradation caused by salinization, desertification and heavy metal pollution is still expanding all over the world, meanwhile, stock raising in arid and semi-arid areas may face more shortage of forage supply. Although A. canescens is much accounted of in some regions, its application values are not widely concerned in some countries such as China. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding is needed to promote its application in these regions. In the review, we introduced the morphological and physiological characteristics of A. canescens, summarized its ecological and economic values, and we also discussed its use prospect and main problems in China. This review could be helpful for understanding of A. canescens adaptive characteristics and application values, thus promote its reasonable popularization and use in areas in need.


Assuntos
Atriplex , Metais Pesados , China , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Solo
10.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131957, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450367

RESUMO

An increase in technological interventions and ruthless urbanization in the name of development has deteriorated our environment over time and caused the buildup of heavy metals (HMs) in the soil and water resources. These heavy metals are gaining increased access into our food chain through the plant and/or animal-based products, to adversely impact human health. The issue of how to restrict the entry of HMs or modulate their response in event of their ingress into the plant system is worrisome. The current knowledge on the interactive-regulatory role and contribution of different physical, biophysical, biochemical, physiological, and molecular factors that determine the heavy metal availability-uptake-partitioning dynamics in the soil-plant-environment needs to be updated. The present review critically analyses the interactive overlaps between different adaptation and tolerance strategies that may be causally related to their cellular localization, conjugation and homeostasis, a relative affinity for the transporters, rhizosphere modifications, activation of efflux pumps and vacuolar sequestration that singly or collectively determine a plant's response to HM stress. Recently postulated role of gaseous pollutants such as SO2 and other secondary metabolites in heavy metal tolerance, which may be regulated at the whole plant and/or tissue/cell is discussed to delineate and work towards a "not so heavy" response of plants to heavy metals present in the contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131959, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454224

RESUMO

The concentrations of heavy metal ions found in waterways near industrial zones are often exceed the prescribed limits, posing a continued danger to the environment and public health. Therefore, greater attention has been devoted into finding the efficient solutions for adsorbing heavy metal ions. This review paper focuses on the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from biomass and their application in the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Techniques to produce CNTs, benefits of modification with various functional groups to enhance sorption uptake, effects of operating parameters, and adsorption mechanisms are reviewed. Adsorption occurs via physical adsorption, electrostatic interaction, surface complexation, and interaction between functional groups and heavy metal ions. Moreover, factors such as pH level, CNTs dosage, duration, temperature, ionic strength, and surface property of adsorbents have been identified as the common factors influencing the adsorption of heavy metals. The oxygenated functional groups initially present on the surface of the modified CNTs are responsible towards the adsorption enhancement of commonly-encountered heavy metals such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Hg2+, and Cr6+. Despite the recent advances in the application of CNTs in environmental clean-up and pollution treatment have been demonstrated, major obstacles of CNTs such as high synthesis cost, the agglomeration in the post-treated solutions and the secondary pollution from chemicals in the surface modification, should be critically addressed in the future studies for successful large-scale applications of CNTs.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Nanotubos de Carbono , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Biomassa , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132021, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454227

RESUMO

In recent years, with the development of economy and industry, water contaminated with heavy metal has become a global environmental problem. Vanadium (V) is an emerging contaminant reported in wastewater along with the increasing mining, smelting and recovering of vanadium ores and application in many fields as a significant national strategy resource. The increasing attention has been paid to the separations of V from water due to its potential toxic to animals and human beings. In the present study, the most common V removal techniques including adsorption, microbiological treatment, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, electrokinetic remediation, photocatalysis, coagulation and membrane filtration are presented with discussion of their advantages, limitations and the recent achievements. Several major influencing factors and mechanisms of various processes have been briefly analyzed. Some research perspectives are proposed for improving the capacities to remove V from water. The core objective of this review is to provide comprehensive information or database for the superior approach for V removal.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Animais , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Vanádio/análise , Águas Residuárias , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132048, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478961

RESUMO

Exposure to dust particles enriched with arsenic (As) is a significant health threat for populations living in Southeast Asian megacities. The mineralogical composition of dust particles is the key factor that controls the retention and release of As. This study investigated the degree of metal(oid)s pollution (As, Ca, Fe, K, Ga, Rb, Sr, Ti, V, Y, and Zr) in road dust of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index suggested that the road dust was heavily enriched with As, which triggers a comprehensive investigation of its controlling mechanisms and potential health risks by combining physicochemical and mineralogical information with multivariate analysis and a simulated probabilistic risk estimation model. Alkaline road dust (pH1:5 ranges from 8.02 to 10.34) in Dhaka city was found to have significant enrichment of As. Dust alkalinity was possibly controlled by the presence of carbonate minerals, such as calcite. Quartz was identified as the dominant mineral phase followed by magnesium carbon arsenide (MgCAs2). Carbonate mineral driven alkaline pH conditions in road dust would potentially trigger the release and mobilization of As to the environment. However, organic complexation can stabilize As on particle surfaces. Monte Carlo simulation-based health risk forecast suggested that the probability of As associated cancer risk has greatly exceeded the threshold value of 1E-4 for adults and children, and children are more vulnerable than adults. According to sensitivity analysis, the concentration of As and exposure duration (ED) posed the most significant impact (>58%) on risk estimation.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Bangladesh , Criança , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
14.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131986, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481173

