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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 37, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982254

RESUMO

Endophytic microbiota mainly includes positive modulator of plant growth, productivity, stress tolerance and ability to control the phytopathogens. Rice endophytes colonize in different parts like roots, shoots, leaves, seeds, flowers, ovules, etc. The diversity and colonization of endophytes depend on several factors like host specificity, environment specificity, chemotaxis, motility, etc. A mutualistic relationship between rice plant and their endophytes improves the host health. Several crucial activities of rice plants are influenced by the presence of endophytes as they endorse plant growth by producing different phytohormones, solubilized minerals, or mitigating various environmental adverse conditions. Endophytes also protect rice plants from various phytopathogen by the production of secondary metabolites, lytic enzymes, antibiotics and induced systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, the endophytes from rice and major crops are recently been shown useful in environmental waste management and also for the synthesis of green nanoparticles. This study highlights the beneficial interaction between rice plants and their endophytic microbiota with special emphasis on highlighting their application for sustainable agricultural and environmental practices in order to enhance the agro-economy in an eco-friendly manner.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Endófitos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Simbiose
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 11, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with other abiotic stresses, drought stress causes serious crop yield reductions. Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), as an environmentally friendly biomacromolecule, plays an important role in plant growth and regulation. RESULTS: In this project, the effect of exogenous application of γ-PGA on drought tolerance of maize (Zea mays. L) and its mechanism were studied. Drought dramatically inhibited the growth and development of maize, but the exogenous application of γ-PGA significantly increased the dry weight of maize, the contents of ABA, soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic rate under severe drought stress. RNA-seq data showed that γ-PGA may enhance drought resistance in maize by affecting the expression of ABA biosynthesis, signal transduction, and photosynthesis-related genes and other stress-responsive genes, which was also confirmed by RT-PCR and promoter motif analysis. In addition, diversity and structure analysis of the rhizosphere soil bacterial community demonstrated that γ-PGA enriched plant growth promoting bacteria such as Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria. Moreover, γ-PGA significantly improved root development, urease activity and the ABA contents of maize rhizospheric soil under drought stress. This study emphasized the possibility of using γ-PGA to improve crop drought resistance and the soil environment under drought conditions and revealed its preliminary mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous application of poly-γ-glutamic acid could significantly enhance the drought resistance of maize by improving photosynthesis, and root development and affecting the rhizosphere microbial community.


Assuntos
Secas , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/fisiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Poliglutâmico/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 540-549, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989539

RESUMO

To study changes in phosphatase activity, we examined the diversity of phoC and phoD gene microbial communities in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of plants under the treatment of chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer combined with biochar. These results can provide a certain theoretical guidance for the conversion of insoluble phosphorus in the soil phosphorus pool to the inorganic phosphate ion that can be absorbed by plant roots and also provide a certain experimental basis for the improvement of the availability of phosphorus in the soil and the agricultural utilization of biochar. In this study, corn stalks and rice husk stalks were used as test materials, and the pot experimental method was adopted using the following treatments:set control (CK), traditional fertilization (F), chemical fertilizer+20 t·hm-2 rice husk biochar (FP), chemical fertilizer+10 t·hm-2rice husk biochar+10 t·hm-2 corn biochar (FPM), organic fertilizer+20 t·hm-2 rice husk biochar (PP), and fresh organic fertilizer+20 t·hm-2 rice husk biochar (NPP). We determined the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and used T-RFLP technology to analyze the diversity of phoC and phoD genes in order to clarify the impact of biochar on the micro-ecosystem formed by the plants, soil, and microorganisms. The results showed that:① the ALP and ACP activities of each treatment in the non-rhizosphere soil were lower than that of CK. In the rhizosphere soil, the ALP activity was significantly increased after the combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer with biochar, and the ACP activity in the rhizosphere soil was higher than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. ② The combined application of biochar with chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers significantly increased the diversity of phoC and phoD genes communities in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils (P<0.05); the diversity and richness of microbial communities in rhizosphere soil were higher than that in non-rhizosphere soils. ③ ACP activity was negatively correlated with phoC gene microbial community, and most ALP activity was positively correlated with phoD microbial community.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Microbiota , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilizantes/análise , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 109, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978623

