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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260566, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374677

RESUMO

Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss. is herbaceous, monecious annual plant used traditionally to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was carried out to find the bioactive compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential acute toxicity, and emetic activity present in the ethyl acetate fraction of Chrozophora tinctoria (EAFCT) and dichloromethane fraction of Chrozophora tinctoria (DCMFCT). The compounds detected in both fractions were mostly fatty acids, with about seven compounds in EAFCT and 10 in DCMFCT. These included pharmacologically active compounds such as imipramine, used to treat depression, or hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, an antioxidant, nematicide, pesticide, hypocholesterolemic, 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- is used as a cancer preventive, antiarthritic, antihistaminic, hepatoprotective, insectifuge, nematicide, Pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester have antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, 10-Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester have the property to decrease blood cholesterol, Antioxidant and antimicrobial, 1-Eicosanol is used as an antibacterial, 1-Hexadecene has antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal activities. Both DCMFCT and EAFCT fractions inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with IC50 values of 10 µg and 130 µg, respectively. Both the fractions were found to be toxic in a dose-dependent manner, inducing emesis at 0.5g onward and lethargy and mortality from 3­5 g upwards. Both the fractions combined with distilled water showed highly emetic activity. The significant increase in the number of vomits was shown by EAFCT plus distilled water which are 7.50±1.29, 7.25±3.10, and 11.75±2.22 number of vomits at 1g, 2g, and 3g/kg concentration respectively, while DCMFCT plus distilled water showed 5.25±2.22, 7.50±2.52 and 10.25±2.22 number of vomits at 1g, 2, and 3g/kg correspondingly. The antiemetic standard drug metoclopramide has a higher impact against the emesis induced by both the fractions than dimenhydrinate. Metoclopramide decreases the number of vomits caused by EAFCT to 1.00±0.00, 2.00±0.00, 4.00±1.00 at 1g, 2, and 3g/kg sequentially, while dimenhydrinate decreases the number of vomits to 1.33±0.58, 2.33±1.15, 4.33±0.58 at 1g, 2, and 3g respectively. In the same way, Metochloprimide decreases the number of emesis caused by DcmCt from 5.25±2.22, 7.50±2.52, 10.25±2.22 to 1.33±0.58, 2.33±1.1, 4.33±0.58 at 1g, 2, and 3g/kg concentrations. The present study is the first documented report that scientifically validates the folkloric use of Chrozophora tinctoria as an emetic agent.


Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss. é uma planta anual herbácea, monoica, usada tradicionalmente para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O presente estudo foi realizado para encontrar os compostos bioativos por Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massa (GC-MS), a toxicidade aguda do potencial inibitório da acetilcolinesterase e a atividade emética presente na fração acetato de etila de Chrozophora tinctoria (EAFCT) e fração diclorometano de Chrozophora tinctoria (DCMFCT). Os compostos detectados em ambas as frações foram principalmente ácidos graxos, com cerca de sete compostos em EAFCT e 10 em DCMFCT. Estes incluíam compostos farmacologicamente ativos, como a imipramina, usada para tratar a depressão, ou éster metílico do ácido hexadecanoico, um antioxidante, nematicida, pesticida, hipocolesterolêmico, ácido 9,12,15-octadecatrienoico, éster etílico, (Z,Z,Z)- é usado como preventivo do câncer, antiartrítico, anti-histamínico, hepatoprotetor, inseticida, nematicida, ácido pentadecanoico, 14-metil-, éster metílico tem atividades antifúngicas, antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, ácido 10-octadecanoico, éster metílico tem a propriedade de diminuir o colesterol no sangue, antioxidante e antimicrobiano, o 1-Eicosanol é usado como antibacteriano, o 1-Hexadeceno possui atividades antibacteriana, antioxidante e antifúngica. Ambas as frações DCMFCT e EAFCT inibiram a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) com valores de IC50 de 10µg e 130µg, respectivamente. Ambas as frações foram consideradas tóxicas de maneira dose-dependente, induzindo vômitos a partir de 0,5g e letargia e mortalidade de 3g a 5g para cima. Ambas as frações combinadas com água destilada apresentaram atividade altamente emética. O aumento significativo no número de vômitos foi demonstrado pelo EAFCT mais água destilada, que são 7,50±1,29, 7,25±3,10 e 11,75±2,22 número de vômitos nas concentrações de 1g, 2g e 3g/kg, respectivamente, enquanto DCMFCT mais água destilada mostrou 5,25±2,22, 7,50±2,52 e 10,25±2,22 número de vômitos em 1g, 2g e 3g/kg, respectivamente. A droga padrão antiemética metoclopramida tem um impacto maior contra a emese induzida por ambas as frações do que o dimenidrinato. A metoclopramida diminui o número de vômitos causados ​​por EAFCT para 1,00±0,00, 2,00±0,00, 4,00±1,00 a 1g, 2g e 3g/kg, sequencialmente, enquanto o dimenidrinato diminui o número de vômitos para 1,33±0,58, 2,33±1,15, 4,33± 0,58 a 1g, 2g e 3g, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, a metocloprimida diminui o número de vômitos causados ​​por DcmCt de 5,25±2,22, 7,50±2,52, 10,25±2,22 para 1,33±0,58, 2,33±1,1, 4,33±0,58 nas concentrações de 1g, 2g e 3g/kg. O presente estudo é o primeiro relato documentado que valida cientificamente o uso folclórico de Chrozophora tinctoria como agente emético.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antieméticos , Antinematódeos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364499

