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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 71, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994862

RESUMO

The two adjacent estuaries of the rivers Mandovi and Zuari, along the Goa coast in the central west coast of India, are a large complex aquatic system hosting diverse natural habitats. The water quality in these habitats is affected by various anthropogenic activities as they are extensively used for transportation, fisheries and various recreational activities. In the present study, changes in the water quality and levels of microbial pollution during the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were determined. The water quality index was estimated based on the parameters: temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients. The seasonal changes in the microbial pollution load were also assessed based on the abundance of pollution indicator organisms and their resistivity towards multiple antibiotics. Results show that the water quality index status was 'poor' in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and it was 'good' only in the monsoon period. Levels of pollution indicator organisms determined show that the counts were the highest in the pre-monsoon season, which reduced in the monsoon and further declined during the post-monsoon season. However, the estimated multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index suggests that bacterial isolates in monsoonal water and sediment samples have maximum resistance towards antibiotics. This shows that, though the basic water quality improved during the monsoon, possibly due to substantial dilution, the increased terrestrial inputs brought harmful pathogens into these estuarine waters, which may be of potential health risk. Understanding the ecological status of the estuarine habitats is important for successful environmental management and sustainable development.


Assuntos
Estuários , Qualidade da Água , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Estações do Ano
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 68, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994857

RESUMO

Atmospheric wet deposition (AWD) is closely related to air quality, and excessive deposition poses risks to ecological systems and human health. Seasonal and interannual variations in acidity, electric conductivity (EC), ionic composition, fluxes, sources, and atmospheric transport of AWD were analyzed at an urban site in Xi'an from 2016 to 2019. The annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH and EC values were 6.8 and 40.6 µS cm-1, respectively. NO3- (47%) was the most dominant anion, while Ca2+ (34%) was the most dominant cation. The analysis of fractional acidity (FA) and neutralization factors (NFs) showed that 96% of the acidity was neutralized by alkaline constituents, especially Ca2+ and NH4+. The annual AWD flux of total ions was 125.9 kg ha-1 year-1, and NO3-, NO2-, SO42- and NH4+ fluxes accounted for approximately 70%, indicating considerable sulfur (9.1 kg ha-1 year-1) and nitrogen (22.0 kg ha-1 year-1) deposition. Under dilution by precipitation, the EC and major ion concentrations were lower, while the pH and fluxes were higher, in summer and autumn, and the opposite results were observed in spring and winter. The source apportionment via by positive matrix factorization (PMF) revealed that the six sources of major ions were confirmed as follows: vehicular emissions (38.1%), agriculture (22.3%), fossil fuel combustion (13.8%), crust (12.9%), marine (9.6%), and biomass burning (3.3%). And on the basis of back trajectory analysis, the air masses of precipitation were primarily from the northwest in spring and winter, from the southeast in summer, and from various directions in autumn, and they transported different natural and anthropogenic pollutants along their paths, thereby affecting the chemical composition and fluxes of AWD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 69, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994867

RESUMO

An investigation of water quality and heavy metal distribution in the groundwater samples collected from the vicinity of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Narora, India, was conducted for the metals including Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb, and Fe. A total of 16 water quality parameters were measured for all the groundwater samples, and TDS, TH, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, and turbidity were found to be on the higher side in comparison to the prescribed limits of Indian standards. Geometrical mean concentrations for these heavy metals were found to be 0.049, 0.213, 0.23, 0.135, 0.017, 0.061, and BDL for Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni, respectively. Pb and Cd were more than the permissible limits (0.01 mg/L for Pb and 0.003 for Cd) prescribed for safe drinking water while Cu and Fe were exceeding the permissible limits of 0.05 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L in 32% and 36% samples, respectively. Health risk assessment was done by calculating total hazard quotient (THQ), and the values for all the metals were below the threshold value of 1.0 beyond which they may pose a significant risk.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 70, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994870