RESUMO

Mangroves are highly productive unique ecosystems harboring diverse unexplored microbial communities that play crucial roles in nutrient cycling as well as in maintaining ecosystem services. The mangrove-associated microbial communities transform the dead vegetation into nutrient sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, etc. To understand the genetic and functional diversity of the bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycling of this ecosystem, this study explored the diversity and distribution of both the nitrogen fixers and denitrifiers associated with the rhizospheres of Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata, Suaeda maritima, and Salicornia brachiata of the Pichavaram mangroves. A combination of both culturable and unculturable (PCR-DGGE) approaches was adopted to explore the bacterial communities involved in nitrogen fixation by targeting the nifH genes, and the denitrifiers were explored by targeting the nirS and nosZ genes. Across the rhizospheres, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be predominant representing both nitrogen fixers and denitrifiers as revealed by culturable and unculturable analyses. Sequence analysis of soil nifH, nirS and nosZ genes clustered to unculturable, with few groups clustering with culturable groups, viz., Pseudomonas sp. and Halomonas sp. A total of 16 different culturable genera were isolated and characterized in this study. Other phyla like Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were also observed. The PCR-DGGE analysis also revealed the presence of 29 novel nifH sequences that were not reported earlier. Thus, the mangrove ecosystems serve as potential source for identifying unexplored novel microbial communities that contribute to nutrient cycling.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Microbiota/genética , Nitrogênio/análise , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 63, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000019

RESUMO

A novel acidophilic fungal strain isolated from snottites in the active sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) Sheki-Heh Cave (North Caucasus, Chechen Republic) was identified and characterized. The Sheki-Heh Cave is one of three cavities of the joint SAS speleosystem; to date, it remains the only of such cave explored in Russia. Highly acidic biofilms termed snottites are found sporadically on the cave roof in sulfurous water degassing zones. Only dark-colored micromycete colonies were isolated from these microbial biofilms using direct inoculation onto Czapek agar. The dominant fungal isolate was selected for further characterization. This work aimed to identify the micromycete strain isolated from cave snottites and explore its growth characteristics. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA ITS region (540 bp), the novel fungal strain was identified as Acidomyces acidophilum with a similarity level of 99.26%. The physiological properties of the strain were examined; the optimal pH and temperature for its growth were pH 3 and 20-28 °C, respectively. Strain IB-G85 is able to grow under NaCl concentrations up to 3%. Although IB-G85 was isolated from an oligotrophic environment and was growing under nutrient deficiency, it could utilize some sugars and proteins as well as recalcitrant substrates, such as chitin and tannin. Compared to base Czapek-Dox Agar, lactic acid and colloidal chitin as the sole carbon sources enhanced fungal growth by 100 and 59%, respectively. The occurrence of A. acidophilum and closely related fungal species within acidophilic microbial communities inhabiting sulfur-containing ecosystems is discussed in view of their contribution to snottite structure formation in SAS caves.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Microbiota , Biofilmes , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Enxofre
6.
Environ Int ; 158: 106985, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991247

RESUMO

Oral uptake is the primary route of human bisphenol exposure, resulting in an exposure of the intestinal microbiota and intestine-associated immune cells. Therefore, we compared the impact of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) on (i) intestinal microbiota, (ii) microbiota-mediated immunomodulatory effects and (iii) direct effects on mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in vitro. We acutely exposed human fecal microbiota, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Escherichia coli to BPA and its analogues BPF and BPS referring to the European tolerable daily intake (TDI), i.e. 2.3 µg/mL, 28.3 µg/mL and 354.0 µg/mL. Growth and viability of E. coli was most susceptible to BPF, whereas B.thetaiotaomicron and fecal microbiota were affected by BPA > BPF > BPS. At 354.0 µg/mL bisphenols altered microbial diversity in compound-specific manner and modulated microbial metabolism, with BPA already acting on metabolism at 28.3 µg/mL. Microbiota-mediated effects on MAIT cells were observed for the individual bacteria at 354.0 µg/mL only. However, BPA and BPF directly modulated MAIT cell responses at low concentrations, whereby bisphenols at concentrations equivalent for the current TDI had no modulatory effects for microbiota or for MAIT cells. Our findings indicate that acute bisphenol exposure may alter microbial metabolism and impact directly on immune cells.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Intestinos , Fenóis
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113062, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906846