RESUMO

Due to the severe side effects revealed by most of the currently used antidiabetic medicines, search for finding new and safe drugs to manage diabetes is continued. Naphthoquinones possessing strong antioxidant properties have been employed as candidates for diabetes therapy. Present study is aimed at finding the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of some novel derivatives of 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones (PAN) including chloro, nitro, methyl and bromo (5a-d) derivatives synthesized by single pot experiment. Product crystals were purified by TLC and characterized by FT-IR. The antioxidant potential of the compounds was assayed through DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities noted as UV-vis. absorbance. The DPPH assay has showed the powerful antioxidant activity of nitro and bromo derivatives, while the nitro derivative showed the significant reduction potential towards FRAP assay. Hypoglycaemic potential of the compounds was studied in rat animal model. All synthesized compounds revealed better hypoglycaemic activity; however, the chloro-derivative exhibited the more potent hypoglycaemic activity showing about 43% reduction in the mean blood glucose levels of the treated animals. As the bioreduction of naphthoquinones may be influenced by changing its redox properties, it has been noticed that the e-donating resonance effect (+R) of 'chloro' group has shown the significant effects on biological activity through stabalization of its imine form which limits the potential of generation of free radicals during bioreduction of quinones and thus has been proposed as the reason of its hypoglycaemic activity. Future studies employing the properties of e-donating groups of PAN may optimize the drug-receptor interaction for better drug designing and drug development strategies against diabetes and also for the clinical trials.


Em razão dos graves efeitos colaterais causados pela maioria dos medicamentos antidiabéticos atualmente utilizados, continua a busca por novos medicamentos seguros para o controle do diabetes. As naftoquinonas, que possuem fortes propriedades antioxidantes, têm sido empregadas como candidatas à terapia do diabetes. O presente estudo visa encontrar o potencial antioxidante e hipoglicemiante de alguns novos derivados de 2-fenilamino-1,4-naftoquinonas (PAN), incluindo derivados de cloro, nitro, metil e bromo (5a-d) sintetizados por experimento em pote único. Os cristais do produto foram purificados por TLC e caracterizados por FT-IR. O potencial antioxidante dos compostos foi testado por meio de atividades de sequestro de radicais DPPH e redução de energia observada como absorção no UV-vis. O ensaio DPPH mostrou a poderosa atividade antioxidante dos derivados nitro e bromo, enquanto o derivado nitro mostrou o potencial de redução significativo para o ensaio FRAP. O potencial hipoglicêmico dos compostos foi estudado em modelo animal de rato. Todos os compostos sintetizados revelaram melhor atividade hipoglicemiante; no entanto, o derivado cloro apresentou atividade hipoglicêmica mais potente, com redução de 43% nos níveis médios de glicose no sangue dos animais tratados. Como a biorredução de naftoquinonas pode ser influenciada pela alteração de suas propriedades redox, notou-se que o efeito da doação eletrônica por ressonância (+R) do grupo "cloro" tem sido significativo na atividade biológica por meio da estabilização de sua forma imina, que limita o potencial de geração de radicais livres durante a biorredução de quinonas, e, portanto, tem sido proposto como a razão de sua atividade hipoglicemiante. Estudos futuros empregando as propriedades de grupos de doação eletrônica de PAN podem otimizar a interação droga-receptor para melhor planejamento de medicamentos e estratégias de desenvolvimento de medicamentos contra o diabetes e também para os ensaios clínicos.