RESUMO

Biochar derived from banana peels can be used as an alternative nutrient in the soil that can promote crop growth while reducing fertiliser usage. Biochar stability has proportional relationship to biochar residence time in the soil and potassium is one of the vital nutrients needed for plant growth. This research aims at providing optimum pyrolysis operating conditions like temperature, residence time, and heating rate using banana peels as feedstock. An electrical tubular furnace was used to conduct the pyrolysis process to convert banana peels into biochar. The elemental compositions of biochar are potassium, oxygen (O), and carbon (C) content. The O:C ratio was used as the biochar stability indicator. Analysis of results showed that operating temperature has the most remarkable effect on biochar yield, biochar stability, and biochar's potassium content. In addition, a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network model was developed for the pyrolysis process. Eleven training algorithms were selected to model the multi-input multi-output neural network (MIMO). The most suitable training algorithm was identified through four performance criterions which are root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and regression (R2). The results show that the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm has the lowest error. From the chosen training algorithm, neural network was trained, and optimum operating parameters for banana peel were predicted at 490 °C, 110 min, and 11 °C/min with a high yield of 47.78%, O/C ratio of 0.2393, and 14.04 wt. % of potassium.


Assuntos
Musa , Pirólise , Carvão Vegetal , Monitoramento Ambiental , Redes Neurais de Computação , Nutrientes , Solo , Temperatura
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 92, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028760

RESUMO

Monitoring and determining the amount of water in reservoirs is of great importance in terms of water planning and management. This study proposes a geographic information system (GIS)-based methodology to estimate the water volume changes in water reservoirs. Two specific methods are proposed using Australian National University's Digital Elevation Model (ANUDEM) raster surface and Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) surface models, both utilizing normalized difference water index (NDWI) of Sentinel 2A satellite images for water-covered area and coastline and digital elevation model (DEM) for 3D modelling of the reservoir. The most crucial part of this study is the comprehensive evaluation of the model findings considering hydrological, meteorological and anthropogenic factors, simultaneously. Application of the proposed methods is provided for the analysis of the multi-temporal water volume changes of Bayramiç Dam Lake (Çanakkale, Turkey) in two hydrological periods covering the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 water years. The results indicate that the TINS model produced water volume values much closer to the in situ Turkish General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSI) values than the ANUDEM model. The performance of these methods was also assessed by the temporal dynamics of surface hydrological processes. Regarding the water storage dynamics, hydro-meteorological factors influence the water input, while anthropogenic factors strongly influence the water output. Water consumption for irrigation and electricity generation was found to be the most important water budget components of the total water consumption.


Assuntos
Lagos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Água
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 93, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028740

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles as emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment are a subject of increasing concern in terms of the effect on water sources and marine organisms. There is lack of information about pharmaceutical-nanoplastic and pharmaceutical-microplastic mixtures. The present study aimed to investigate the fate and effect of pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles, the results of combinations of pharmaceutical residues with nanoplastic and microplastic particles, and toxic effects of pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles. Moreover, the objective was also to introduce analytical methods for pharmaceuticals, along with instrumental techniques for nanoplastic and microplastic particles in aquatic environments and organisms. PhAC alone can affect marine environments and aquatic organisms. When pharmaceutical residues combine with nanoplastic and microplastic particles, the rate of toxicity increases, and the result of this phenomenon constitutes this kind of pollutant in wastewater. Hence, the rate of mortality in organisms enhances. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pharmaceuticals residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles, and a mixture of pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles in aquatic biota. Another object was survey methods for recognizing pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles. The findings show that pharmaceutical residues in organisms caused cell structure damage, inflammatory response, and nerve cell apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of microplastic particles in the human food chain and their impact on human health. Moreover, this review aims to present an innovative methodology based on comprehensive analytical techniques used to determine and identify pharmaceuticals adsorbed on nano- and microplastics in aquatic ecosystems. Finally, this review addresses the knowledge gaps and provides insights into future research strategies to better understand their interactions.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 72, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997305