RESUMO

Hg contaminated soils are of concern due to the toxic effects on soil microbes. Currently, the adaptation of bacterial community to long-term Hg contamination remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the effects of Hg contaminated soils on the bacterial communities under controlled conditions using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results showed that the bacterial α-diversity and richness were significant positively correlated with total Hg (p < 0.05). Land-use type, pH, EC, TK, and nitrate-N played important roles in shaping the bacterial communities. Long-term Hg-contaminated soils can be divided into three types based on land use types: slag type, farmland type, and mining area type. The dominant phyla include Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, Acidobacteriota, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. The dominant genera identified were Pseudomonas, Gaiella, Sphingomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides. Network analysis showed that dominant taxa had non-random co-occurrence patterns and module 1 had an important role in responding Hg stress. Keystone genera identified were Bauldia, Phycicoccus, Sphingomonas, Gaiella, Nitrospira. The above results further our understanding of the adaptation of the bacterial community in long-term Hg-contaminated soil. This study has important guiding significance for the use of bacterial consortia to remediate Hg-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
8.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118678, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915097

RESUMO

Plastic debris are accumulating in the marine environment and aggregate microorganisms that form a new ecosystem called the plastisphere. Better understanding the plastisphere is crucial as it has self-sufficient organization and carries pathogens or organisms that may be involved in the pollutant adsorption and/or plastic degradation. To date, the plastisphere is mainly described at the taxonomic level and the functioning of its microbial communities still remains poorly documented. In this work, metagenomic and metaproteomic analyzes were performed on the plastisphere of polypropylene and polyethylene plastic debris sampled on a pebble beach from the Mediterranean Sea. Our results confirmed that the plastisphere was organized as self-sufficient ecosystems containing highly active primary producers, heterotrophs and predators such as nematode. Interestingly, the chemical composition of the polymer did not impact the structure of the microbial communities but rather influenced the functions expressed. Despite the fact that the presence of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was observed in the metagenomes, polymer degradation metabolisms were not detected at the protein level. Finally, hydrocarbon degrader (i.e., Alcanivorax) and pathogenic bacteria (i.e., Vibrionaceae) were observed in the plastispheres but were not very active as no proteins involved in polymer degradation or pathogeny were detected. This work brings new insights into the functioning of the microbial plastisphere developed on plastic marine debris.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Água do Mar , Bactérias/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Plásticos
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 229: 113079, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915222

RESUMO

Oil pollution poses a great threat to environments and makes the remediation of oil-contaminated soils an urgent task. Microorganisms are the main biological factor for oil removal in the environment but microbial remediation is greatly affected by environmental factors. For our research, we inoculated three species of bacterivorous nematodes into oil-contaminated soil to explore how bacterivorous nematodes affect soil microbial activities and community structure in contaminated soil, as well as how efficiently different nematodes remove oil pollution from the soil. Six treatments were set in this experiment: sterilized oil-contaminated soil (SOC); nematode-free soil (S); oil-contaminated soil (OC); oil-contaminated soil + Caenorhabditis elegans (OCN1); oil-contaminated soil + Cephalobus persegnis (OCN2); oil-contaminated soil + Rhabditis marina (OCN3) for a 168-day incubation experiment. After the experiment was done, the oil contents in SOC, OC, OCN1, OCN2, and OCN3 were reduced by 6.5%, 32.3%, 38.2%, 42.8%, and 40.2%, respectively, compared with the beginning of the experiment. The amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of Gram-negative bacteria in OC, OCN1, OCN2, and OCN3 was increased by 50.9%, 43.4%, 37.7%, and 47.9%, respectively, compared with that of S. During the 168-day incubation period, the maximum growth of the number of nematodes in OCN1, OCN2, and OCN3 compared with the initial number of the nematodes were 2.25-, 1.52-, and 1.65-fold, respectively. The amount of oil residue in the contaminated soil negatively correlated with the populations of nematodes, total microorganisms, Gram-negative bacteria, actinomycetes, and eukaryotes. Thus, oil pollution increased the number of Gram-negative bacteria, decreased the ratio of Gram-positive bacteria/Gram-negative bacteria and Fungi/Bacteria significantly, and altered the community structure of soil microorganisms. Each species of bacterivorous nematodes has got its unique effect on the microbial activity and community structure in oil contaminated soils, but those tested can promote oil degradation and thus improve the environment of oil contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nematoides , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 341-349, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969461