RESUMO

Urban soil pollution by heavy metals (HMs) is a pressing problem in the development of urban agriculture (UA). In this context, the use of amendments, such as biochar, and phytoremediation are considered potentially cost-effective alternatives to conventional methods, and can be also combined to improve the remediation of soils from HMs. A pot experiment was performed to investigate the combined effect of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum, L.) and biochar amendment in remediating a sandy soil collected near a shooting range area co-contaminated with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The biochar, obtained from a wood-chip gasifier fed with a mix of Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb.) and Black Pine (Pinus nigra, J.F.Arnold) wood, was applied at two rates (0.8% and 1.6%, w/w). Eighteen weeks after sowing, all plants were harvested. The roots and aboveground tissues of the crops were separately collected and analyzed. The tested biochar effectively adsorbed the HMs (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from the soil. Biochar increased DW production of aboveground and root tissues. Moreover, biochar significantly reduced the concentration of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in the aboveground tissues of berseem clover, although a significant reduction was not detected for Cd and Zn. Results indicated that berseem clover was a Cr, Ni and Pb excluder. However, this species can be considered suitable for Cu phytoextraction and Cd and Zn phytostabilization of slightly polluted urban soil. Only the Cu levels in the aerial biomass were below the acceptable limit for use as fodder.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Trifolium , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo , Medicago , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco
15.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132101, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523446

RESUMO

Soilless revegetation is a promising method for ecological restoration of nonferrous metallic tailings because of its low-cost and eco-friendliness. However, revegetation is difficult to construct in the tailings due to the high heavy metal concentration, poor water retention capacity and low fertility. In this study, soilless revegetation was successfully carried out by using peat and bentonite amendments. The results showed that amendment addition significantly increased the F.elata seed germination percentage, plant length and fresh biomass by 14.9%-24.3%, 48.9%-90.4% and 51.9%-88.1%, respectively. Such improvements probably referred to the variation of rhizosphere tailing microecological characteristics. Amendment addition dramatically improved tailing available NPK by 39.76-102.13%, 2.69-40.81% and 2.42-20.02%, respectively, and reduced pH from alkaline to relative neutral. Besides, heavy metal bioavailability was significantly decreased that the acid soluble fraction decreased by 1.7%-11.5%, resulting in the reduction of heavy metal concentration in F.elata plant. Amendments also increased the rhizosphere tailing microbial species richness and the relative abundance of ecologically beneficial genera including Arthrobacter, Altererythrobacter and Bacillus. This study not only provided a green and efficient method for remediation of oligotrophic and high heavy metal contaminated nonferrous metallic tailing, but also demonstrated relevant mechanisms of amendment on promoting soilless revegetation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bentonita , Metais Pesados/análise , Rizosfera , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132124, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523449

RESUMO

An energy information flow-based ecological risk assessment framework (EIF-ERA) is developed for identifying ecological risk transmission rules among communities (i.e., vegetation E1, herbivorous animals E2, soil microorganisms E3, and carnivorous animals E4) within the heavy metals contaminated soil system. This framework is integrated with numerous techniques of carcinogenic risk evaluation, ecological risk assessment (ERA), and Monte Carlo simulation. Stepwise quadratic response surface analysis (SQRSA) is employed for reflecting the relation between contaminants' concentration and comprehensive risk. Two scenarios with respect to the environmental quality standards (scenarios 1) and carcinogenic risk reversion (scenarios 2) are merged into the EIF-ERA. A real-world mining area in Xinglong County in Chengde is selected to verify the developed framework's effectiveness. Results reveal that E3 is considered as the most sensitive community when contaminant interference occurs, and its 62.3% and 37.7% of comprehensive risk are contributed by initial and direct risks, respectively. Other communities can receive direct risk through control allocation (CA). Monte Carlo anlysis shows that there are 7.68% and 20.25% increase in the initial risk of Cd and Pb when their quantile statistics increase from 70% to 90%. Determination of an appropriate screening value is vital for contaminated mining soil remediation due to its inefficiency of remediation funds, especially when considering the trict standards of contaminants' concentration within scenarios 1. The surrogates obtained from the SQRSA display the relation of contaminant concentration and comprehensive risks with the adjusted R2 greater than 0.77. These findings can be in support of system design, risk assessment, and site remediation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132122, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523454