RESUMO

Knowing the composition of animals present in aquatic ecosystems can tell us about the anthropic pressures on these environments. One of these pressures is the occurrence of fecal contamination. However, this contamination can originate from more than one animal species in areas where urban and agricultural activities overlap. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has become the standard barcoding tool to identify the presence of animal species in environment. Amplicon-sequencing metagenomics is a powerful approach to derive the animal profile in an environment. However, PCR primers targeting mtDNA of a broad range of animals are highly degenerate or generate short DNA fragments that could cause ambiguous affiliation. Here we report the development of a new set of primers targeting the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes of a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic animals, which include mammals, birds, and fishes. These primers successfully amplified mtDNA from environmental DNA (eDNA) extracted from surface waters. Sequencing the resulting amplicons revealed the presence of mammals and birds that may contribute in fecal contamination of surface water. In one of the river samples high in fecal indicator bacteria, human and bovine mtDNA accounted for 40.5% and 4.1% of the sequences, respectively, suggesting fecal contamination by these two animals. These findings indicate that our PCR primers coupled with amplicon-sequencing metagenomics contribute in profiling the animal diversity in the surface waters and its surrounding. This approach could be a valuable tool to identify simultaneously the potential contribution of various animals as sources of fecal contamination in surface waters.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Bovinos , DNA Mitocondrial , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Peixes/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos/genética , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 74, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997868

RESUMO

National Key Ecological Functions Areas (NKEFAs) in China perform critical ecological functions and play a key role in ensuring the ecological safety of a large region or the whole country. Conservation planning in NKEFAs needs to scientifically locate conservation areas and development sites to support the "globally conserved, locally developed" strategy. However, popular conservation planning approaches often underestimate the impacts of natural and anthropogenic stressors and thus fail to handle the conflicts between conservation and development goals. This article proposes a conservation planning framework (CP-NKEFA) to overcome the limitations of popular conservation planning approaches and fulfill the conservation planning requirements of China's NKEFAs. Conservation planning is converted to an ecological risk assessment problem to integrate natural and anthropogenic stressors analysis with ecosystem service (ES) evaluation. The framework clarifies stressor types and quantifies stressor risks and ES importance to set conservation, development, and buffer zones. As a case study, the framework was implemented in Changyang County, China, an NKEFA for water and soil retention in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The framework is more useful than typical ecological redline zoning for instructing conservation and development spatial arrangement with a multi-category zoning scheme. The zoning results protect the areas vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic stressors or significant for ES provisions. Furthermore, the buffer zone prevents direct impacts of human activities on conservation areas and permits trade-offs between conservation and development goals. Except for NKEFAs, the framework also applies to conservation planning in other areas where conservation and development goals must be handled.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 73, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997874

RESUMO

Many studies have computed the carbon dioxide emissions (CO2Es) associated with energy consumption, overall population, imports, manufacturing industries, and financial development in various countries. However, past studies have ignored the impact of CO2Es on fossil fuel energy, domestic economy, rural-urban unemployment, rural-urban population, services value-added, and fiscal deficit, especially in the context of Pakistan. Thus, to avoid the problems of mis-specification, sustainable growth, and carbon reduction simultaneously, it is necessary to study how to accomplish the time-varying relationship between factors. The present study applied autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model for cointegration between CO2Es and its determinants to test long-run and short-run effects from 1975 to 2018. The findings are as follows: first, in the short run, CO2Es, fossil fuel, and services value added show the unidirectional causality, while CO2Es, economic growth, rural-urban population, rural-urban unemployment, and fiscal deficit have bidirectional causality among them. Second, in the long run, we found bidirectional causality between CO2Es and its determinants. Finally, the diagnostic estimations, cumulative sum, and cumulative sum of squares check the long-run association between the selected variables and present the constancy of coefficients. The empirical outcomes give new insights for policymakers to regulate renewable technology investment in the energy sector for the improvement of environmental excellence. Related to the key results, the focused policies are presented below.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fatores Econômicos , Paquistão
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 75, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000017