RESUMO

As one of the most well-documented biogeographic patterns, the distance-decay relationship provides insights into the underlying mechanisms driving biodiversity distribution. Although wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are well-controlled engineered ecosystems, this pattern has been seen among microbial communities in activated sludge (AS). However, little is known about the relative importance of environmental heterogeneity and dispersal limitation in shaping AS microbial community across China; especially they are related to spatial scale and organism types. Here, we assessed the distance-decay relationship based on different spatial scales and microbial phylogenetic groups by analyzing 132 activated sludge (AS) samples across China comprising 3,379,200 16S rRNA sequences. Our results indicated that the drivers of distance-decay pattern in China were scale-dependent. Microbial biogeographic patterns in WWTPs were mainly driven by dispersal limitation at both local and national scales. In contrast, conductivity, SRT, and pH played dominant roles in shaping AS microbial community compositions at the regional scale. Turnover rates and the drivers of beta-diversity also varied with microorganism populations. Moreover, a quantitative relationship between dispersal limitation ratio and AS microbial turnover rate was generated. Collectively, these results highlighted the importance of considering multiple spatial scales and micro-organism types for understanding microbial biogeography in WWTPs and provided new insights into predicting variations in AS community structure in response to environmental disturbance.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Biodiversidade , China , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 55-64, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969477

RESUMO

The effects of different chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations on the anammox granular sludge with Bamboo Charcoal (BC) addition were evaluated in UASB reactor. The results showed that the average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was reduced from 85.9% to 81.4% when COD concentration was increased from 50 to 150 mg/L. However, the TN removal efficiency of BC addition reactors was dramatically 3.1%-6.4% higher than that without BC under different COD concentrations. The average diameter of granular sludge was 0.13 mm higher than that without BC. The settling velocity was increased by elevated COD concentration, while the EPS and VSS/SS were increased with BC addition. The high-throughput Miseq sequencing analyses revealed that the bacterial diversity and richness were decreased under COD addition, and the Planctomycetes related to anammox bacteria were Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia. The Metagenomic sequencing indicated that the abundance of denitrification related functional genes all increased with elevated COD, while the abundance of anammox related functional genes of decreased. The functional genes related to anammox was hydrazine synthase encoding genes (hzsA, hzsB and hzsB). The average relative abundance of hzs genes in the reactor with BC addition was higher than the control at COD concentrations of 50 mg/L and 150 mg/L. The functional genes of denitrification mediated by BC were higher than those without BC throughout the operation phase. It is interesting to note that BC addition greatly enriched the related functional genes of denitrification and anammox.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
12.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 51(1): 7, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949848

Assuntos
Microbiota , Macrófagos
13.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111947, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454935

RESUMO

The medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) produced from organic wastes can replace part fossil-fuel-based products to promote the sustainable development of economy and environment. However, the selection and collocation of feedstocks for MCFAs production are lack of reference basis. This study thereby aimed to investigate how the commonly used electron donor (ED) and substrate configuration affect MCFAs synthesis and then obtain the optimal substrate composition. It was found that the optimized ratios for ethanol/acetate, lactate/acetate, and ethanol/lactate/acetate were 3/1, 2/1, and 2/1/1, respectively, and the optimal substrate concentration was 400 mM C. Combining ethanol and lactate as co-EDs effectively concentrated substrate-carbon-flow (increased by 20-28% than sole ED) on MCFAs synthesis by promoting the elongation of butyrate and reutilization of by-products. As a result, the higher MCFAs yield of 646.22 mg COD/g COD and selectivity of 67.72% were obtained from co-EDs than those from sole ED. Moreover, the key functional bacteria enriched under different ED were also discrepant, which were Clostridium sensu stricto for ethanol, Corynebacterium for lactate, and Veillonella and Oscillibacter for ethanol-lactate, respectively. This study provided a basic but significant reference for the scale-up MCFAs production.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Microbiota , Acetatos , Etanol , Fermentação
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2349: 137-146, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718994