Assuntos
Ratos , Modelos Animais , Diabetes Mellitus , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Hipoglicemiantes , Antioxidantes
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 375: 69-76, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610527

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were to simulate low-level Pb exposure scenario in an animal model and to examine reproductive adverse effects. Based on obtained data, we have performed Benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling. Male Wistar rats were randomized in seven groups (n = 6): one control and six treated with: 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 7, and 15 mg Pb/kg body weight, daily for 28 days by oral gavage. The rats were sacrificed and the blood and testes were used for further analysis of testosterone levels in serum, testicular essential metal levels and histological analysis. The Pb treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease of serum testosterone levels with a negative trend (BMDI 0.17-6.13 mg Pb/kg). Increase of Zn (dose-dependent, BMDI 0.004-19.7 mg Pb/kg) and Cu and a decrease of Mn testicular levels were also detected with unscathed histology of the testes. The presented results might be used in further evaluation of the point of departure in human health risk assessment for Pb.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Testículo , Testosterona , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Benchmarking , Chumbo/administração & dosagem , Chumbo/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/química , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais
4.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677821

RESUMO

B. crassifolia is a species that grows in various areas of Latin America. It was known to be useful for the treatment of different human ailments. The present work evaluated the neuropharmacological and analgesic effects of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts of B. crassifolia. The effect on the central nervous system (CNS) of both extracts obtained from bark, administered by the intraperitoneal route in mice, was evaluated by different tests: spontaneous motor activity, hole-board, motor coordination, pentobarbital induced hypnosis, and rectal temperature. Analgesic activity was evaluated using a hot plate test. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed-phase and gradient of elution. The hydroalcoholic extract (dose 0.5 g dry plant/kg weigh) administration caused an important reduction of the head-dipping response in the hole board test. A decrease in spontaneous motor activity test and a disturbance of motor coordination in the rotarod test was observed. The hydroalcoholic extract produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time. This extract prevented hot plate test induced nociception. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B12. Therefore, this study revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of B. crassifolia possesses analgesic and sedative CNS activity.


Assuntos
Pentobarbital , Extratos Vegetais , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pentobarbital/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Atividade Motora , Casca de Planta , Comportamento Animal , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais
5.
Am J Sports Med ; 51(1): 237-249, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chondrocyte-based cell therapy to repair cartilage has been used for >25 years despite current limitations. This work presents a new treatment option for cartilage lesions. HYPOTHESIS: High-quality hyaline cartilage microtissues called Cartibeads are capable of treating focal chondral lesions once implanted in the defect, by complete fusion of Cartibeads among themselves and their integration with the surrounding native cartilage and subchondral bone. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Cartibeads were first produced from human donors and characterized using histology (safranin O staining of glycosaminoglycan [GAG] and immunohistochemistry of collagen I and II) and GAG dosage. Cartibeads from 6 Göttingen minipigs were engineered and implanted in an autologous condition in the knee (4 or 5 lesions per knee). One group was followed up for 3 months and the other for 6 months. Feasibility and efficacy were measured using histological analysis and macroscopic and microscopic scores. RESULTS: Cartibeads revealed hyaline features with strong staining of GAG and collagen II. High GAG content was obtained: 24.6-µg/mg tissue (wet weight), 15.52-µg/mg tissue (dry weight), and 35 ± 3-µg GAG/bead (mean ± SD). Histological analysis of Göttingen minipigs showed good integration of Cartibeads grafts at 3 and 6 months after implantation. The Bern Score of the histological assay comparing grafted versus empty lesions was significant at 3 months (grafted, n = 10; nongrafted, n = 4; score, 3.3 and 5.3, respectively) and 6 months (grafted, n = 11; nongrafted, n = 3; score, 1.6 and 5.1). CONCLUSION: We developed an innovative 3-step method allowing, for the first time, the use of fully dedifferentiated adult chondrocytes with a high number of cell passage (owing to the extensive amplification in culture). Cartibeads engineered from chondrocytes hold potential as an advanced therapy medicinal product for treating cartilage lesions with established efficacy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This successful preclinical study, combined with standardized manufacturing of Cartibeads according to good manufacturing practice guidelines, led to the approval of first-in-human clinical trial by the ethics committee and local medical authority. The generated data highlighted a promising therapy to treat cartilage lesions from a small amount of starting biopsy specimen. With our innovative cell amplification technology, very large lesions can be treated, and older active patients can benefit from it.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Cartilagem Hialina , Humanos , Adulto , Suínos , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/transplante , Porco Miniatura , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Colágeno , Glicosaminoglicanos , Modelos Animais , Transplante Autólogo
6.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680198