RESUMO

For hydrological analysis, it is essential to have continuous and long-term precipitation data. However, the precipitation data from rain gauge stations are often insufficient and not continuous. At present, ground-based gridded data and satellite-based gridded data are often used as an alternative. However, these data sets have to be evaluated for their suitability in hydrological studies. The current study compared three different rainfall data sources with the observed station data for the Kallada River basin of Kerala, India. The ground-based gridded rainfall data from the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the high-resolution satellite product Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B43, version 7), and the reanalysis data Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) are used in the analysis. The correlation coefficient, normalized root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, modified index of agreement, and volumetric efficiency are used as performance indicators. The performance indicator's weights are based on the entropy method. The multi-criteria decision-making techniques like compromise programming and Preference Ranking Organization Method (PROMETHEE II) are used for ranking the precipitation data sources. It is found that IMD ground-based gridded data is ranked 1 among the three data sets. The IMD ground-based gridded data are not homogeneous based on the absolute homogeneity test, even though they had the highest rank. The IMD gridded data are further corrected based on double mass curve analysis. The corrected data were analyzed using the precipitation concentration index (PCI) to assess the temporal variation in precipitation, and it was found that the location falls under a uniform distribution zone.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrologia , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Chuva , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 76, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001186

RESUMO

Available quality groundwater resources are declining globally due to population growth, agricultural activities, industrialization, and urbanization. Wells in Bahabad Plain, located in Yazd Province, Iran, are the primary source of water demanded by humans for drinking and agricultural activities. Hence, it is pivotal to examine the quality of groundwater resources, which is the main objective of this study. To this end, seventeen water samples collected in the region were using standard sampling methods, and ten parameters were examined from the samples, namely pH, TH, TDS, SO4, HCO3, Cl-, K+, Ca+, Mg+, and Na+. Water quality index (WQI) was used to determine water quality, and SI, GODS, and DRASTIC methods were used to examine aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Schoeller's diagram indicated that 11% of the samples were at an excellent level; 33% were at a drinkable level; 20% were at a not-suitable level for drinking; 26% were terrible for drinking; and 10% were at an almost non-drinkable level. According to WQI results, 23.53% of the samples had no limitation for drinking, 35.29 were of low quality, 17.65% were of inferior quality, and 23.53% were non-drinkable. The GODS method results indicated that the eastern, central, western, and small parts sporadically scattered in northern regions of the study area (39.93%) had a moderate vulnerability. Lastly, a significant portion of the northern and southern districts (60.07%) was found to have a low vulnerability to contamination, which was in line with WQI results.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
12.
J Environ Radioact ; 243: 106811, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007922

RESUMO

External sources of radiation originate from cosmic rays and natural radioactive elements, principally 40K and decay products in the uranium and thorium decay series occurring in the ground. People are exposed to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays everywhere and at all times. To assess Canadians' external exposure to natural radiation, five years (2016-2020) of real-time environment monitoring data recorded by Health Canada's Fixed Point Surveillance (FPS) network were analysed for 36 monitoring stations across Canada. Absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation vary geographically and seasonally. Absorbed dose rates due to cosmic rays depend strongly on the elevation and vary with solar activities. The population-weighted annual outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates are 20 nSv/h for terrestrial radiation and 52 nSv/h for cosmic rays. Considering that, on average, Canadians spend 89% of their time indoors and 11% of the time outdoors, the population-weighted annual effective doses were calculated as 443 µSv (54 µSv outdoors and 389 µSv indoors), with 20.6% (91 µSv) from terrestrial radiation and 79.4% (352 µSv) from cosmic rays.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Radiação de Fundo , Canadá , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Raios gama , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 95, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029753

RESUMO

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is widely used to rapidly detect heavy metals in soil. Spectra processing has been an important research topic to improve accuracy. In this study, 80 soil samples were analyzed by XRF under indoor conditions, where different preprocessing and quantitative analysis methods were compared in terms of prediction accuracy. Denoising algorithms were used to preprocess the soil spectra before establishing prediction models for As, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd in soil. The influence of denoising methods on the prediction effects of different models was compared and discussed. The results on five heavy metal spectra show that the proper spectral preprocessing method can effectively improve the prediction performance of the model. The multilayer perceptron model provides promising analysis and modeling for the five metal elements. The determination coefficients (R2) of the models were 0.857, 0.976, 0.977, 0.995, and 0.886, respectively. The proposed method provides the potential to support accurate quantitation by XRF analysis.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorescência , Metais Pesados/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Raios X
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 94, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029754