RESUMO

This study is focused on the evaluation of the accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in five cultivars of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) which were produced on contaminated agricultural soil. Over a growth period of 211 days, the roots and leaves were collected in four stages and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to measure the concentration and distribution of the target metals in these two chicory organs considering the weather and the nature of the cultivar. For all cultivars, sharp decreases of Pb (from 165 mg kg-1 to 3 mg kg-1), Cd (from 11 mg kg-1 to 5 mg kg-1) and Zn concentrations (from 157 mg kg-1 to 40 mg kg-1) in the roots were highlighted over time. The data collected enabled the calculation of the variation of the bioconcentration factor, the biological absorption coefficient and the translocation factor for Cd, Pb and Zn. These parameters were then correlated with the distribution of the fresh biomass of leaves and roots and several indicators such as chlorophyll content, flavonols, anthocyanin and nitrogen balance index were measured. The study concludes with the discussion on the ability of chicory to clean up contaminated agricultural soil. The current investigation has shown: i) a translocation of Cd (and Zn to a lesser extent) from the roots to the leaves; ii) an increase in the level of anthocyanins with the increase of the metal trace elements concentration in the leaf, while the content of chlorophyll and the nitrogen balance index decrease, which could be linked to the phenomenon of senescence; iii) an ability of the chicory to reduce the bioavailable pool of the three metal trace elements studied, in particular for Cd.


Assuntos
Chicória , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Antocianinas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132082, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523456

RESUMO

Knowledge is insufficient on feasible remediation techniques to agricultural soils contaminated by multiple heavy metal(loid)s with elevated concentrations and extreme acidy from acid mine drainages (AMD). We aimed to elucidate the effect of integrated biochar (BC) and soil replacement on improving the mining soil properties and then alleviating the phytotoxicity of As, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn on radish (Raphanus sativus L.)-soya bean (Glycine max Merr.) -amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) rotation and the potential risk of crops to human health. Biochar and soil replacement showed outstanding effects on improving soil properties by increasing soil pH values, reducing available metal(loid)s, and enhancing the activity of catalase, urease and acid phosphatase. Also, the integrated technique regulated the physiological disorders of crops caused by metal(loid)s, specifically increasing chlorophyll content and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) in the three crops, and reducing the content of metal(loid)s in edible parts of plants. The combination of biochar and soil replacement exhibited better remediation effect than the single application of biochar or soil replacement, which played different roles in remediating mining farmland. Biochar exhibited efficacy in soil pH amelioration, metal stabilization and soil enzyme activity enhancement, while soil replacement alleviated metal(loid)s stress through the dilution effect. Among the 8 treatments, only biochar combined with 35% (S35BC) and 50% (S50BC) of replaced soil could achieve the safe production of the three crops under the three-season crop rotation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Raphanus , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja
19.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132069, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523457

RESUMO

Miri city has a dynamic coastal environment, mainly influenced by intensive sedimentation from the Baram River and excessive trace metal loading by the Miri River, which are significant environmental concerns. As the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of the trace metals in the sediments are largely controlled by their particulate speciation, the modified BCR sequential extraction protocol was applied to determine the particulate speciation of trace metals in the coastal sediments of Miri, to unravel the seasonal geochemical processes responsible for known observations, and to identify possible sources of these trace metals. The granulometric analysis results showed that littoral currents aided by the monsoonal winds have influenced the grain size distribution of the sediments, enabling us to divide the study area into north-east and south-west segments where the geochemical composition are distinct. The Cu (>84%) and Zn (82%) concentrations are predominantly associated with the exchangeable fraction, which is readily bioavailable. Pb and Cd are dominant in non-residual fractions and other metals viz., Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cr are dominant in the residual fraction. Using Pearson's correlation and factor analysis, the major mechanisms controlling the chemistry of the sediments are identified as association of Cu and Zn with fine fraction sediments, sulphide oxidation in the SW segment of the study area, atmospheric fallout of Pb and Cd in the river basins, precipitation of dissolved Fe and Mn supplied from the rivers and remobilization of Mn from the coastal sediments. Based on various pollution indices, it is inferred that the coastal sediments of NW Borneo are contaminated with Cu and Zn, and are largely bioavailable, which can be a threat to the local aquatic organisms, coral reefs, and coastal mangroves.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Bornéu , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Food Chem ; 367: 130670, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359008

RESUMO

Seven species of forest mushrooms from different regions of Poland (edible: Imleria badia, Cantharellus cibarius, Xerocomus subtomentosus, Suillus luteus and inedible by humans but being food for animals: Paxillus involutus, Tylopilus felleus and Russula emetica) were analyzed for radioisotope activity (Cs-137, K-40, Bi-214 and Pb-210) as well as concentrations of heavy metals (aluminum, chromium, cadmium, manganese, iron, lead, zinc, copper, nickel and mercury). The activity of radioisotopes was measured with a gamma spectrometer, while the concentrations of heavy metals were examined by microwave plasma - atomic emission spectrometry. The obtained results of the analyses were compared with the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority concerning the consumption of the determined heavy metals and the European standards concerning the content of radioisotopes in food. The obtained results proved that the consumption of mushrooms may result in a significant exceeding of the consumption limits of cadmium, copper and Cs-137.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Metais Pesados , Basidiomycota , Cádmio , Radioisótopos de Césio , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise
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