RESUMO

The order Mononegavirales contains a variety of highly pathogenic viruses that may infect humans, including the families Filoviridae, Bornaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Rhabodoviridae. Animal models have historically been important to study virus pathogenicity and to develop medical countermeasures. As these have inherent shortcomings, the rise of microphysiological systems and organoids able to recapitulate hallmarks of the diseases caused by these viruses may have enormous potential to add to or partially replace animal modeling in the future. Indeed, microphysiological systems and organoids are already used in the pharmaceutical R&D pipeline because they are prefigured to overcome the translational gap between model systems and clinical studies. Moreover, they may serve to alleviate ethical concerns related to animal research. In this review, we discuss the value of animal model alternatives in human pathogenic filovirus and bornavirus research. The current animal models and their limitations are presented followed by an overview of existing alternatives, such as organoids and microphysiological systems, which might help answering open research questions.


Assuntos
Bornaviridae , Filoviridae , Animais , Humanos , Bornaviridae/genética , Modelos Animais
7.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680219

RESUMO

The rise of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is a major health concern, especially with regard to members of the ESKAPE group, to which vancomycin-resistant (VRE) Enterococcus faecium belongs. Phage therapy has emerged as a novel alternative for the treatment of AMR infections. This, however, relies on the isolation and characterisation of a large collection of phages. This work describes the exploration of human faeces as a source of new E. faecium-infecting phages. Phage vB_EfaH_163 was isolated and characterised at the microbiological, genomic, and functional levels. vB_EfaH_163 phage, a new member of Herelleviridae, subfamily Brockvirinae, has a dsDNA genome of 150,836 bp that does not harbour any virulence factors or antibiotic resistance genes. It infects a wide range of E. faecium strains of different origins, including VRE strains. Interestingly, it can also infect Enterococcus faecalis strains, even some that are linezolid-resistant. Its capacity to control the growth of a clinical VRE isolate was shown in broth culture and in a Galleria mellonella animal model. The discovery and characterisation of vB_EfaH_163 increases the number of phages that might be used therapeutically against AMR bacteria.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Enterococcus faecium , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Mariposas , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina , Humanos , Animais , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Mariposas/microbiologia , Modelos Animais , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Kidney Int ; 103(2): 251-253, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681452

RESUMO

The major form of membranous nephropathy is characterized by autoantibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1). The study by Tomas et al. describes the first animal model where human PLA2R1 is ectopically expressed in mouse podocytes. Intriguingly, the transgenic mice spontaneously develop anti-human PLA2R1 antibodies and membranous nephropathy-like features, including immune deposits and nephrotic syndrome. The model raises questions about the spontaneous production of anti-human PLA2R1 antibodies and the additional steps to establish a bona fide animal model of membranous nephropathy.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Síndrome Nefrótica , Podócitos , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/genética , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/genética , Modelos Animais , Autoanticorpos
9.
J Vis Exp ; (191)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688539

RESUMO

Corneal wound healing studies have been conducted for a long time and have helped to reduce suffering and develop treatments that contribute to improving patients' eye health. Historically, corneal healing has been studied in rodents such as mice and rats, but these models might not completely mimic human disorders. However, information on other rodents such as Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) is scant in corneal research. Here, we describe a technique to develop a novel animal model for studying corneal healing after photorefractive keratectomy. Due to the limited literature available on the cornea of M. unguiculatus, we also describe a histological analysis of the normal cornea. These research techniques can also be employed in the study of eye diseases because of the similarity between the corneas of Mongolian gerbils and humans in terms of genetics, anatomy, and physiology.