RESUMO

The present study aims to assess the extent of trace metal pollution in the sediments of Sita-Swarna estuary, west coast of India, and investigate their possible ecological risk on the aquatic environment. The sediment cores were analyzed for sand, silt, clay, organic carbon, and trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Co, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu) at 2-cm intervals. The study revealed that sediments have deposited in relatively violent to very violent hydrodynamic energy conditions. Factor analysis indicated that the metal distribution is mainly controlled by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides and organic carbon. Further, the geochemical approach, pollution indices, and statistical evaluation revealed moderate pollution in the catchment. From an ecotoxicological perspective, the estimated risk index (RI) value was found to less than 150, indicating low risk for aquatic life. Thus, this baseline study would help to adopt strategies in pollution control and protect the fragile marine environment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 96, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029759

RESUMO

Few estuaries remain unaffected by water management and altered freshwater deliveries. The Caloosahatchee River Estuary is a perfect case study for assessing the impact of altered hydrology on natural oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica) populations. The watershed has been highly modified and greatly enlarged by an artificial connection to Lake Okeechobee. Accordingly, to generate data to support water management recommendations, this study monitored various oyster biometrics over 15 years along the primary salinity gradient. Oyster reef densities were significantly affected by both prolonged high volume freshwater releases creating hyposaline conditions at upstream sites and by a lack of freshwater input creating hypersaline conditions at downstream sites. Low freshwater input led to an increase in disease caused by Perkinsus marinus and predation. Moderate (< 2000 cfs) and properly timed (winter/spring) freshets benefited oysters with increased gametogenesis, good larval mixing, and a reprieve from disease. If high volume freshets occurred in the late summer, extensive mortality occurred at the upstream site due to low salinity. These findings suggest freshwater releases in the late summer, when reproductive stress is at its peak and pelagic larvae are most vulnerable, should be limited to < 2000 cfs, but that longer freshets (1-3 weeks) in the winter and early spring (e.g., December-April) benefit oysters by reducing salinity and lessening disease intensity. Similar strategies can be employed in other managed systems, and patterns regarding the timing of high volume flows are applicable to all estuaries where the management of healthy oyster reefs is a priority.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Estuários , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Reprodução
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 98, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031930

RESUMO

Industrial revolution and rapid population growth are responsible for alteration of land into different settlements. These changes may lead to change in land use (LU) and land cover (LC). The LULC changes have impact on hydrological regimes including streams flow pattern and allocated irrigation water (water allocation through Warabandi system). The present study aimed to identify the LULC changes and settlement impact on allocated water using the unsupervised classification and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of Landsat images for the years of 1990 to 2020 in Multan District. The accuracy assessment and Kappa coefficient were also investigated to evaluate quality of results derived from the classified images. The results show that the reduction in waterbody, spare, and dense vegetation was -7.6, -1.7, and -30.7%, respectively. The settlements, barren, and crop lands have increased to 25.2, 10.1, and 4.6%, respectively, from 1990 to 2020. The values of kappa coefficient (0.84-0.85) showed very good level of classification. In addition, the volume of water loss due to change of LULC from waterbody into settlements, barren land, crop land, spare, and dense vegetation was found approximately 472, 44, 133, 54, and 85 m3, respectively, in last 30 years. This volume of water is not reaching equitably to the farming community because of the LU and LC changes and urban settlements. The results indicated that remotely sensed image interpretation technique may be a useful for reallocation of water among farmers in an equitable and efficient way.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Agricultura , Paquistão , Água
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 99, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032240