RESUMO

Metatranscriptomic sequencing enables studying community-wide gene expression profiles of microbial samples and getting functional insight on their up- or downregulated pathways. However, shotgun sequencing is not the most efficient way to study expression of ribosomal RNA genes or to compare lot of samples in experimental setups. Here we describe an efficient primer-independent method for processing and barcoding libraries for directional sequencing of the 5' end region of the RNA. When applying size selection of the original RNA, the method forms an optimal solution for the simultaneous analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic rRNA diversity.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2349: 91-136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718993

RESUMO

High-resolution imaging with secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) has become a standard method in systems biology and environmental biogeochemistry and is broadly used to decipher ecophysiological traits of environmental microorganisms, metabolic processes in plant and animal tissues, and cross-kingdom symbioses. When combined with stable isotope-labeling-an approach we refer to as nanoSIP-nanoSIMS imaging offers a distinctive means to quantify net assimilation rates and stoichiometry of individual cell-sized particles in both low- and high-complexity environments. While the majority of nanoSIP studies in environmental and microbial biology have focused on nitrogen and carbon metabolism (using 15N and 13C tracers), multiple advances have pushed the capabilities of this approach in the past decade. The development of a high-brightness oxygen ion source has enabled high-resolution metal analyses that are easier to perform, allowing quantification of metal distribution in cells and environmental particles. New preparation methods, tools for automated data extraction from large data sets, and analytical approaches that push the limits of sensitivity and spatial resolution have allowed for more robust characterization of populations ranging from marine archaea to fungi and viruses. NanoSIMS studies continue to be enhanced by correlation with orthogonal imaging and 'omics approaches; when linked to molecular visualization methods, such as in situ hybridization and antibody labeling, these techniques enable in situ function to be linked to microbial identity and gene expression. Here we present an updated description of the primary materials, methods, and calculations used for nanoSIP, with an emphasis on recent advances in nanoSIMS applications, key methodological steps, and potential pitfalls.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Archaea , Biologia , Fungos , Marcação por Isótopo , Microbiota
16.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 73-78, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This series of articles, titled The Vaginal Microbiome, written on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, aims to summarize the current findings and understanding of the vaginal bacterial microbiota, mainly regarding areas relevant to clinicians specializing in vulvovaginal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database search of PubMed was performed, using the search terms "vaginal microbiome" (VMB) with "research," "normal," "neonate," "puberty," "adolescent," "menopause," and "ethnicities," as well as "human microbiome project." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. RESULTS: In the last 2 decades, many studies applying molecular techniques were performed, intending to characterize the vaginal microbiota. These studies advanced our understanding of how vaginal health is defined. The first article in this series focuses on the advancement of VMB research, technical definitions, the definition of "normal" VMB, and the dynamics of VMB throughout women's lives. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding how microorganisms inhabiting the vagina interact with each other and with the host is important for a more complete understanding of vaginal health. The clinical application of microbial community sequencing is in its beginning, and its interpretation regarding practical clinical aspects is yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Adolescente , Bactérias , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Menopausa , Pesquisa , Vagina
17.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 79-84, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This series of articles, titled The Vaginal Microbiome (VMB), written on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, aims to summarize the recent findings and understanding of the vaginal bacterial microbiota, mainly regarding areas relevant to clinicians specializing in vulvovaginal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed database was performed, using the search terms "vaginal microbiome" with "dysbiosis," "bacterial vaginosis," "cytolytic vaginosis," "desquamative inflammatory vaginitis," and "aerobic vaginitis." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. RESULTS: The second article in this series focuses on vaginal dysbiotic conditions. Dysbiosis is a term describing imbalances in bacterial communities. Given that lactobacillus-dominated microbiota are thought to be the most optimal, vaginal dysbiosis is usually considered as lactobacilli-depleted VMB. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common vaginal dysbiotic condition, is a polymicrobial disorder, considered the leading cause for vaginal discharge in women worldwide. In addition, we review the VMB in other vaginal conditions associated with lactobacilli depletion: desquamative inflammatory vaginitis and aerobic vaginitis. We also discuss the controversial diagnosis of cytolytic vaginosis, related with lactobacilli overgrowth. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial vaginosis displays complex microbiology. The heterogeneity and diversity within the genus Gardnerella may impact the progression of BV. Bacterial biofilms may contribute to the etiology and persistence of BV, and various bacteria may affect its clinical presentation and pathogenicity. Lack of lactobacilli is not always accompanied by an overgrowth of anaerobes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Vaginose Bacteriana , Disbiose , Feminino , Gardnerella , Humanos , Lactobacillus