Assuntos
Córnea , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Gerbillinae , Córnea/cirurgia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Modelos Animais
10.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671561

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the principal reason for failure in developing drug candidates. It is the most common reason to withdraw from the market after a drug has been approved for clinical use. In this context, data from animal models, liver function tests, and chemical properties could complement each other to understand DILI events better and prevent them. Since the chemical space concept improves decision-making drug design related to the prediction of structure-property relationships, side effects, and polypharmacology drug activity (uniquely mentioning the most recent advances), it is an attractive approach to combining different phenomena influencing DILI events (e.g., individual "chemical spaces") and exploring all events simultaneously in an integrated analysis of the DILI-relevant chemical space. However, currently, no systematic methods allow the fusion of a collection of different chemical spaces to collect different types of data on a unique chemical space representation, namely "consensus chemical space." This study is the first report that implements data fusion to consider different criteria simultaneously to facilitate the analysis of DILI-related events. In particular, the study highlights the importance of analyzing together in vitro and chemical data (e.g., topology, bond order, atom types, presence of rings, ring sizes, and aromaticity of compounds encoded on RDKit fingerprints). These properties could be aimed at improving the understanding of DILI events.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Animais , Consenso , Modelos Animais , Fenômenos Químicos
11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(1)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671971

RESUMO

The human gut is responsible for food digestion and absorption. Recently, growing evidence has shown its vital role in the proper functioning of other organs. Advances in microfluidic technologies have made a significant impact on the biomedical field. Specifically, organ-on-a-chip technology (OoC), which has become a popular substitute for animal models, is capable of imitating complex systems in vitro and has been used to study pathology and pharmacology. Over the past decade, reviews published focused more on the applications and prospects of gut-on-a-chip (GOC) technology, but the challenges and solutions to these limitations were often overlooked. In this review, we cover the physiology of the human gut and review the engineering approaches of GOC. Fundamentals of GOC models including materials and fabrication, cell types, stimuli and gut microbiota are thoroughly reviewed. We discuss the present GOC model applications, challenges, possible solutions and prospects for the GOC models and technology.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672936

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) encompasses the range of deleterious outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the affected offspring, including developmental delay, intellectual disability, attention deficits, and conduct disorders. Several factors contribute to the risk for and severity of FASD, including the timing, dose, and duration of PAE and maternal factors such as age and nutrition. Although poorly understood, genetic factors also contribute to the expression of FASD, with studies in both humans and animal models revealing genetic influences on susceptibility. In this article, we review the literature related to the genetics of FASD in humans, including twin studies, candidate gene studies in different populations, and genetic testing identifying copy number variants. Overall, these studies suggest different genetic factors, both in the mother and in the offspring, influence the phenotypic outcomes of PAE. While further work is needed, understanding how genetic factors influence FASD will provide insight into the mechanisms contributing to alcohol teratogenicity and FASD risk and ultimately may lead to means for early detection and intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/genética , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Mães , Etanol/toxicidade , Modelos Animais
13.
Acta Cir Bras ; 37(12): e371206, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651431

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the influence of occlusive dressing on the healing of excisional skin wounds in mice. METHODS: Pre-clinical, comparative, and translational study. Mice were divided into three experimental groups: wounds occluded with hydrocolloid (HD) dressings, transparent polyurethane film (TF) dressings, and without occlusion (WO), monitored at three, six and 14 days, with eight animals each. Closure rate, infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, measurement of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and, histologically, angiogenesis were evaluated. RESULTS: Wound closure was accelerated in the occlusive groups. There was a decrease in TNF-α levels in the HD group when compared to the WO and TF groups. Neutrophils accumulation decreased in the HD group. Increased dosages of macrophages were evidenced in the HD group, compared to the WO and TF groups. Levels of VEGF were increased in the TF and HD groups. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the occlusion of wounds modulates the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Curativos Oclusivos , Pele , Camundongos , Animais , Pele/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Modelos Animais
14.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678189