RESUMO

Street dust samples can be used as an indicator for pollution monitoring especially in big cities. Various environmental problems have been experienced in Dilovasi, Turkey, and studies have been carried out in many different areas; however, no study has been conducted to examine the heavy metal content in street dusts. Therefore, in this study, 20 heavy metals, namely Si, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Ti, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, Sr, V, Co, Cd, Sb, As, Sn, Mo, Sc and Ag, in the street dusts of Dilovasi were investigated at 40 sampling points. Samples were analyzed with ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The concentrations were from 0.01 mg/kg for Ag to 42,645.48 mg/kg for Si. The Igeo values were in the range of 0.02 for Ag and 8.03 for V. The average EF value was 29.67, which indicates a very high pollution level. ERI was found as 300.74. This value being 300-600 indicates a considerable ecological risk level for the region. According to PCA, the predominant anthropogenic contribution of metal pollution in this area was due to traffic and vehicle-related activities and industrial activities and their waste. Metal pollution from residential areas and natural resources was relatively low, but it was another source of pollution.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 100, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032243

RESUMO

Clustering methods based on environmental variables are useful in the planning of conservation strategies for species and ecosystems. However, there is a lack of work on the regionalization of the vast space of North Africa and the distribution of plant species. The current lists of endemic plants are focused mostly on an occurrence at the country level and not on regions with different conditions. The aim of this work was to lay out an environmental scheme for northwest Africa and to collect data about the occurrence of endemic plants in this area. Clustering with 12 of 33 tested environmental rasters was performed to divide the Maghreb into environmental clusters. Then, a list of 1618 endemic plant taxa (1243 species and 375 subspecies) was prepared and their distribution in estimated environmental clusters was examined. Eleven clusters with different conditions were estimated. The main drivers of regionalization were temperature amplitude, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of the warmest quarter. According to the occurrence of endemic plants, northwest Africa may be divided into three zones: Atlas, Mediterranean (two environmental clusters), and southern zone (eight environmental clusters). The presented results provide a good basis for understanding the spatial patterns of the Maghreb, including its environment and species diversity. A designed list of endemic plant species together with environmental data may facilitate the planning of future research in north Africa and arranging methods of biodiversity protection.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , África do Norte , Biodiversidade , Dispersão Vegetal
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 91, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024963

RESUMO

Taking detailed rules for implementing of the plan on atmospheric pollution prevention and control in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas promulgated and implemented in 2013 as the starting point, taking air pollution as the research object, using the propensity score matching method and difference-in-differences method to answer whether coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is conducive to resolving the problem of air pollution. Using panel data from 251 cities in China 2003-2016, this paper discusses the environmental effects and mechanisms of coordinated urban cluster development. The results showed that the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei had a significant and continuous effect on the convergence of PM2.5 to low levels. The results of further mechanism identification show that the policy of atmospheric joint defense rules in the process of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development mainly promotes the convergence of PM2.5 through population and economic scale effect, structural effect and technical effect, and promotes the convergence of PM2.5 in the low direction by reducing the economic growth scale of the city itself. It is suggested to further promote the formation and development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration, strengthen cooperation among local governments in environmental governance e across regions, and promote the green growth and coordinated development of urban clusters.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 88, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020072

RESUMO

The particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere may be composed of many elements and compounds, including toxic species and hazardous materials, which demand effective control of its emissions, starting with the knowledge of the sources. In this sense, the mineralogical analysis of the PM might be a powerful tool. Here, we present a comprehensive mineralogical characterization of the coarse and fine PM in an industrialized city southeast of Brazil, including a discussion about the transport, deposition, and potential sources associated. Elemental and mineralogical analyses by EDXRF and RSr-XRD were performed on SPM, TSP, PM10, and PM2.5. The results showed distinct mineralogical composition depending on the PM size. Mineral phases in SPM and TSP were majorly composed of hematite and quartz, while PM10 and PM2.5 were majorly composed of carbon, halite, sulfates, and carbon. The results show hazardous mineral phases associated with respiratory injuries in all PM size classes, such as hematite, pyrite, EC, and quartz. The XRD analysis also revealed primary particles of sulfate in the region close to industrial sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Minerais , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
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