18.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 85-92, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This series of articles, titled The Vaginal Microbiome (VMB), written on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, aims to summarize the recent findings and understanding of the vaginal bacterial microbiota, mainly regarding areas relevant to clinicians specializing in vulvovaginal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed database was performed, using the search terms "vaginal microbiome" with "Candida," "vaginitis," "urinary microbiome," "recurrent urinary tract infections," "sexually transmitted infections," "human immunodeficiency virus," "human papillomavirus," "nonspecific vaginitis," "vulvodynia," and "vulvovaginal symptoms." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. The third article in this series describes VMB in various urogenital disorders. RESULTS: Variable patterns of the VMB are found in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, challenging the idea of a protective role of lactobacilli. Highly similar strains of health-associated commensal bacteria are shared in both the bladder and vagina of the same individual and may provide protection against urinary tract infections. Dysbiotic VMB increases the risk of urinary tract infection. Loss of vaginal lactic acid-producing bacteria combined with elevated pH, increase the risk for sexually transmitted infections, although the exact protective mechanisms of the VMB against sexually transmitted infections are still unknown. CONCLUSIONS: The VMB may constitute a biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When the predominance of lactobacilli community is disrupted, there is an increased risk for the acquisition of various vaginal pathogents. Longitudinal studies are needed to describe the association between the host, bacterial, and fungal components of the VMB.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , Microbiota , Bactérias , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus , Vagina
19.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 93-98, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This series of articles, titled The Vaginal Microbiome (VMB), written on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, aims to summarize the recent findings and understanding of the vaginal bacterial microbiota, mainly regarding areas relevant to clinicians specializing in vulvovaginal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed database was performed, using the search terms "vaginal microbiome" with "reproduction," "infertility," "fertility," "miscarriages," "pregnancy" "cervical cancer," "endometrial cancer," and "ovarian cancer." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. RESULTS: The fourth article of this series focuses on 2 distinct areas: the role of VMB in various aspects of human reproduction and, in sharp contrast, the association between the VMB and gynecologic malignancies. Several of the negative pregnancy outcomes have been associated with an altered VMB. Dysbiosis is remarkably linked with poor pregnancy outcomes from preconception to delivery. The associations between the microbiome and gynecologic cancers are described. CONCLUSIONS: The development of the microbiome research, enabled by molecular-based techniques, has dramatically increased the detection of microorganisms and the understanding of bacterial communities that are relevant to maternal-fetal medicine in health and disease, as well as in gynecological malignancies. Proving causation in cancer is difficult because of the complex interactive nature of potential causative factors. Certain elements of the microbiota have been shown to provoke inflammatory reactions, whereas others produce anti-inflammatory reactions; this balance might be impaired with a change in microbial variety.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Microbiota , Bactérias , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodução , Vagina
20.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 26(1): 99-104, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This series of articles, titled The Vaginal Microbiome (VMB), written on behalf of the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease, aims to summarize the recent findings and understanding of the vaginal bacterial microbiota, mainly regarding areas relevant to clinicians specializing in vulvovaginal disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed database was performed, using the search terms "vaginal microbiome" with "treatment," "diagnosis," and "research." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. RESULTS: The currently available approaches for treating vaginitis or attempting to modulate the VMB are often insufficient. It has traditionally relied on the use of antibiotics, antiseptics, and antifungals. The fifth and last article of this series discusses the new and/or alternative therapeutic modalities. It addresses the role of probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics, activated charcoal, biofilm disrupting agents, acidifying agents, phage therapy, and the concept of vaginal microbiome transplant. The challenges facing the research of VMB, including the clinical impact of microbiome manipulation, classification, and new diagnostic approaches are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiome research has grown dramatically in recent years, motivated by innovations in technology and decrease in analysis costs. This research has yielded huge insight into the nature of microbial communities, their interactions, and effects with their hosts and other microbes. Further understanding of the bacterial, fungal, phage, and viral microbiomes in combination with host genetics, immunologic status, and environmental factors is needed to better understand and provide personalized medical diagnostics and interventions to improve women's health.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Humanos
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