RESUMO

Phytoestrogens are literally estrogenic substances of plant origin. Although these substances are useful for plants in many aspects, their estrogenic properties are essentially relevant to their predators. As such, phytoestrogens can be considered to be substances potentially dedicated to plant-predator interaction. Therefore, it is not surprising to note that the word phytoestrogen comes from the early discovery of estrogenic effects in grazing animals and humans. Here, several compounds whose activities have been discovered at nutritional concentrations in animals and humans are examined. The substances analyzed belong to several chemical families, i.e., the flavanones, the coumestans, the resorcylic acid lactones, the isoflavones, and the enterolignans. Following their definition and the evocation of their role in plants, their metabolic transformations and bioavailabilities are discussed. A point is then made regarding their health effects, which can either be beneficial or adverse depending on the subject studied, the sex, the age, and the physiological status. Toxicological information is given based on official data. The effects are first presented in humans. Animal models are evoked when no data are available in humans. The effects are presented with a constant reference to doses and plausible exposure.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Fitoestrógenos , Humanos , Animais , Fitoestrógenos/efeitos adversos , Isoflavonas/efeitos adversos , Plantas , Estrogênios , Modelos Animais
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(1): e32589, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607848

RESUMO

Most studies on human lung infection have been performed using animal models, formalin or other fixed tissues, and in vitro cultures of established cell lines. However, the experimental data and results obtained from these studies may not completely represent the complicated molecular events that take place in intact human lung tissue in vivo. The newly developed ex vivo short-term tissue culture model can mimic the in vivo microenvironment of humans and allow investigations of different cell types that closely interact with each other in intact human lung tissues. Therefore, this kind of model may be a promising tool for future studies of different human lung infections, owing to its special advantages in providing more realistic events that occur in vivo. In this review, we have summarized the preliminary applications of this novel short-term ex vivo tissue culture model, with a particular emphasis on its applications in some common human lung infections.


Assuntos
Pulmão , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais
16.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 23(1): 32-45, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626070

RESUMO

Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites is a medicinal plant of enormous traditional use with insufficient scientific evidence. This research screened the antioxidative effect of L. spinosa extracts by measuring the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity, Iron-chelating activity, and Ferric reducing power followed by an evaluation of in vivo cardioprotective effect in doxorubicin-induced Wistar Albino rats. Phytochemical characterization was made by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopic analysis. L. spinosa showed an excellent antioxidative effect while methanol leaf extract (LSM) was found to be more potent than ethyl acetate leaf extract (LSE) in scavenging the free radicals. Intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin caused a significant (P < 0.001) increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK-MB), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Cardiac troponin I. Pretreatment with orally administrated (LSM100 and LSM200 mg/kg b.w.) daily for 10 days showed a decrease in the cardiac markers, lipid profiles, especially triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to the disease control group. LSM200 was found to significantly (P < 0.05) decrease the levels of CK-MB and LDH. It also restored TC, TG, and LDL levels compared to the doxorubicin-induced cardiac control group. The protective role of LSM was further confirmed by histopathological examination. This study thus demonstrates that L. spinosa methanol extract could be approached as an alternative supplement for cardiotoxicity, especially in the chemical-induced toxicity of cardiac tissues.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Metanol , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(2): 991-993, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617948

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) are widely detected in food and the human environment. More studies have begun to pay attention to the influence of MPs and NPs on genetics; in particular, exposure of paternal generation to MPs and NPs on epigenetic inheritance and the offspring of animal models have attracted considerable interest. In this Viewpoint, we mainly discuss the suggestion that reproductive genetic changes in the male parent have the potential to be transferred to the offspring and illustrate how MPs and NPs in the father tissues are distributed in later generations. We provide a systematic understanding of the potential health hazards of paternal exposure to MPs and NPs to subsequent generations and put forth recommendations about the epigenetic effects for future research on public health and food safety.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Herança Paterna , Reprodução , Modelos Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Investig Clin Urol ; 64(1): 91-101, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the performance of a new multi-degree-of-freedom articulating laparoscopic instrument, ArtiSential, and compared it with that of a straight-shaped instrument and the da Vinci surgical system, in renal surgery using porcine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine female Yorkshire pigs were equally divided into three groups. The three groups were compared at each surgical step in terms of objective and subjective parameters. RESULTS: The median operative times for renal pedicle clamping and ureter dissection were significantly shorter in ArtiSential group than robotic group (1.3 min vs. 4.7 min, p=0.002; 8.1 min vs. 11.1 min, p=0.015). The median operative time for bladder repair was significantly longer in ArtiSential group than robotic and straight-shaped groups (17.9 min vs. 5.5 min, p=0.002; 17.9 min vs. 9.3 min, p=0.026). There were no significant differences among groups in terms of blood loss or intraoperative complications. ArtiSential device was less useable for renorrhaphy (p=0.009) and bladder repair (p=0.002) compared to the robotic system. ArtiSential group was less accurate than robotic group in terms of tumor resection, renorrhaphy, and bladder repair. During ureter dissection, bladder cuff excision, and bladder repair, the surgeon experienced greater wrist discomfort but lesser back discomfort in ArtiSential group than robotic group. CONCLUSIONS: For most steps, ArtiSential performed as well as robotic and straight-shaped instruments. The development of specialized surgical techniques for ArtiSential will maximize the advantages of these instruments.


Assuntos
Rim , Laparoscopia , Animais , Feminino , Rim/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Robótica , Suínos , Ureter/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/instrumentação , Modelos Animais , Duração da Cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2023: 7285036, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647426

RESUMO

Background: Available data suggest inhibition of the pancreatic local-renin-angiotensin system (RAS) reduces tissue complications of diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Securigera securidaca (S. securidaca) (HESS) on the pancreatic local-RAS and its alternative pathway. Methods: Three doses of HESS were orally administered to three groups of diabetic male Wistar rats, and the results were compared with both diabetic and healthy control groups. After 35 days of treatment, the groups were assessed for the levels of pancreatic local-RAS components, including renin, angiotensinogen, ACE, and Ang II, as well as ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) in the alternative pathway. The effect of herbal medicine treatment on tissue damage status was investigated by evaluating tissue levels of oxidative stress, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and through histopathological examination of the pancreas. Results: HESS showed a dose-dependent palliative effect on the tissue oxidative stress profile (P < 0.05) as well as the levels of pancreatic local-RAS components (P < 0.05), compared to diabetic control group. Considering the interrelationship between tissue oxidative stress and local-RAS activity, the moderating effect of HESS on this relationship could be attributed to the increase in total tissue antioxidant capacity (TAC) and pancreatic Ang-(1-7) concentration. Decrease in local-RAS activity was associated with decrease in the tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1, IL6, and TNFα) (P < 0.05) and increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine of IL-10 (P < 0.05). In addition, histological results were consistent with tissue biochemical results. Conclusions: Due to the reduction of local pancreatic RAS activity as well as oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines following treatment with HESS, S. securidaca seed can be proposed as a suitable herbal supplement in the drug-treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Extratos Vegetais , Securidaca , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Angiotensina II , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Pâncreas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Securidaca/química , Sementes/química , Estreptozocina , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo
20.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615865

RESUMO

Salt ingestion by animals and humans has been noted from prehistory. The search for salt is largely driven by a physiological need for sodium. There is a large body of literature on sodium intake in laboratory rats, but the vast majority of this work has used male rats. The limited work conducted in both male and female rats, however, reveals sex differences in sodium intake. Importantly, while humans ingest salt every day, with every meal and with many foods, we do not know how many of these findings from rodent studies can be generalized to men and women. This review provides a synthesis of the literature that examines sex differences in sodium intake and highlights open questions. Sodium serves many important physiological functions and is inextricably linked to the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis. Indeed, from a motivated behavior perspective, the drive to consume sodium has largely been studied in conjunction with the study of thirst. This review will describe the neuroendocrine controls of fluid balance, mechanisms underlying sex differences, sex differences in sodium intake, changes in sodium intake during pregnancy, and the possible neuronal mechanisms underlying these differences in behavior. Having reviewed the mechanisms that can only be studied in animal experiments, we address sex differences in human dietary sodium intake in reproduction, and with age.


Assuntos
Apetite , Sódio na Dieta , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Sódio , Sede/fisiologia , Modelos Animais
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